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Ecbc heating and pumping

  1. 1. Energy Conservation Building Code [ECBC] Hisham Ahmad Environmental Design Solutions [EDS]1
  2. 2. What are Energy Conservation Building Codes?  ECBC set minimum energy efficiency standards for design and construction  ECBC encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of buildings so that  It does not constrain the building function, comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants  Has appropriate regard for economic considerations2
  3. 3. Power of Central Govt.  POWER OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT TO FACILITATE AND ENFORCE EFFICIENT USE OF ENERGY AND ITS CONSERVATION  14. Power of Central Government to enforce efficient use of energy and its conservation.- The Central Government may, by notification, in consultation with the Bureau,-  (p) prescribe energy conservation building codes for efficient use of energy and its conservation in the building or building complex;  (q) amend the energy conservation building codes to suit the regional and local climatic conditions;  (r) direct every owner or occupier of the building or building complex, being a designated consumer to comply with the provisions of energy conservation building codes for efficient use of energy and its conservation;3
  4. 4. Power of State Govt.  POWER OF STATE GOVERNMENT TO FACILITATE AND ENFORCE EFFICIENT USE OF ENERGY AND ITS CONSERVATION  15. Power of State Government to enforce certain provisions for efficient use of energy and its conservation.- The State Government may, by notification, in consultation with the Bureau-  (a) amend the energy conservation building codes to suit the regional and local climatic conditions and may, by rules made by it, specify and notify energy conservation building codes with respect to use of energy in the buildings;  (b) direct every owner or occupier of a building or building complex being a designated consumer to comply with the provisions of the energy conservation building codes;4
  5. 5. ECBC Scope  Mandatory Scope Covers commercial buildings  Connected load in excess of 500kW or  Contract demand in excess of 600 kVA  Recommended for all buildings with conditioned area >1000m2  Applies to New Construction only  Building components included  Building Envelope (Walls, Roofs, Windows)  Lighting (Indoor and Outdoor)  Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) System  Service Water Heating and Pumping5  Electrical Systems (Power Factor, Transformers)
  6. 6. International Experience6
  7. 7. History of Building Energy Codes  Before the 1973 Oil Shock, only a few countries in Europe had energy requirements for buildings, which were typically simple insulation requirements.  After 1973, widespread use of Building Energy Codes:  North America (US and Canada)  ASEAN and Asia  South Asia and Pacific Islands  Caribbean and Latin America7  Europe, Middle East and North Africa
  8. 8. ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1: Estimated Savings 100 90 40% from 1975 Construction 80 Total 70 5% from Standard 90-1975 60 60% 50 20% from Standard 90-1980 40 6-9% from Standard 90-1989 30 20 10 0 1975 1980 1989 19998
  9. 9. The California Experience  Because of its energy standards and other programs, California has experienced “flat” per- capita growth in energy consumption since the late 1970’s, in spite of larger homes, bigger refrigerators and many other amenities  During this same time period, the rest of the United States has experienced a 50% increase in per capita energy consumption.9
  10. 10. ECBC India10
  11. 11. ECBC development Process  An extensive data collection was carried out for construction types and materials, glass types, insulation materials, lighting and HVAC equipment  Base case simulation models were developed  The stringency analysis was done through detailed energy and life cycle cost analysis.  A stringency level for each code11 component was established
  12. 12. Geographical Variations Five climate zones 1. Composite (Delhi) 2. Hot Dry (Ahmadabad) 3. Hot Humid (Kolkata), 4. Moderate (Bangalore) 5. Cold (Shillong)12
