MANAGEMENT PRESENTATIONSIn business, a great deal of communication is made verbally. Researches show that 65% to75% of managerial time is spent talking to others. The numbers vary depending upon thelevel of the person. Presentations form one of the foremost qualities that a manager shouldhave in corporate sector. He should be able to present effectively all the ideas he has, in theshortest time possible. He has to make presentations to internal and external people. Withoutthe ability to make effective presentations, one is doomed in the corporate bodies. They arelike a show case of a product. Just as in movies, it is not the dialogue writer or the directorwho gets all the credit, but the hero. A manger s role is no different. Otherwise, he will bereduced to behind the curtain crew.For many, standing and speaking in front of an audience is just a matter of confidence; forsome, it s just a matter of having the facility to speak. Some would say it s just a matter ofstrategy. Public speaking and presentation skills are not just natural abilities that effortlesslycome out every time you are faced with an audience; they are artistic abilities that you canlearn, develop and perfect through time by means of proper training, constant practice, anduse of techniques. Presentations can really be daunting especially if you are not used to it, butwith proper preparation and tools, you can surely get your message across.There are formal and informal presentations. Both these need slightly different techniques,though several of them hold good for both of them.Here a few a things that you should know for making effective presentations.Overcoming fearMost of us feel uncomfortable when we speak to a group, and many students would like toavoid the stress and anxiety of speaking in public. Nevertheless, many university programsnow require students to make class presentations or to conduct seminar sessions. It s normalto feel nervous every time a speaking engagement gets near. Even best speakers claim to havethat feeling from time to time and still ask for presentation tips from fellow public speakers ortheir mentors.The main reasons for this appear to be: Unfamiliar Situation: Because most people speak formally only rarely to an audience the novelty of the situation is a cause of apprehension. Lack of Confidence: This stems often from a feeling that others are better speakers than ourselves, or that they know more about the topic in question. Sense of Isolation: The speaker is alone, the centre of attraction - and vulnerable. Self-Consciousness: about our accents, grammar, voice and image generally. Fear of looking Foolish: We may worry that we will forget what we wanted to say, and will stumble over our words, will say the wrong thing, etc.
Fear of the Consequences such as being judged by others, particularly bosses and peers, as lacking in ability or insight because of a poor public presentation. At least with a written work mistakes can be made in private!Do not fight nerves, welcome them!Only then you can get on with the presentation instead of focusing in on being nervous.Actors recognize the value of nerves...they add to the value of the performance. If youwelcome nerves, then the presentation becomes a challenge and you become better. If you letyour nerves take over, then you go into the flight mode by withdrawing from the audience.Again, welcome your nerves, recognize them, let them help you gain that needed edge! Whenyou feel tension or anxiety, remember that everyone gets them, but the winners use them totheir advantage, while the losers get overwhelmed by them.Tension can be reduced by performing some relaxation exercises. Listed below are some toget you started: · Before the presentation: Close your eyes. Sit still. Think of nothing. After you feel less tense, slowly conceive the presentation in your mind. Do not struggle to get it to the memory. It will unfold by itself. Otherwise, you can always look at the slides and give your presentations. Taking deep breaths always relaxes body and the mind. · Mental Visualization: Before the presentation, visualize the room, audience, and you giving the presentation. Mentally go over what you are going to do from the moment you start to the end of the presentation. I can do it! is the mantra you should recite to yourself. · You do NOT need to get rid of anxiety and tension! Channel the energy into concentration and expressiveness. But make sure that your anxiety and tension are not as noticeable to the audience as it is to you. · Even the best presenters make mistakes. The key is to continue on after the mistake. If you pick up and continue, so will the audience. Winners continue! Losers stop! · Never drink alcohol to reduce tension! It affects not only your coordination but also your awareness of coordination. You might not realize it, but your audience will!Well begun, half done!The first four minutes are the time when you are likely to have the attention of your audience,it is important to make an impact with your introduction.Grab the attention of your audience by giving them a reason to listen; the more personal andrelevant, the better. You could begin with a good joke or a curious analogy.The introduction of a presentation is very important. Make a connection with the audiencestraight away and set the stage for the rest of your argument. Start your presentation byimmediately involving the audience through questions. Remember people love to talk. It shuman nature. Start with an unexpected statement to seize the audiences attention.Greet the audience (for example, Good morning, ladies and gentlemen), and tell them whoyou are. Good presentations usually then follow this formula:
