mercator projection On a Mercator projection, the north-south scale increases from the equator at the same rate as the corresponding east-west scale. As a result of this feature, angles drawn on this type of map are correct. Distortion on a Mercator map increases at an increasing rate as one moves toward higher latitudes. Mercator maps are used in navigation because a line drawn between two points of the Earth has true direction. However, this line may not represent the shortest distance between these points.
robinson projection This projection was developed to show the entire Earth with less distortion of area. However, this feature requires a tradeoff in terms of inaccurate map direction and distance.
peters projection Gall-Peters projection. Proposed by Arno Peters in 1972, the Gall-Peters projection corrects the distortion of area common in Mercator maps. As a result, it removes the bias in Mercator maps that draws low latitude countries as being smaller than nations in middle and high latitudes. This projection has been officially adopted by a number of United Nations organizations.
cylinderical projection In this project, the Earth is mathematically projected onto a cylinder tangent at the equator. This projection in then unrolled to produce a flat two-dimensional representation of the Earth's surface. This projection reduces some of the scale exaggeration present in the Mercator map. However, the Miller Cylindrical projection describes shapes and areas with considerable distortion and directions are true only along the equator
The Mollweide projection improves on the Robinson projection and has less area distortion. The final projection presented presents areas on a map that are proportional to the same areas on the actual surface of the Earth. The Mollweide projection
However, this Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection suffers from distance, shape, and direction distortions. Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection