Combating surface and groundwater pollution in armenia

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Country report 2010

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  • Annually more than 17.6 m3 of water come from precipitation, of which about 11.5 billion m3
    evaporate.
  • My current task is assessment of Lake Sevan Basin River’s water quality assessment with dates of hidrochemical monitoring for animal farming, irrigation, recreation uses…
  • Armenia has an agreement with Turkey concerning the use of the Araks and Akhuryan rivers, according to which the water of these two transboundary rivers is divided equally between the two countries. Another agreement with Turkey concerns the joint use of the dam and the reservoir of the Akhuryan River. Armenia has an agreement with Turkey concerning the use of the Araks and Akhuryan rivers, according to which the water of these two transboundary rivers is divided equally between the two countries. Another agreement with Turkey concerns the joint use of the dam and the reservoir of the Akhuryan River.
  • The construction of a gold mining factory and a safe dump-tail should excludes the pollution and degradation of the ecosystem of Lake Sevan...
  •  K'arahunj: k'ar - stone, hunj – henge, may be older than the UK's Stonehenge. It is possible that the builders of K'arahunj had contact with the megalithic cultures of Atlantic Europe.
  • Combating surface and groundwater pollution in armenia

    1. 1. Combating surface and groundwater pollution Varduhi Surmalyan Environmental Impact Monitoring Center Yerevan, Armenia 51th UNEP/UNESCO/BMU International Short Course on Climate Change Adaptation: Soil and Water 18 October – 11 November, 2010 Dresden, Germany
    2. 2. Ancient geographers called the Armenian Highlands, the ‘’Island of Mountains’’. Country is about 1800 meters above sea level.
    3. 3. General Information Armenia is located between Europe and Asia in a region known as the Transcaucasus. North of Armenia is Georgia. To the South is Iran. To the East and Southwest is Azerbaijan, and to the West, Turkey.The total Armenian population (worldwide) is estimated to be 11 million. However, only 3 million Armenians actually live in Armenia! 8 million live in other countries: Russia, the United States, France, Turkey and Lebanon have the highest populations of Armenians living outside Armenia. Total Area 29,800 sq km Mount Ararat is the highest mountain in Armenia. According to the Bible, this is where Noah’s Ark came to rest after the flood waters receded
    4. 4. 4 Only one third of Armenia's land is arable, and that portion blooms due to enormous and continuous effort on the part of its indigenous population. That's why they say "Armenians squeeze bread out of stone". The legend goes that when Armenians came to God to ask for their piece of land, all the good land had already been distributed, so God gave them the leftovers, full of stones. Armenians infused this land with their soul and expressed all their hopes through it.
    5. 5. The alphabet was invented in 405 AD. 96% of the population speak Armenian and about 75% Russian. 5
    6. 6. 6 Yerevan is the capital of Armenia, was founded nearly 2,800 years ago and is one of the oldest cities in the world.
    7. 7. 7 Some products of Armenia are grains, tuf stone, fruit, brandy, minerals, livestock, chemicals, and synthetic rubber. Armenia is known the world-over for its apricots, considered to taste better than anywhere else in the world.
    8. 8. 8
    9. 9. 9 Christianity was adopted in 301 AD as the state religion. Armenia is said to be the first country in the world to make Christianity a state religion. Space of Cross-stones
    10. 10. The heart of Armenia Noravanq Armenian Apostolic 95%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi 1%. Virgin Mary are the patron saints of Armenia.
    11. 11. 11
    12. 12. 12 Making thread for weaving cloth, carpet.... in armenian great poet Tumanyan's museum, called ‘’chaxarak’’.
    13. 13. 13 Dilijan is blessed with a cool, moist climate, and pleasant evergreen forests, and extends along the Getik River. Dilijan, a hamlet in the hills, reminds the unsuspecting visitor of Switzerland.
