Basic Things about Motherboard:
Motherboard integrates all components of a computer. It also has few built-in features that affect the
performance and capabilities of computers.
The Shape and layout of the Motherboard is called the Form Factor. The Form factor affects where the
individual components go and the shape of Computer’s Case.
Socket of the Microprocessor determines the kind of Processor that can be used by the Motherboard.
The Chipset is a part of Motherboard’s logic system and is made of 2 parts – North Bridge and South
Bridge. These bridges connect the Processor to other parts of the Computer.
BIOS (Basic Input and Output System) Chipset controls the most basic functions of the computer and
Runs a Self-test every time the system is powered on.
Real Time Clock Chip is a battery operated chip that maintains the basic settings and the system time.
The Slots and Ports found on the Motherboard:
PCI – Peripheral Component Interconnect: Connections for Video, Sound and Video Capture cards also
AGP – Accelerated Graphic Cards: Dedicated port for Video Cards.
IDE – Integrated Drive Electronics: Interface for IDE Hard Drives.
USB – Universal Serial Bus or Firewire: External Peripherals.
Memory Slots: Memory slots for SD, DDR and DDR2 Memories.
RAID - Redundant Array of Independent Discs: Allows computers to identify multiple drives as a single
PCI Express: It is a newer protocol which eliminates the need for other ports, including AGP Port. Acts
more like a Network than a Bus.
On-Board: Now we have On-Board Sound, Networking, Video and other peripheral support.
Website where you can compare different Motherboards:
Sockets and CPU’s:
The CPU is the first thing that comes to my mind when I think about the Computer Speed. The Faster the
Processor, The faster the computer will think.
In earlier days PC, All processors had the same set of pins that would connect the CPU to the
motherboard, called the Pin Grid Array (PGA). These pins fit into a Socket layout called Socket 7 on the
Current socket arrangements are often named for the number of pins in the PGA. Commonly used sockets
• Socket 478 - for older Pentium and Celeron processors
• Socket 754 - for AMD Sempron and some AMD Athlon processors
• Socket 939 - for newer and faster AMD Athlon processors
• Socket AM2 - for the newest AMD Athlon processors
• Socket A - for older AMD Athlon processors$
The Newest Intel CPU doesn’t have a PGA, It has an LGA, Also known as Socket T. LGA Stands for Land Grid
Array, Wherein the Pins are a part of the Socket and not the Processor.
Chipset bridges the gap between Microprocessor and the Motherboard. It consists of 2 parts North Bridge
and South Bridge.
The North Bridge connects directly to the Processor via the Front Side Bus (FSB). The Memory Controller is
located on the North Bridge; this makes the Memory access faster. The North Bridge also connects to AGP
or PCI Express and to the Memory itself.
The South Bridge is slower then the North Bridge, The information has to go through the North Bridge
before reaching the South Bridge. Other busses connect the South Bridge to PCI Bus, USB ports and IDE or
SATA Hard Disc Connections.
A Bus is simply a circuit that connects one part into another. The more data a bus can handle at a time, the
faster it allows information to travel. The speed is measured in MHz, refers to the amount of data that can
travel at a given time.
RAM – Random Access Memory, The speed of RAM directly controls how fast the computer can access
instructions and data.
Types of RAM
SRAM – Static RAM
FPM DRAM – Fast Page Mode DRAM
EDO DRAM – Extended Data-Out DRAM
SDRAM – Synchronous Dynamic RAM
DDR SDRAM – Double Data Rate SDRAM
RDRAM – Rambus DRAM
CMOS RAM – Used to save Hard disc settings and other small settings
VRAM – Video RAM – MPDRAM – Multi-Port DRAM
SIMM – Single Inline Memory Module
DIMM – Dual Inline Memory Module
RIMM – Rambus Inline Memory Module
SODIMM – Single Outline Dual Inline Memory Module
Micro DIMM’s – Small DIMM’s for Notepads.