Linux Intro


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Linux Intro

  1. 1. Linux GNU GPL - Lokesh Kumar N
  2. 2. Moving to Linux Kiss the Blue Screen of Death Goodbye! It's time! Say "Goodbye" to Windows crashes, viruses, hassles, and costs!
  3. 3. The Birth of Linux <ul><li>From: torvalds@klaava.Helsinki.FI (Linus Benedict Torvalds) </li></ul><ul><li>Newsgroups: comp.os.minix </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: What would you lik to see most in minix? </li></ul><ul><li>Summary: small poll for my new operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Message-ID: <1991Aug25.205708.9541@klaava.Helsinki.FI> </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 25 Aug 91 20:57:08 GMT </li></ul><ul><li>Organization: University of Helsinki </li></ul><ul><li>Hello everybody out there using minix - </li></ul><ul><li>I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won’t be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since april, and is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other things). </li></ul><ul><li>I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work. This implies that I'll get something practical within a few months, and I'd like to know what features most people would want. Any suggestions are welcome, but I won't promise I'll implement them :-) </li></ul><ul><li>Linus ( </li></ul><ul><li>PS. Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT protable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never will support anything other than AT-hard disks, as that's all I have :-(. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>What is Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux is a kernel, the brains or control center a collection of software packages, usually referred to as a Linux distribution. Popular distributions include Mandrake, Red Hat, SuSE, Debian, and others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is Linux really FREE? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TANSTAAFL (Robert A. Heinlein) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A free download will still cost you connection time on the Internet, disk space, time to burn the CDs, and so on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Free as in speech&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Free as in beer&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed under the GPL </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The GNU GPL <ul><li>Linux is distributed under the GNU General Public License </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in essence, the GPL says that anyone may copy, distribute, and even sell the program, so long as changes to the source are reintroduced back to the community and the terms of the license remain unaltered. Free means that you are free to take Linux, modify it, and create your own version. Free means that you are not at the mercy of a single vendor who forces you into a kind of corporate servitude by making sure that it is extremely costly to convert to another environment. If you are unhappy with your Linux vendor or the support you are getting, you can move to the next vendor without forfeiting your investment in Linux. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In other words, &quot;free as in speech&quot;, or simply &quot;freedom&quot;. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What do you gain? <ul><li>No operating system will ever be perfect, but Linux is getting pretty close. With Linux, you'll gain : </li></ul><ul><li>Better Security </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Power from your OS </li></ul><ul><li>Money (saved!) </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from legal hassles </li></ul>
  7. 7. What do you lose? <ul><li>Hardware and peripheral support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some hardware is designed to run exclusively with Windows (eg: Winmodems). Linux developers continue to work on drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shrink-wrapped software. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot new games or popular packages may not be available at your local software store. Still, thousands of packages exist for Linux a click away. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A step into the unknown. Learning curve. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even moving from 95 to XP will take some retraining. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What about support? <ul><li>Corporate support through large vendors like Red Hat, SuSE, Mandrake, IBM, HP, and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide community support : IRC chats, Linux User Groups, mailing lists </li></ul><ul><li>Linux Documentation Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HOWTOs, man pages, books </li></ul><ul><li>Linux technical support &quot; among the best &quot; </li></ul>
  9. 9. Getting Linux <ul><li>Buy a boxed set of Red Hat, Mandrake, SuSE, Xandros, Lindows, and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Download ISOs (images) from the vendors or visit </li></ul><ul><li>Borrow disks from a friend, copy, and burn your own. </li></ul><ul><li>Redistribute them yourself </li></ul>
  10. 10. Linux with Windows? <ul><li>Set up a dual boot system </li></ul><ul><li>Use VMWare and run multiple distributions </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Win4Lin for Win 95, 98, or ME </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WINE or FREEDOS for simple applications </li></ul><ul><li>CrossOver Office or CrossOver Plugin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lets you run some of the more popular apps without requiring a copy of Windows. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Installations <ul><li>Modern Linux distributions are even easier to install than Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Most will repartition your drive automatically or resize it to allow for a Linux/Windows dual-boot system </li></ul><ul><li>Answer a few questions, click Next a few times and you are running Linux </li></ul>
  12. 12. Knoppix CDROM <ul><li>&quot;Moving to Linux: Kiss the Blue Screen of Death Goodbye!&quot; comes with a customized version of Klaus Knopper's excellent Knoppix distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Run Linux from the CD without installing it. </li></ul><ul><li>Great for &quot; getting your flippers wet &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Note that running from the CD is substantially slower than running from an installed Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Feel free to copy and redistribute the CD </li></ul>
  13. 13. Desktop Options <ul><li>KDE (K Desktop Environment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mature, friendly, integrated, and slick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>east to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>first choice for new desktop users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also very nice with GNOME 2 releases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IceWM, WindowMaker (dock apps!), XFCE </li></ul>
  14. 14. Desktop Customization <ul><li>KDE is very customizable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>icons, fonts, colors, backgrounds, window decorations, themes, sounds, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>desktop can be themed to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suit any personal tastes or to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adhere within a corporate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>look and feel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit for lots of ideas </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. File Management <ul><li>KDE's file manager is Konqueror </li></ul><ul><li>Konqueror is many things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>file manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>web browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CVS browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>image gallery and digital camera tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>universal viewer </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Konqueror <ul><li>Konqueror </li></ul><ul><li>showing off </li></ul><ul><li>file manager, </li></ul><ul><li>icon view, </li></ul><ul><li>and shell </li></ul><ul><li>access. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Installing Packages <ul><li>Many options starting with KDE's Kpackage tool </li></ul><ul><li>Command line rpm, urpmi, or apt-get </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic for apt-get </li></ul><ul><li>apt-get for RPM </li></ul><ul><li>Yum ( </li></ul><ul><li>Compiling from source (easier than it sounds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extract and build five-step </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Working with Hardware <ul><li>When purchasing hardware in a store, always ask whether it runs with Linux -- even if you already know. It lets retailers know that there is indeed a Linux market out there. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the &quot; kinfocenter &quot; command to check out your system's hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>lspci and lsusb can be used at the command line to identify PCI and USB hardware </li></ul>
  19. 19. KDE Info Center <ul><li>kinfocenter </li></ul><ul><li>knows all about </li></ul><ul><li>your system's </li></ul><ul><li>hardware! </li></ul>
  20. 20. Printers and Printing <ul><li>Linux has excellent printer support through CUPS ( </li></ul><ul><li>Buying a printer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>visit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add new printers using KDE's control center, the &quot; kcontrol &quot; program. Look under the control center's Peripherals menu and use &quot;Administrator Mode&quot; to create and add printers. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Add Printer Wizard <ul><li>Just point </li></ul><ul><li>and click </li></ul><ul><li>your way to </li></ul><ul><li>adding a new </li></ul><ul><li>printer. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Internet Access <ul><li>Linux supports pretty much every form of network access </li></ul><ul><li>Dial-up through Kppp or wvdial </li></ul><ul><li>Cable modem connections through dhcp </li></ul><ul><li>ADSL </li></ul><ul><li>Modern distributions provide wizards for getting you connected, like Mandrake's Drakconf tool or SuSE's YaST2. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Dial Up Configuration <ul><li>Kppp makes it </li></ul><ul><li>easy to set up a </li></ul><ul><li>dial up Internet </li></ul><ul><li>connection. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Instant Messaging <ul><li>Linux Instant Messaging clients support many protocols and networks : Yahoo!, MSN, Jabber, ICQ, AOL, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular clients </li></ul><ul><li>include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GAIM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kopete </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Electronic Mail <ul><li>Linux provides many different packages for electronic mail. From a variety of text-only clients to full featured graphical programs, you won't lack for anything. </li></ul><ul><li>Text only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mutt, pine, & elm are among the more popular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kmail, Evolution, Sylpheed, Mozilla, and more </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Kmail Features <ul><li>Integrates beautifully into KDE desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Supports IMAP, POP3, & multiple accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Includes privacy features like PGP/GnuPG encryption, user defined filters, and SSL/TLS. </li></ul><ul><li>PGP/MIME and S/MIME attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Fully configurable interface (colors/fonts) </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-level folders, drag and drop, spell checking, multiple identities, and more . . . </li></ul>
  27. 27. KDE's Kmail
  28. 28. Evolution Features <ul><li>Integrates email, calendaring, scheduling, contact management in one place </li></ul><ul><li>Users coming from Outlook will feel right at home with the interface design. </li></ul><ul><li>With &quot;Ximian Connector&quot;, Evolution can easily integrate into an MS Exchange environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports IMAP/POP and secure connects </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple identities </li></ul>
  29. 29. Evolution: Email & more
  30. 30. Other Email Options <ul><li>Web-based email applications like Squirrelmail are an excellent choice for remote access. </li></ul><ul><li>Linux also provides a number of text email clients that are very popular. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mutt, pine, elm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are other graphical clients as well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aethera, Sylpheed, Balsa </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Web Browsing <ul><li>As with Email, Linux has a number of options for web browsing, in both text-only and full graphical mode. </li></ul><ul><li>Text-only browsers include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>links, lynx, w3m (limited graphics capability), & more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphical browsers : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Konqueror, Mozilla, Galeon, Opera, & more </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Konqueror Features <ul><li>Aside from being a great browser, Konqueror is also a powerful file manager. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports Java, JavaScript, Netscape and Mozilla plugins (Flash, RealAudio, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>HTML 4.0, SSL, CSS 1 and 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Tabbed browsing, multi-pane, multi-featured! </li></ul><ul><li>Use it to block pop-up ads, cookies </li></ul><ul><li>Will impersonate many other browsers </li></ul>
  33. 33. Browsing with Konqueror