· tell the audience what you are going to tell them, · then tell them, · at the end tell them what you have told them.Dont start with an apology unless youve really made a serious error, or its a part of yourplans and an intentional humorous device. The audience will forgive you far more than youwill forgive yourself. Your apologising will make people feel uncomfortable.Try to start on time even if some of the audience is late. Waiting too long undermines yourconfidence, and the audiences respect for you.Creating Your Own StyleBefore making a presentation, you should know the level of your audience. Depending upontheir level, understanding and knowledge the presentation should be pitched. Too low astandard makes the audience lose their interest in the presentation. Similarly high flownpresentation which is beyond the level of the audience also tires them out. Therefore, it isvery essential to communicate at the level of the audience.Select the right Style Formal or Informal.As already mentioned, the techniques for these two types slightly vary. Let discuss them:Formal Presentations · Dressing appropriately. · Using the right language. · Using cartoons or pictures on your slides. · Introducing yourself and thanking the audience. · Have a smile on the face, it adorns it.Informal Presentations · Address your audience as you would normally on a one-to-one basis. · Be brief and to the point without forgetting the allotted time. · Have a smile on the face, it adorns it. · Use examples if you know the audience quite a lot. · Dont hesitate to make your presentation interactive. · Ask the experts in the audience to confirm your theories or assumptions.Preparing the Presentation MaterialResearching the SubjectWhile preparing for the presentation some of the questions you should ask to yourself are:
How much do I already know about the subject? Whom am I presenting to? For how longam I presenting? When and in what setting is the presentation going to take place?Selecting the ContentPut the gathered information into words. You must have worked hard on researching andgathered much information. Since time is the key factor, you had better classify theinformation into three categories -- essential, helpful and nice to have. Whatever, you couldnot have included in the slides, keep it as reserve. Sometimes you can use it in Q&A session.Writing a ScriptFirst prepare the first draft. Then edit it yourself and prepare the second draft. Filter out what is notessential The next stage is attend to grammar and use of effective language. Once you have finalizedthe draft, identify important points that should go into the slides. Then concentrate on thepreparation of slides in addition to language the font, the design, the graphics, the colour schemeetc. In academic presentations avoid sounds that go with the slides.Using HandoutsUse of handouts is very common in presentations. They help the audience to carry homeideas. But you should take care that your handouts become an obstacle to your presentation.People try to read the handouts during the presentations without listening what you show orsay. Therefore, you should try to avoid giving the handouts in advance. But announce to theaudience before the presentation that you will give handouts, so that, they do not take downnotes and try to shuffle their attention between taking down the notes and listening orwatching your presentation. However, some presentations are expository and need to bereferred to during the presentation. In such cases, distribute to the audience the handouts inadvance.But never circulate notes during the presentation as that would surely disturb your presentation.Planning Your TalkPlan the body of your presentation. The closing statement in the presentation should be memorable,because conclusion is as important as the beginning. It could be a very appropriate quotation or acatchy slogan or something similar.Taking Control of the AudienceAudience are normally three types -- hostile audience, friendly audience and indifferentaudience. It s your job to get them to you. Some people like attention paid to them. That isone of the tricks. Look at them a little more often or ask them some rhetorical questions.Sometimes humour works. If two of you talk between themselves, stop your presentationbriefly and keep looking at them with a smile. Then everyone looks at them. This works forsure! I have tried in classrooms and presentations. This also works when someone drifts intoa siesta, especially after lunch in an air-conditioned room. You can try some more techniquesexcept being aggressiveness. It doesn t help. Besides, you too lose your concentration.Managing Your AudienceSpeaking the audiences language is essential to get acceptance. Read their body languageand make spontaneous adjustments. If necessary make a repetition. Avoid a didactic tone.