  13. 13. Compliance Options Building System Compliance Options Prescriptive Envelope Option Mandatory HVAC Provisions Trade Off Energy Code (required for most Option Compliance SWH compliance options) Power Energy Cost Budget Lighting Simplified Other13
  14. 14. Prescriptive Compliance  Prescriptive requirements for all the relevant sections must be met individually.  A simple checklist form for demonstrating compliance  Easy to use, but restrictive: no flexibility in approach14
  15. 15. Trade-off Process  The compliance can be demonstrated at a system level.  Trade-off between component of a system is allowed  Simple spreadsheet based calculations can be sufficient  Slightly more effort required, but offers greater flexibility15
  16. 16. Whole Building Compliance (Energy Budget Method)  Compliance is demonstrated for the whole building  The overall target of energy use (kWh/year) is to be met; irrespective of the compliance at the component level  Whole building energy simulation is required  Offers great flexibility, but requires much greater effort, knowledge, and simulation experience16
  17. 17. Budget Building Criteria Proposed Design Budget Building Design Meets mandatory requirements Meets mandatory requirements As designed: Meets prescriptive requirements : Envelope/Lighting/HVAC/SHW Envelope/Lighting/HVAC/SHW Identical Surfaces Orientations* Identical Simulation Model Simulation Model Weather Schedules Energy rates Design Energy Cost Energy Cost Budget *Unless glazing area in budget design17 requires adjustment
  18. 18. Methodology The Budget Building and Proposed Building must be identical in terms of:  Occupancy schedules  Weather file  Building geometry  Purchased energy rates  Simulation software18
  19. 19. ECBC Impact19
  20. 20. National Impact Potential  The average energy use (lighting and HVAC) for typical commercial building is 200 kWh/sq. meter/year.  Mandatory enforcement of ECBC shall easily reduce the energy use by 30-40% to 120-160 kWh/sq. meter/year.  Nationwide Mandatory enforcement of ECBC will yield a saving of 1.7 billion kWh for 2005-2006.20
  21. 21. 25%-40% Reduction in Building Energy Use National Code Level of Adoption = X X Energy Stringency Compliance Rate21 Savings
  22. 22. Impact of Energy Codes  Market Development for EE products  Building Insulation  Energy Efficient Windows (Glass and Frames)  High-Efficiency HVAC Equipment  Improved Design Practices  Lighting and Daylighting  Natural Ventilation/Free-Cooling Systems  Improved Performance  Improved Power Factor22  Lower HVAC Loads
  23. 23. Encourage Environmentally Sensitive Design  The most cost effective way to meet the ECBC requirement would be to design buildings with appropriate regard to climate and sun.  A design not sensitive to sun and climate will have to invest more to meet the minimum ECBC standard  This will encourage environmentally sensitive design and architecture23
  24. 24. Typical Implementation Schedule Years Phases 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 Development 2 Implementation Preparation 3 Enforcement 4 Revisions24
  25. 25. Implementation25
  26. 26. Barriers to ECBC Implementation  Strong first cost bias  Lack of availability of efficient products  Lack of equipment testing & certification.  Lack of energy expertise  Lack of awareness, info. and tools  Electricity rate structures / rural subsidies  Territoriality by agencies  Potential code official abuses  Lack of government & utility “Champions”26
  27. 27. Proposed Comprehensive Program to Implement the Energy Code  Traditional Energy Code Enforcement  Government buildings – enforced by agency  Private & Institutional buildings – enforced via local code process  Utility hookup enforcement  Market programs  Demonstration Building Programs to Transform Markets  DSM Programs (Design Assistance / Rebates)  Green Building Rating Systems27  Energy Labeling Schemes (1-5 Star)
  28. 28. ECBC Development: Next Steps  Checking and Certification Systems for Equipment and Systems  Capacity building of State and Municipal implementing agencies  Design Manuals, Software, and Training and Technical support for Architects, Engineers, and Code Officials  Awareness programs for building owners, designers, and users28