    14. 14. 14 Dadivanq
    15. 15. 15 5% of the population live in areas with water shortages. Other parts of the country have available water resources, but they have inadequate water storage and infrastructure facilities. A young boy collects drinking water from the community spigot in his village
    16. 16. Overview of Water Resources Water resources of the RoA 46.6 billion m3 National water resources 35.9 billion m3 Annual renewable water resources Originated within Armenia 6.8 billion m3 Originated outside of the country 2.3 billion m3 Surface water 3.2 billion m3 Groundwater 3.6 billion m3 Border rivers (Araks and Akhuryan) 1.2 billion m3 Groundwater inflow 1.0 billion m3
    17. 17. Overview of Water Resources Armenia’s Average Water Balance 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 billionm3 /year Ground water Inflow Outflow Transboundary River Inflow Outflow Total inflow and outflow Precipitation Evaporation Armenia's river outflow
    18. 18. Environmental Impact Monitoring Center (Monitoring of surface water quality) State Hydro- meteorological and Monitoring Service (Monitoring of meteorological conditions, surface water quantity state) State Hygiene and Anti-Epidemiological Inspectorate (Monitoring of drinking water sources and quality) State Hidro-geological Monitoring Organization (Monitoring of groundwater quantity and quality) Water Resources Management Agency (Monitoring of water demand) State Environmental Inspectorate (Monitoring of water use and pollution discharge) Existing Water Monitoring Functions and Legally Responsible Parties
    19. 19. 19 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MONITORING CENTER Collection, assessment and generalization of environmental information through continuous or periodic observation of determined quantitative and qualitative indicators which characterize the state of all environmental components and their change as a result of natural and anthropogenic factors’ impact (performs water, air, soil and precipitation environmental monitoring and quality assessment programs). Ensure data accuracy for collection and impact analysis. Help to develop and implement state policy and strategy for organizing the monitoring of the state of the environment, environmental impact and consequences.
    20. 20. Environmental Impact Monitoring Centre (EIMC) Scientific Production Department Investigation works for Soil Monitoring Air Monitoring Program Surface Water Monitoring Program Precipitation Monitoring Program Physicochemical analysis group Spectrometric analysis group Chromatographic analysis group Quality control group Investigation works for Ground Water Monitoring Chemist-researcher 1st stage specialist (water quality assessment) My position www.armmonitoring.am
    21. 21. Combating surface and groundwater pollution Monitoring Center MNP of RA Inspectorate Govermental budget Combating measures
    22. 22. 22 Araqs left part is coming from Turkey!!! Armenia's rivers flow into two large aquatic arteries of the Southern Caucasus- the basins of the Kura River in the north and the Araks River in the south. The Akhurian, Hrazdan, Kassakh, Vokhchi, Arpa, Vorotan Rivers run into the Araks River, and the Debet and Agshtev Rivers pour into the Kura River.
    23. 23. 23 Gandzasar There are no water treaties between the three South Caucasian countries, a condition directly related to the political situation in the region. Nagorno- Karabakh is one of the main obstacles, making it difficult for Azerbaijan and Armenia to sign a treaty even one relating only to water resource management.
    24. 24. Lake Sevan 38.5 billion m3 , about 1,900 m above sea level A fresh water lake of pure natural beauty such as that embodied by Lake Sevan is rare. The emerald of Armenia, Lake Sevan covers 1256 square kilometers and reaches a maximum depth of 82 meters. Twenty-eight rivers and springs flow into Sevan but only the river Hrazdan origins from it. Over a mile high, the water of Sevan reflects the palette of vivid colors from lazur to deep blue, hypnotizing with its magnetic and majestic aura. A famous species of trout called the Salmon Trout (Ishkhan) or “Prince Fish, is‿ the signature fish of the lake. 24
    25. 25. To help compensate for the excessive water withdrawals and to restore the lake’s ecological condition, however, water has, since 1982, been transferred to the lake through a 48-km tunnel from the Arpa and Yeghegis Rivers. An average of about 250 million cubic meters of water per year has been diverted to the lake through this tunnel. Under the Law on Lake Sevan, the water level of the lake is projected to rise, roughly by the year 2030, to 1,903 meters above sea level. Agricultural runoff and sewage discharges have increased nutrient levels, causing eutrophication. The lake’s waterquality and ecosystem continue to be threatened by pollution from point sources, such as sewage and industrial discharges, and from nonpoint sources, such as agricultural pollution runoff. The condition of the lake is a matter of widespread national concern, and scientists, have been studying how to best restore the delicate balance of its ecology.
    26. 26. 26 Our Ripsik bravely save Lake Sevan's sampling bottle
    27. 27. 27 The "SOS Sevan" initiative group (Eco-Alliance) calls the Armenian authorities, NGO’s, international community, to support the public campaign to save Lake Sevan, and make the "Geopromining" Company stop its illegal activity, that has an intention to construct in the basin of Sevan Lake a gold reprocessing plant that comprises a gold-mining plant, cyanides' and pesticides' stock and a dump-tail of the cyanide wastes, which will penetrate into the ground waters, water basin of Lake Sevan . They are appealing to the state authorities to review the contracts with the mentioned company and declare the given licenses invalid. Armenian Women for Health and Healthy Environment NGO
    28. 28. 28 There are 9,480 small and large rivers with total length of about 23,000 km, 14 of those rivers are more than 35 km long and 379 rivers are more than 10 km long.