You should also avoid conflict and argument. As I said earlier, involving your audience is asure way of making your presentation successful.Speaking EffectivelySince most of the presentation is made orally, you should develop an interesting voice.Whenever you want to highlight a point and draw the attention of your audience, use silenceand pauses effectively. You could also use stress and emphasis by slowing down or raisingthe tone slightly. If you are involved in the presentation most of these things come to youinvoluntarily. But if you are doing it very consciously you will have to identify thesetechniques deliberately. But never use artificial accent. Be yourself! Sometimes artificialaccent causes amusement, if not irritation. If you have acquired good accent through yourschooling or exposure, no problems!Backing up your memoryNever read from a script. It is also unwise to have the talk written out in detail as a promptsheet - the chances are you will not locate the thing you want to say amongst all the othertext. You should know most of what you want to say - if you dont then you should not begiving the talk! So prepare cue cards which have key words and phrases (and possiblysketches) on them. Cards of 6 x 4 size are ideal to handle. Dont forget to number the cardsin case you drop them.Remember to mark on your cards the visual aids that go with them so that the right OHPtransparency or slide is shown at the right time. If you handle the laptop or computer yourselfyou can synchronize your slides with your talk well. But sometimes the laptop is placed in acorner and you have to make the presentation from the middle of the dais or from a lectern. Insuch cases, you will have to depend on someone to coordinate. But the best way to overcomethis is to use a remote mouse. I have used it very effectively and it helps to operate thecomputer even when you are in between the audience. Normally they will have a range up to30 feet if you keep your batteries new.Presenting with Visual AidsUse pictures to deliver your message. A good Presentation is mainly driven by what is on theslides. The rule of the thumb is that if it is significant, it should definitely be included on theslide. Next to know what to say and when to say it.Add colour for greater impact. A presentation should always be colourful. When you workwith computers, choose the right equipment. Your colour scheme should be pleasing to theeye. The letters should be crisp and visible even to the one in the last row. Occasionally, youwalk to the end of the room before your presentation and see how comfortably you can read.Visual aids significantly improve the interest of a presentation. However, they must berelevant to what you want to say. A careless design or use of a slide can simply get in the wayof the presentation. What you use depends on the type of talk you are giving. Overheadprojection transparencies (OHPs), 35mm slides Flipchart or white board are almost obsolete.Computer projection (PowerPoint, applications such as Excel, etc) through LCD is thecurrent trend.
Slides contain the minimum information necessary. To do otherwise risks making the slideunreadable or will divert your audiences attention so that they spend time reading the sliderather than listening to you. Try to limit words per slide to a maximum of 10. Use areasonable size font and a typeface which will enlarge well. Typically use a minimum 18ptTimes Roman or even larger. A guideline is: if you can read the slide from a distance of 2metres (without projection) then its probably OKUse colour on your slides but avoid orange and yellow which do not show up very well whenprojected. For text only, white or yellow on blue is pleasant to look at and easy to read. Avoidadding matter during the talk - its messy and the audience will be fascinated by your shakinghand!Room lighting should be considered. Too much light near the screen will make it difficult tosee the detail. On the other hand, a completely darkened room can send the audience to sleep.Try to avoid having to keep switching lights on and off, but if you do have to do this, knowwhere the light switches are and how to use them.Use no more than two different fonts and no more than two size/bold/italic variants or thewhole thing becomes confused. If in doubt simply pick a good readable serif font and use itbig and bold for headings, and 14 - 16 point size for the body text.Absolutely avoid upper case (capital letters) in body text, because people need to be able toread word-shapes as well as the letters, and of course upper case makes every word arectangle, so it takes ages to read. Upper case is just about okay for headings if you reallyhave to.Avoid excessive bullets. Get away from the standard template and begin replacing titles andbullets in more creative ways of displaying information using graphs, tables, images, andphotographs. This takes some creative effort, however. Practice it. Once you get used, it willbe a pleasure to create new slides.Makings slides with PowerpointUse a Template Use a set font and color scheme. Different styles will be disturbing to the audience. You want the audience to focus on what you present, not the way you present.Fonts Choose a clean font that is easy to read. Roman and Gothic typefaces are easier to read than Script or Old English. Stick with one or two types of fonts.Font Size Bulleted items should be no smaller than 22 points. The title should be no smaller than 28 points.