  30. 30. ENVELOPE30
  31. 31. Envelope  Mandatory Requirement  Envelope sealing  Test methods for measuring thermal performance  Prescriptive Requirements  Roof Insulation31
  32. 32. Roof Requirement Table 4.3.1 Roof assembly U-factor and Insulation R-value Requirements Hospitals, Hotels, Call Other Building Types Climate Zone Centers (24-Hour) (Daytime) Maximum U- factor of Minimum R- Maximum U- Minimum R- the value of factor of the value of overall insulation overall insulation assembly alone assembly alone (W/m2-°C) (m2-°C/W) (W/m2-°C) (m2-°C/W) Composite U-0.261 R-3.5 U-0.409 R-2.1 Hot and Dry U-0.261 R-3.5 U-0.409 R-2.1 Warm and Humid U-0.261 R-3.5 U-0.409 R-2.1 Moderate U-0.409 R-2.1 U-0.409 R-2.1 Cold U-0.261 R-3.5 U-0.409 R-2.1 See Appendix D.3 for typical complying roof constructions.32
  33. 33. Wall Requirements Table 4.3.2 Opaque Wall Assembly U-factor and Insulation R-value Requirements Hospitals, Hotels, Call Other Building Types Climate Zone Centers (24-Hour) (Daytime) Maximum U- Minimum R- Minimum R- factor of value of Maximum U-factor value of the overall insulation of the overall insulation assembly alone assembly alone (W/m 2-°C) (m 2 -°C/W) (W/m 2-°C) (m 2 -°C/W) Composite U-0. 440 R-2.10 U-0.440 R-2.10 Hot and Dry U-0.440 R-2.10 U-0.440 R-2.10 Warm and Humid U-0.440 R-2.10 U-0.440 R-2.10 Moderate U-0.431 R-1.80 U-0.397 R-2.00 Cold U-0.369 R-2.20 U-0.352 R-2.3533
  34. 34. Glazing Requirements Table 4.3.4-1 Vertical Fenestration U-factor and SHGC Requirements (U-factor in W/m2-°C) Climate Maximum U- Maximum Maximum SHGC factor SHGC 40%<WWR<60% WWR<40% Composite 3.3 0.25 0.20 Hot & Dry 3.3 0.25 0.20 Warm & Humid 3.3 0.25 0.20 Moderate 6.9 0.40 0.30 Cold 3.3 0.51 0.51 Minimum Visible Light Transmittance Window-Wall-Ratio Minimum VLT >30% 0.27 31%-40% 0.20 41%-50% 0.16 51%-60% 0.1334 >61% 0.11
  35. 35. Glazing Requirements  Overhangs and/or side fins may be applied in determining the SHGC for the proposed design.  Exception to SHGC Requirements in § 4.3.4: Vertical Fenestration areas located more than 2.2 m (7 ft) above the level of the floor are exempt from the SHGC requirement in Table 4.3.4-1, if the following conditions are complied with:  Total Effective Aperture  Glare/ solar control  Minimum Visible Transmission: To permit the use of available daylighting in place of electric lighting, glazing products used in offices, banks, libraries, classrooms with predominant daytime usage, must have the minimum visual35 transmittance (VT), defined as function of window area
  37. 37. HVAC  Mandatory Requirements  Ventilation (Natural or Mechanical)  Minimum Equipment Efficiencies  Controls  Thermostats  Timeclocks  Pipe and Duct Insulation37
  38. 38. HVAC  Prescriptive Requirements  Outside Air Economizers  Variable speed drives for large pumps and fans38
  39. 39. Minimum Efficiency for Chillers Equipment Class Minimum Minimum COP IPLV Air Cooled Chiller <530 kW (<150 tons) 2.90 3.16 Air Cooled Chiller ≥530 kW (≥150 tons) 3.05 3.32 Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller < 530 kW 5.80 6.09 (<150 tons) Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller ≥530 and <1050 5.80 6.17 kW ( ≥150 and <300 tons) Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller ≥ 1050 kW 6.30 6.61 (≥ 300 tons) Reciprocating Compressor, Water Cooled Chiller 4.20 5.05 all sizes Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor, Water 4.70 5.49 Cooled Chiller <530 kW (<150 tons) Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor, Water 5.40 6.17 Cooled Chiller ≥530 and <1050 kW (≥150 and <300 tons) Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor, Water 5.75 6.4339 Cooled Chiller ≥ 1050 kW (≥ 300 tons)