    29. 29. 29 There is a need for major investments to restore water treatment facilities or construct new ones. In most enterprises treatment facilities are out of operation. Untreated or insufficiently treated sewage is the main cause of the pollution of water bodies. In fact, none of the 19 existing waste water treatment plants functions, the technologies applied in the plants are not efficient and do not meet modern requirements, needs to be reconstructed using modern treatment technologies.
    30. 30. 30 Eco-activist Mariam Suxudyan In order to combat water pollution, we must understand the problems and become part of the solution.
    31. 31. Public participation and, particularly, NGO in water resources management should not be underestimated. There is effective mechanism of public participation in decision-making through public hearings in the process of environmental impacts assessment. 31
    32. 32. Lake Gosh had an average degree of pollution and was in eutrophic condition (assessed by Carlson Index). 32
    33. 33. 33
    34. 34. BURG Youth Environmental Center 34
    35. 35. The microphits cleaning works was carried out by BURG Youth Environmental Center NGO's volunteers. 35
    36. 36. 36 About 96% of water used for drinking comes from groundwater resources. On most of the territory of Armenia, it is possible to use groundwater for drinking needs without additional treatment. Certainly, water quality in some springs deviates from chemical and biological standards. About 25% of springs have high concentrations of nitrites, nitrates and fluorine compounds. From ecological point of view, most important are the following issues: ecological and sanitary protection of ground water sources and some surface water bodies, landfills management, non-point water pollution ( landfills, agricalture, eco- tourism, etc).
    37. 37. Stop littering!!! Pollution causing significant damage to water is falling under the criminal low. Sanctions-imposed by the legal system on a violator, such as prison sentence, financial penalty, permit revocation. Formal mechanisms are either civil or criminal. Civil actions may be either administrative (i.e., directly imposed by the enforcement agency) or judicial (i.e., imposed by a court or other judicial authority). Administrative punishments in the form of money penalties for administrative offences. Fins for surface or ground water quality damages are calculated by multiplying minimum allowance with 500-800. The authority to use formal enforcement mechanisms must be provided in environmental law. 37
    38. 38. Pw(€s) for each ton Suspended solids 10 N-NH3 + 10 BOD 36 Sulfates 0,2 Cu 653 Zn 653 Chlorides 0,06 Nitrites 2,1 Total P 78 Detergents 199 Trace metal’s soils 997 CN- 997 Environmental payments (pollution charges) in RoA is calculated Pw =19,5/MACf For lake Sevan they are multiplied
    39. 39. 39 One of the most important steps towards reform in the water sector was the adoption of a new Water Code on 4 June 2002 and, in order to ensure its enforcement, 80 regulations have been adopted by the Government since 2002, which relate, among others, to the procedures for water use permit provisions, transparency and public participation in the decision- making processes, accessibility of information, establishment of the state water cadaster, formation of water resources monitoring, management of transboundary water resources.
    40. 40. 40 Imagine you walking in the street in summer heat and suddenly a group of children or teenagers come up to you running and pour pails of water over you….. You are astonished, confused and do not know what to do, if you are in Germany, France, Russia or elsewhere. Nevertheless if you are in Armenia, the only thing to do is just smile and laugh from the heart…It’ s VARDAVAR !!!- Water splashing day in Armenia. Armenian traditions, including Vardavar has long history connected to pagan Goddess Astghik. According to legend she spread love on earth, walking over roses that turn red from her blood. As goddess of fertility she was associated with water. Festivity days are changing each year calculated 98 days after Easter, always on Sundays.
    41. 41. 41 Proud of them!!! Wrestling, weightlifting, judo, chess, boxing are the most popular sports in Armenia. Vladimir Mnacakanyan Frunzik Mkrtchyan King Artur Abraham
    42. 42. 42 Lavash is a thin, easily rolled layer bread, which is baked on a hot wall of a stove-tondir (stove dugged in the ground)
    43. 43. In Armenia, Barbecue is very famous (pieces of meat piled on a skewer and grilled on a burned charcoal without fire) 43
    44. 44. Armenian cuisine 44 Aveluk
    45. 45. 45 Legendary Armenian Brandy The ancient observatory in the world is in Armenia: Karahunj Ancient Manuscripts Oldest-Ever Shoe
    46. 46. Armenian kids smiles for You 46Thank you for your attention

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