Bullets Keep each bullet to one line, two at the most. Limit the number of bullets in a screen to six, four if there is a large title, logo, picture, etc. Matter given in a slide is only cueing i.e. telling the audience on what you are going tosay and NOT all that you want to say. Cues can be thought of as a brief preview. This gives the audience a framework to build upon.If you crowd too much text, the audience will not read it. Too much text makes it look busy and is hard to read. Why should they spend the energy reading it, when you are going to tell them what it says? Our reading speed does not match our listening speed; hence, they confuse instead ofreinforcing each other.Caps and Italics Do not use all capital letters as capital letters make it hard to read. Italics also are difficult to read. Use them only for brief quotes or to highlight thoughtsor ideas. They are also used for book, journal, or magazine titlesColors · Reds and oranges are high-energy but can be difficult to stay focused on. · Greens, blues, and browns are mellower, but not as attention grabbing. · White on dark background should not be used if the audience is more than 20 away.BackgroundsA white on a dark background can be used for slides to highlight slides which have fewerwords as: The author assumes most users will view the presentation on their own computer. Having a dark background on a computer screen reduces glare.The Color Wheel Colors separated by another color are contrasting colors (also known as complementary) Adjacent colors (next to each other) harmonize with one another. e.g. Green and Yellow The color wheel below is simplified for easy useClashing Colors Colors that are directly opposite from one another are said to clash. These provide readability - e.g. yellow on blue.To make a slide stand out, change the font or background
YOUDo not use the media to hide youThe audience came to see youThe media should enhance the presentation, not BE the presentationIf all you are going to do is read from the slides or overheads, then just send them the slidesRemember, only you can prevent Death by PowerPointYou may also look up the following links for more help on presentations: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadpres.html http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/templates/presentation.rtfDon t overrun the timeKeep to the time allowed. If you can, keep it short. Its better to under-run than over-run. As arule of thumb, allow 2 minutes for each general overhead transparency or Powerpoint slideyou use, but longer for any that you want to use for developing specific points. The generalguidelines is, the audience will get bored with something on the screen for more than 5minutes, especially if you are not actively talking about it. So switch the display off, orreplace the slide with some form of wallpaper such as a company logo.No digressions please!Stick to the plan for the presentation, dont be tempted to digress - you will eat up time andcould end up in a dead-end with no escape!Unless explicitly told not to, leave time for discussion - 5 minutes is sufficient to allowclarification of points. The session chairman may extend this if the questioning becomesinteresting.Body LanguageBody Language is one of the most contributing factors for an effective presentation. Youshould learn to use your hands effectively not moving too fast nor keeping them too still.Making an eye contact with every one and friendly smile always wins. Your movementsshould be natural. Too hurried pacing or standing still are not advisable.Eye contact: This helps to regulate the flow of communication. It signals interest in othersand increases the speakers credibility. Speakers who make eye contact open the flow ofcommunication and convey interest, concern, warmth, and credibility.One key element of facial expression is eye contact. It is estimated that 80 percent ofnonverbal communication takes place with your face and eyes. Eye contact is the cement thatbinds together speakers and their audiences. When you speak, your eyes involve yourlisteners in your presentation There is no faster way to break a communication bond betweenyou and the audience than failing to look at your listeners. No matter the size of youraudience, each listener wants to feel that you are talking directly to him or her. Looking atyour listeners as individuals convinces them that you are sincere are interested in them, and
care whether or not they accept your message. Effective eye contact is also an importantfeedback device that makes the speaking situation a two-way communication process. Bylooking at your audience, you determine how they are reacting to your presentation.How to use your eyes effectively?Your eyes convey a message to your audience. Here are tips to help you use your eyes tobetter communicate with your audience.Establish a visual bond. Select one person and maintain eye contact with that person longenough to establish a visual bond, about five to ten seconds. Then shift your gaze to anotherperson. In a small group, this is relatively easy. With larger crowds its difficult. Insteadselect one or two individuals in each section of the room and establish personal bonds withthem. This will leave each listener with the impression youre talking directly to him or her. Monitor visual feedback. While you are talking, your listeners are responding with theirown nonverbal message such as a smile or nod of the head. Use your eyes to seek out thisvaluable feedback. If individuals arent looking at you, they may not belistening, either.Reasons for this include the following:Problem SolutionThey cant hear you. If you are not using a microphone, speak louderThey are bored. Use humor, increase your vocal variety, or add powerful gestures or body movements.They are puzzled. Repeat or rephrase what you have just said.They are fidgeting nervously. You may be using distracting mannerisms. Heighten your self-awareness of your voice and body language.On the other hand, if your listeners faces indicate interest and closeattention, dont change a thing. Youre doing a great job.Facial Expressions: Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness,friendliness, warmth, and liking. So, if you smile frequently you will beperceived as more likable, friendly, warm, and approachable. Smiling isoften contagious and others will react favourably. They will be morecomfortable around you and will want to listen to you more. Practicesmiling. By smiling you are conveying the message that you are pleased tobe speaking to your audience. This makes them feel more comfortable,which in turn affects how you relate to your audience.
