INTRODUCTION:This overview contains information about electric transmission lines which areinstalled underground, rather than overhead on poles or towers. Underground cableshave different technical requirements than overhead lines and have differentenvironmental impacts. Due to their different physical, environmental, andconstruction needs, underground transmission generally costs more and may bemore complicated to construct than overhead lines.
HERE WE WILL DISCUSS:v Types of Underground Electric Transmission Cablesv Ancillary Facilitiesv Construction and Operation Considerationsv Costsv Repairs
Types of Underground Electric Transmission Cables:The common types of underground cable construction also include :v High-pressure, fluid-filled pipe (HPFF)v High-pressure, gas-filled pipe (HPGF)v Self-contained fluid-filled (SCFF)v Solid cable, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE)
High-Pressure, Fluid-Filled Pipe-Type Cable:1. HPFF or HPGF Pipe-Type Cross Section: Welded Externally Coated Steel Pipe Pressurized Gas or Fluid (usually nitrogen or synthetic oil at 200 psi Segmented Copper Conductor Paper Insulation Metallic Shield
2. High-Pressure, Gas-Filled Pipe-Type Cable: 4.Solid Cable, Cross-Linked Polyethylene:3.Self-Contained, Fluid-Filled Pipe-Type:Self-contained cables are laid either directlyonto the bottom or into trenches. In crossingbodies of water, the ordinary plastic or leadcovered cable is usually protected with awrapping of tarred jute, and armored withgalvanized-steel wire.
5. XLPE Cables with Different Voltages:Underground XLPE cables left to right: 345 kV, 138 kV, 69 kV, and distribution
Ancillary Facilities:1.Vaults:345 kV XLPE project – Cement vault visible 138 kV XLPE project – Bottom half of pre-with two chimneys extending up to be level constructed vault positioned in trench.with the future roadsurface.
2.Transition Structures: insulators Pole height range 60’-100’ pole heads Raiser height range 30’-40’3.Pressurizing Sources:
Construction of Underground TransmissionInstallation of an underground transmission cable generally involves the followingsequence of events:1) ROW clearing,2) Trenching/blasting3) Laying and/or welding pipe4) Duct bank and vault installation5) Backfilling6) Cable installation7) Adding fluids or gas, and8) Site restoration.Many of these activities are conducted simultaneously so as to minimize theinterference with street traffic.
Figures shows a typical installation sequence in a city street.
Costs:A typical new 69 kV overhead single-circuit transmission line costs approximately $285,000 permile as opposed to $1.5 million per mile for a new 69 kV underground line (without theterminals). A new 138 kV overhead line costs approximately $390,000 per mile as opposed to $2million per mile for underground (without the terminals).Cable Repairs:V One cable repair needed per year for every 833 miles of cable.V One splice repair needed per year for every 2,439 miles of cable.V One termination repair needed per year for every 359 miles of cable