  34. 34. Mozilla Features <ul><li>Mozilla is a combination web browser, email client, HTML editor, IRC chat client, and more! </li></ul><ul><li>Standards compliant, SLL, </li></ul><ul><li>Also stop popup ads, cookies, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Features tabbed browsing </li></ul><ul><li>Available for Linux, Windows, Mac OS/X </li></ul><ul><li>For Mozilla's lightweight 'browser only', check out Mozilla Firebird . </li></ul>
  35. 35. Browsing with Mozilla
  36. 36. Keeping Up To Date <ul><li>Bugs are discovered and fixed all the time. Programs are in a constant state of fine tuning and improvement. For security reasons, or simply from a functionality standpoint, it makes sense to keep up to date and Linux provides many opportunities to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that a high-speed connection is desirable if not essential. While updates can be easy, packages can be large and downloads over a modem connections may take a long time. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Updates by Distribution <ul><li>Red Hat Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>up2date </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mandrake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>urpmi / Mandrake Update (or through drakconf) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SuSE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Update through YaST2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>apt-get </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Word Processors <ul><li>As with so many things in the Linux world, there are a lot of word processor choices. The most powerful is Writer, part of the suite (and its commercial cousin, StarOffice). </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Word users find themselves very comfortable with OpenOffice. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 99% Microsoft Word compatible. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Moving to Linux&quot; was written with OO Writer. </li></ul><ul><li>Other options include Abiword, Kword, etc. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Working with OO Writer
  40. 40. Spreadsheets <ul><li>OpenOffice Calc, part of the suite provides near perfect compatibility with Excel. </li></ul><ul><li>Features will be familiar to Excel users. </li></ul><ul><li>Other options include the very capable Gnumeric spreadsheet and Koffice's Kspread. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnumeric is particularly excellent at recreating Excel's features and format. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Working with OO Calc
  42. 42. Presentation Graphics <ul><li>OpenOffice's Impress is the presentation graphics suite of choice in the Linux world, and my personal recommendation. This &quot; PowerPoint &quot; presentation was done with Impress. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly perfect PowerPoint compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Format and functionality will also be quite familiar to Powerpoint users. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many other presentation packages, but you might consider trying KDE's KPresenter </li></ul>
  43. 43. Working with Impress
  44. 44. Scanning Images <ul><li>Most popular scanning tools are XSane and Kooka (the GIMP also features scanner plugins) </li></ul><ul><li>Kooka is KDE's scanning tool. It is friendly and easy to use. With gocr, Kooka does optical character recognition (OCR) </li></ul><ul><li>XSane, while powerful, may not be quite as polished looking. On the other hand, it also makes a great fax machine and photocopier. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Scanning Images and Text
  46. 46. Working with a Digital Camera <ul><li>The magic of interfacing with digital cameras is done using the gphoto2 libraries which currently support more than 300 popular cameras. </li></ul><ul><li>Konqueror is a great tool for accessing you camera and manipulating images. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a look at DigiKam as well. This is a slick, powerful, easy to use, digital camera and photo album maintenance tool. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Image Manipulation <ul><li>The GIMP is an amazingly powerful image manipulation package (similar to Adobe PhotoShop) </li></ul><ul><li>Create professional looking logos in seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Easily manipulate digital camera images, adjust light levels, get rid of red eyes, and add special effects. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ripples, metallic embossing, borders, flares, shadows, canvas and cloth effects, distorts, blurs, and more! </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Working with the GIMP
  49. 49. Multimedia <ul><li>Modern Linux distributions offer an impressive selection of programs to satisfy your cravings for the multimedia experience. These include : </li></ul><ul><li>Mixers </li></ul><ul><li>Audio players </li></ul><ul><li>CD players, rippers, and burning tools </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Video and DVD players </li></ul>
  50. 50. Playing Music <ul><li>For CD's, look at KsCD </li></ul><ul><li>For MP3 and OGG files, XMMS and NoAtun. </li></ul><ul><li>XMMS and NoAtun are slick, skinnable, and feature many visual and audio plugins. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Watching Movies <ul><li>Many options including Mplayer, xine, and Ogle. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch video </li></ul><ul><li>clips, DVDs, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Mplayerplugin </li></ul><ul><li>and Kmplayer lets </li></ul><ul><li>you integrate </li></ul><ul><li>mplayer into your </li></ul><ul><li>browser. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Playing Games <ul><li>There are tons of games available for Linux. Several will be installed as part of your KDE setup. More again with GNOME. </li></ul><ul><li>They include single and multiplayer, networked games, board, adventure, and arcade games. </li></ul><ul><li>At this time, most 'boxed' commercial Windows games will not play under Linux. You can, however, use WineX to play many of the most popular games without resorting to Windows. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Card Games <ul><li>Play poker, Solitaire, and many patience -type games. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Board Games <ul><li>Board games are still cool! Cooler if you consider </li></ul><ul><li>that you can </li></ul><ul><li>now play </li></ul><ul><li>games like </li></ul><ul><li>battleship and </li></ul><ul><li>monopoly </li></ul><ul><li>over the </li></ul><ul><li>Internet. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Educational Games <ul><li>Learn about the stars and planets. Learn to type. Or just make faces with the Potato Guy. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Arcade Action <ul><li>You'll find a lot of your old favorites as well as some new ones. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Here comes your footer  Page I hope you've enjoyed this little tour of Linux and the Linux Desktop. With all the power, stability, security, fun, and flexibility at your command . . . Linux is the future of computing! The Future