  40. 40. Unitary Air Conditioning Equipment Equipment Class Minimum Minimum Test Standard COP IPLV Unitary Air Cooled Air Conditioner ≥19 3.08 ARI 210/240 and <40 kW ( ≥5.4 and <11 tons ) Unitary Air Cooled Air Conditioner ≥40 3.08 ARI 340/360 to <70 kW (≥11 to <20 tons) Unitary Air Cooled Air Conditioner ≥70 2.93 2.99 ARI 340/360 kW ( ≥20 tons) Unitary Water Cooled Air Conditioner 4.10 ARI 210/240 <19 kW (<5.4 tons) Unitary Water Cooled Air Conditioner 4.10 ARI 210/240 ≥19 and <40 kW ( ≥5.4 and <11 tons ) Unitary Water Cooled Air Conditioner 3.22 3.02 ARI 210/240 ≥<40 kW ( ≥11 tons )40
  41. 41. Controls  All mechanical cooling and heating systems shall be controlled by a timeclock that:  Can start and stop the system under different schedules for three different day-types per week,  Is capable of retaining programming and time setting during loss of power for a period of at least 10 hours, and  Includes an accessible manual override that allows temporary operation of the system for up to 2 hours.  Exceptions:  Cooling systems < 28 kW (8 tons)  Heating systems < 7 kW (2 tons)41
  42. 42. Cooling Tower  All cooling towers and closed circuit fluid coolers shall have either two speed motors, pony motors, or variable speed drives controlling the fans.42
  43. 43. Ductwork Insulation Table Ductwork Insulation ( m2-°C/W) Required Insulationa Duct Location Supply Ducts Return Ducts Exterior R-1.4 R- 0.6 Unventilated Attic with Roof Insulation R- 0.6 No Requirement Unconditioned Spaceb R- 0.6 No Requirement Indirectly Conditioned Spacec No Requirement No Requirement Buried R- 0.6 No Requirement a Insulation R-value is measured on a horizontal plane in accordance with ASTM C518 at a mean temperature of 24C (75F) at the installed thickness b Includes crawlspaces, both ventilated and non-ventilated c Includes return air plenums with or without exposed roofs above.43
  44. 44. Economizers  Each individual cooling fan system that has a design supply capacity over 1,200 l/s (2,500 cfm) and a total mechanical cooling capacity over 22 kW (6.3 tons) shall include either:  An air economizer capable of modulating outside-air and return-air dampers to supply 100 percent of the design supply air quantity as outside-air; or  A water economizer capable of providing 100% of the expected system cooling load at outside air temperatures of 10°C (50°F) dry-bulb/7.2°C (45°F) wet-bulb and below.  Exception to §  Projects in the Hot-Dry and Warm-Humid climate zones are exempt.  Individual ceiling mounted fan systems < 3,200 l/s (6,500 cfm) are exempt.  Where required by economizers shall be capable of providing partial cooling even when additional mechanical cooling is required to meet the44 cooling load.
  45. 45. Variable Flow Hydronic Systems  Chilled or hot-water systems shall be designed for variable fluid flow and shall be capable of reducing pump flow rates to no more than the larger of:  50% of the design flow rate, or  the minimum flow required by the equipment manufacturer for proper operation of the chillers or boilers.  Water cooled air-conditioning units with a circulation pump motor greater than or equal to 3.7 kW (5 hp) shall have two-way automatic isolation valves on each unit that are interlocked with the compressor to shut off condenser water flow when the compressor is not operating.  Chilled water or condenser water systems that must comply with either or and that have pump motors greater than or equal to 3.7 kW (5 hp) shall be controlled by variable speed drives.45
  47. 47. Service water heating  Mandatory Requirements  Solar water heater or heat recovery for at least 20% of the design capacity  Minimum efficiency for service water heating equipment  Piping insulation  Pool covers for heated swimming pools, except when heated with solar or site-recovered heat47
  48. 48. LIGHTING48
  49. 49. Lighting  Mandatory Requirements  Each space enclosed by ceiling-height partitions shall have at least one control device to independently control the general lighting within the space.  Automatic Lighting Shutoff for Interior lighting systems for contiguous spaces larger than 500 m2 (5,000 ft²)  Luminaires in daylighted areas greater than 25 m2 (250 ft2) shall be equipped with either a manual or automatic control49
