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Common properties of_acids_and_bases_v2

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Common properties of acids and bases, ionisation, electrolyte, non-electrolyte,

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Common properties of_acids_and_bases_v2

  1. 1. Acids, Bases and SaltsCommon Properties of Acids and Bases
  2. 2. CBSE - 10 Acids, Bases and SaltsChemistry Common Properties of Acids and Bases Acids and bases have two common properties. Common properties of acids and bases They conduct electricity and undergo ionisation. • They conduct electricity • They undergo ioinisation These features can be explained by conducting two experiments. They are electrolytic conductance and experiment with dry HCl gas Experiments: 1. Electrolytic conductance 2. Experiment with dry HCl gas
  3. 3. CBSE - 10 Acids, Bases and SaltsChemistry Common Properties of Acids and Bases Electrolytic Conductance: Bulb glows Bulb glows 1) Experiment with HCl Solution: Switch 6v Battery 6 v Battery Switch • Place a beaker filled with hydrochloric acid solution. • Dip two metal electrodes and connect their terminals to a 6 volts battery through a switch and a bulb. Anode Cathode Anode Cathode • Switch on the circuit. • The bulb glows indicating the acid solution conducts current. 2) Experiment with NaOH Solution: • Conduct the same experiment with sodium hydroxide solution replacing HCl Solution hydrocholric acid solution. NaOH Solution • The bulb glows in sodium hydroxide solution. 1 2
  4. 4. CBSE - 10 Acids, Bases and SaltsChemistry Common Properties of Acids and Bases Electrolytic Conductance: Bulb glows Bulb glows 3) Experiment with Sugar Switch 6v Battery 6 v Battery Solution: Switch • Place another beaker filled with sugar solution. • Dip two metal electrodes and connect their terminals to a 6 volts Anode Cathode battery through a switch and a bulb. Anode Cathode • Switch on the circuit. • The bulb does not glow indicating the glucose solution does not conduct electricity. 4) Experiment with NaOH Solution: Sugar Solution • Conduct the same experiment with Alcohol Solution alcohol solution replacing sugar solution. 3 4 • The bulb does not glow in alcohol solution also.
  5. 5. Acids, Bases and SaltsExperiment Experimental Bulb Inference Inference:Number Solutions • Bulb glows in HCl and NaOH 1 HCl solution Glows Conducts current by solutions because they conduct ionisation current by ionisation. HCl  H+ + Cl- • Bulb does not glow in sugar 2 NaOH solution Glows Conducts current by and alcohol solutions because ionisation they do not undergo ionisation. NaOH  Na+ + OH- • Ionisation is a common phenomenon in acids and 3 Sugar solution Does not Does not conduct bases. glow current, because ionisation does not occur 4 Alcohol solution Does not Does not conduct glow current, because ionisation does not occur
  6. 6. CBSE - 10 Acids, Bases and SaltsChemistry Aqueous Solutions Experiment with Dry HCl gas: • Take sodium chloride in a dry test tube. • Add concentrated sulphuric acid Dry HCl gradually. • Close the test tube with a rubber cork fitted with a guard tube containing calcium chloride. • Hydrogen chloride is evolved when sodium chloride reacts with sulphuric acid in the test tube. •The anhydrous calcium chloride kept in the guard tube absorbs traces of water. • Hence dry HCl gas is obtained. 1 2
  7. 7. CBSE - 10 Acids, Bases and SaltsChemistry Aqueous Solutions Case-1: Normal Blue Litmus • Introduce a normal blue litmus Paper paper at the end of the delivery Dry HCl Dry HCl tube where dry HCl gas is evolved. •The dry HCl gas does not change the colour of the blue litmus paper. Case-2: • Bring a moist blue litmus paper at the delivery end of the HCl gas. •Dry HCl gase changes the colour of moist blue litmus paper to red. 3 4
  8. 8. CBSE - 10 Acids, Bases and SaltsChemistry Aqueous Solutions Inference: Dry HCl gas No ionisation • Dry HCl becomes wet in moist blue litmus paper • The wet HCl ionises into hydrogen cation and chloride Normal Blue litmus paper anion. • The release of H+ is significant in the acidic nature of a substance. •It causes the moist litmus paper turning red. Ionisation Wet HCl H+ + Cl- H2O Moist Blue litmus paper turns red

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