Economies Of Industrial Cogeneration


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Economies Of Industrial Cogeneration

  1. 1. Economies Of Industrial Cogeneration
  2. 2. Contents...... Introduction.  What is Cogeneration (CHP) ?  Cogeneration Principle.  Cogeneration Technologies.  Application of Cogeneration.  Economics of Cogeneration.  Usefulness of Cogeneration Technology.
  3. 3.  World need development.  Not only development but a Sustainable development.  Sustainable development benefits social, economic,technological, and environmental.  Power (electricity) and Heat (i.e.CHP) plays a major role for development.  Yes… Cogeneration, Combined Heat and Power (CHP) can fulfill it for long way. Introduction
  4. 4. What is Co-generation ??  Cogeneration = the simultaneous production of heat and power, with a view to the practical application of both products.  A way of local energy production.  Used instead of separate production of heat and electricity.  Heat is main product, electricity by-product or alternate.  Uses heat that is lost otherwise.  Way to use energy more efficiently.
  5. 5. • When steam or gas expands through a turbine, nearly 60 to 70% of the input energy escapes with the exhaust steam or gas. • This energy in the exhaust steam or gas is utilized for meeting the process heat requirements, the efficiency of utilization of the fuel increases. • Such an application, where the electrical power and process heat requirements are met from the fuel, is termed as “Cogeneration”. • Since, most of the industries need both heat and electrical energy, cogeneration can be a sensible investment for industries. • It is also known as ‘Combined Heat and Power (CHP)’ and ‘Total Energy System’. Cogeneration Principle
  6. 6. Classification of Cogeneration Systems • There are two main types of cogeneration concepts – Topping Cycle plants – Bottoming Cycle plants
  7. 7. Co generation Technologies Backpressure Technology. Extraction Condensing Technology. Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Boiler Technology. Combined Cycle Technology. Reciprocating Engine Technology. Micro-turbines. Fuel cells. Stirling engines.
  8. 8. 05/13/14 "Save Energy, Save yourself" 10
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  13. 13. 05/13/14 "Save Energy, Save yourself" 15 Microturbine • Nowadays there are microturbines as small as 25 kW. • In general, microturbines can generate any where from 25 kW to 200 kW of electricity. • Microturbines are small high-speed generator power plants that include the turbine, compressor, generator, all of which are on a single shaft. • As well as the power electronics to deliver the power to the grid. • Moving part, use air bearings and do not need lubricating oil. • They are primarily fuelled with natural gas, but they can also operate with diesel, gasoline or other • similar high-energy fossil fuels. Research is ongoing
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  15. 15. 05/13/14 "Save Energy, Save yourself" 17 Microturbine
  16. 16. 05/13/14 "Save Energy, Save yourself" 18 Fuel cells • Fuel cells convert the chemical energy of hydrogen and oxygen directly into electricity without combustion and mechanical work such as in turbines or engines. • In fuel cells, the fuel and oxidant (air) are continuously fed to the cell. • All fuel cells are based on the oxidation of hydrogen. • The hydrogen used as fuel can be derived from a variety of sources, including natural gas, propane, coal and renewable such as biomass, or, through electrolysis, wind and solar energy. • A typical single cell delivers up to 1 volt. In order to get sufficient power; a fuel cell stack is made of several single cells connected in series.
  17. 17. 05/13/14 "Save Energy, Save yourself" 19 Stirling engines • The Stirling engine is an external combustion device and therefore differs substantially from conventional combustion plant where the fuel burns inside the machine. • Heat is supplied to the Stirling engine by an external source, such as burning gas, and this makes a working fluid, e.g. helium, expand and cause one of the two pistons to move inside a cylinder. This is known as the working piston. • A second piston, known as a displacer, then transfers the gas to a cool zone where it is recompressed by the working piston. The displacer then transfers the compressed gas or air to the hot region and the cycle continues. • The Stirling engine has fewer moving parts than conventional engines, and no valves, tappets, fuel injectors or spark ignition systems. It is therefore quieter than normal engines
  18. 18. 05/13/14 "Save Energy, Save yourself" 20 Stirling engines
  19. 19. Application of Cogeneration • Scale of application : Large scale – small scale. • Heat usage : Special – process. • Technology : Back pressure, Gas turbine, Combined cycle, gas engine. • User : One user – more users. • Ownership : User – cooperation.
  20. 20. Application of Cogeneration Industrial: • Pharmaceuticals & fine chemicals • Paper and board manufacture • Brewing, distilling & malting • Ceramics • Brick • Cement • Food processing • Textile processing • Minerals processing • Oil Refineries • Iron and Steel • Motor industry • Horticulture and glasshouses • Timber processing
  21. 21. Economic Value of Cogeneration • Depends very much on tariff system. • Heat - avoided cost of separate heat production. • Electricity 1) Less purchase (kWh). 2) Sale of surplus electricity. 3) Peak sharing. • Carbon credits (future).
  22. 22. Energy Flows
  23. 23. Money Flows Rs. Rs. Rs.
  24. 24. Economics
  25. 25. Usefulness of Cogeneration Technologies • To reduce power and other energy costs. • To improve productivity and reduce costs of production through reliable uninterrupted availability of quality power from Cogeneration plant. • Cogeneration system helps to locate manufacturing facility in remote low cost areas. • Improves energy efficiency, and reduces CO2 emissions therefore it supports sustainable development initiatives. • The system collects carbon credits which can be traded to earn revenue. • Due to uninterrupted power supply it improves working conditions of employees raising their motivation. This indirectly benefits in higher and better quality production.
  26. 26. Usefulness of Cogeneration Technologies • Cogeneration System saves water consumption & water costs. • Improves brand image and social standing. • Cogeneration is the most efficient way of generating electricity, heat and cooling from a given amount of fuel. It saves between 15-40% of energy when compared with the separate production of electricity and heat. • Cogeneration helps reduce CO2 emissions significantly. It also reduces investments into electricity transmission capacity, avoids transmission losses, and ensures security of high quality power supply. • A number of different fuels and proven, reliable technologies can be used. • A concurrent need for heat, electricity and possibly cooling indicates suitable sites for cogeneration.
  27. 27. Usefulness of Cogeneration Technologies • The initial investment in cogeneration projects can be relatively high but payback periods between 3-5 years might be expected. • The payback period and profitability of cogeneration schemes depends crucially on the difference between the fuel price and the sales price for electricity. • Global environmental concerns, ongoing liberalization of many energy markets, and projected energy demand growth in developing countries are likely to improve market conditions for cogeneration in the near future.
  28. 28. Summary • Cogeneration is proven technology. • Cogeneration helps for sustainable development. • Cogeneration improves energy efficiency….. …….if heat is used in a proper way. • Otherwise it is just a bad way of electricity production. • Scale is not a limit for cogeneration. • Right dimensioning is crucial for economic application. • Economic performance will increase because of environmental policy.
  29. 29. for your attention “Cogeneration, the path to profit and Sustainable development”