  50. 50.  Lighting for all exterior applications not exempted in § 7.4 shall be controlled by a photosensor or astronomical time switch  Following lighting applications shall be equipped with a control device to control such lighting independently of general lighting:  Display/Accent Lighting  Case Lighting  Hotel and Motel Guest Room Lighting  Task Lighting  Nonvisual Lighting50
  51. 51.  Internally-illuminated exit signs shall not exceed 5 Watts per face.  Exterior Building Grounds Lighting should have a minimum efficacy of 60 lm/W unless the luminaire is controlled by a motion sensor51
  52. 52. Lighting Power Requirement Table 7.3.1 Interior Lighting Power - Building Area Method Building Area Type LPD (W/m2) Building Area Type LPD (W/m2) Automotive Facility 9.7 Multifamily 7.5 Convention Center 12.9 Museum 11.8 Court House 12.9 Office 10.8 Dining: Bar Parking Garage Lounge/Leisure 14.0 3.2 Dining: Cafeteria/Fast Performing Arts Theater Food 15.1 17.2 Table 7.3.2 Interior Lighting Power – Space Function Method Space Function LPD Space Function LPD (W/m2) (W/m2) Lobby 14.0 Hospital For Hotel 11.8 Emergency 29.1 For Performing Arts Recovery Theater 35.5 8.652 For Motion Picture Nurse Station Theater 11.8 10.8
  53. 53. Table 7.4 Exterior Building Lighting Power Exterior Lighting Applications Power Limits Building entrance (with canopy) 13 W/m2 (1.3 W/ft2) of canopied area Building entrance (without canopy) 90 W/lin m (30 W/lin f) of door width Building exit 60 W/lin m (20 W/lin f) of door width Building facades 2 W/m2 (0.2 W/ft2) of vertical facade area53
  55. 55.  Mandatory Requirements  Transformers  Maximum Allowable Power Transformer Losses  Energy Efficient Motors  Power Factor Correction: All electricity supplies exceeding 100 A, 3 phase shall maintain their power factor between 0.95 lag and unity at the point of connection.  Check-Metering and Monitoring55
  56. 56. APPENDICES56
  57. 57. ECBC APPENDIX  Definitions, Abbreviations, And Acronyms  Climate Zone Map Of India  Prescriptive Compliance Forms  Building Envelope Tradeoff Method  Whole Building Performance Method57
  58. 58. ECBC can be downloaded from www.bee-india.nic.in58
  59. 59. Impact on HVAC Sizing59
  60. 60. Typical Building Plan60
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62. Building Envelop- Non ECBC Compliant Walls U-factor Description Net Area (m²) (W/m²-°C) wall East 183.78 2.767 wall North 367.533 2.767 Roofs Descriptio Net Area U-factor n (m²) (W/m²-°C) East Roof 113.934 2.605 South Roof 265.31 2.605 Core Roof 491.512 2.605 Windows U-factor Exterior Projection Description Area (m²) (W/m²-°C) SHGC Orientation Shades Factor Windows South 177.12 6.121 0.810 South None Windows62 West 78.72 6.121 0.810 West None
  63. 63. Transient Thermal Behavior-Non ECBC Compliant Building63
  64. 64. Internal Gains – ECBC Non Compliances64
  65. 65. Fabric and Ventilation - ECBC Non Compliances65
  66. 66. Building Envelop- ECBC Compliant Curtain Walls, Other Walls Description Net Area (m²) U-factor (W/m²-°C) wall East 183.78 0.250 wall West 183.78 0.250 wall South 367.533 0.250 wall North 367.533 0.250 Roofs Description Net Area (m²) U-factor (W/m²-°C) East Roof 113.934 0.150 west Roof 113.934 0.150 North Roof 265.31 0.150 South Roof 265.31 0.150 Core Roof 491.512 0.150Windows U-factor (W/m²- SHG ExteriorDescription Area (m²) °C) C Orientation Shades Projection FactorWindowsSouth 177.12 2.440 0.595 South yesWindowsNorth 177.12 2.440 0.595 North yesWindow East 78.72 2.440 0.595 East yesWindowsWest 78.72 2.440 0.595 West yes66
  67. 67. Transient Thermal Behavior-ECBC Compliant Building67
  68. 68. Internal gains – ECBC Compliance68
  69. 69. Fabric and Ventilation- ECBC Compliances69
  70. 70. Zone Description ECBC Compliant ECBC Non CompliantBlock Zone Design Capacity (kW) Design Capacity (kW)GroundFloor GF East 4.40 9.61GroundFloor GF West 5.45 11.64GroundFloor GF Core 13.61 28.96GroundFloor GF North 8.48 18.48GroundFloor GF South 8.50 18.50 MiddleMiddleFloor East 4.53 10.29 MiddleMiddleFloor West 5.51 12.41 MiddleMiddleFloor Core 13.91 31.97 MiddleMiddleFloor North 8.67 20.22 MiddleMiddleFloor South 8.69 20.0670TopFloor Top East 4.64 11.39
  71. 71. Thanks Hisham Ahmad Environmental Design Solutions hisham@edsglobal.com71