Gestures: If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived asboring and stiff. A lively speaking style captures attention, makes thematerial more interesting, and facilitates understanding.Posture and body orientation : You communicate numerous messages bythe way you talk and move. Standing erect and leaning forwardcommunicates that you are approachable, receptive, and friendly.Interpersonal closeness results when you and your audience face eachother. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceilingshould be avoided as it communicates disinterest.Proximity: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interactionwith others. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invadingothers space. Some of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gazeaversion. Typically, in large rooms, space invasion is not a problem. In mostinstances there is too much distance. To counteract this, move around theroom to increase interaction with your audience. Increasing the proximityenables you to make better eye contact and increases the opportunities forothers to speak.Use your hands to emphasise points but dont indulge in to much hand waving. People can,over time, develop irritating habits. Ask colleagues occasionally what they think of yourstyle.Look at the audience as much as possible, but dont fix on an individual - it can beintimidating. Pitch your presentation towards the back of the audience, especially in largerrooms.Dont face the display screen behind you and talk to it. Other annoying habits include: · Standing in a position where you obscure the screen. In fact, positively check for anyone in the audience who may be disadvantaged and try to accommodate them. · Muttering over a transparency on the OHP projector plate an not realising that you are blocking the projection of the image. It is preferable to point to the screen than the foil on the OHP (apart from the fact that you will probably dazzle yourself with the brightness of the projector)Avoid moving about too much. Pacing up and down can unnerve the audience, althoughsome animation is desirable.Keep an eye on the audiences body language. Know when to stop and also when to cut out apiece of the presentation.DeliveryOne of the major criticisms of speakers is that they speak in a monotonous voice. Listenersperceive this type of speaker as boring and dull. People report that they learn less and loseinterest more quickly when listening to those who have not learned to modulate their voices.
Speak clearly. Dont shout or whisper - judge the acoustics of the room.Dont rush, or talk deliberately slowly. Be natural - although not conversational.Deliberately pause at key points - this has the effect of emphasising the importance of aparticular point you are making.To make the presentation interesting, change your delivery, but not too obviously, eg: · speed · pitch of voiceUse a tape recorder so you can listen to yourself. This will identify howmuch you vary the tone of your voice; any points you might want toemphasise; and the amount of enthusiasm you communicate.Do not use artificial accent. Be yourself. Trying to imitate American accent many timescreate comic relief to the audience.Question-Answer SessionOoops.. The presentation is over. You have made your well-prepared sure-to winpresentation. Now you try to heave a sigh of relief. Wait.. not so fast. The lasting im0ressionis always made with Q&A session. It is here the really interested ill interact with you. It ishere you show your knowledge about the subject. There may be a few non-serious audiencewho sneak out on some pretext, don t get discouraged. If questions are slow in coming, youcan start things off by asking a question of the audience - so have one prepared.Although some people get a perverse pleasure from putting others on the spot, and some tryto look good in front of the boss, most people ask questions from a genuine interest.Questions do not mean you did not explain the topic well, but that their interest is deeper thanthe average audience.If a presentation has already been made earlier before on the same topic, keep your responsefor such likely questions ready Listen to the question carefully and patiently Don t presumethe question. If you do not know the answer for a specific question, don t bluff. Be honest,tell them that you don t know it and would find out and mail him. If you have a hostilequestion you could use your sense of humour. If you are not blessed with a sense, at least becool. Never lose your temper. Quickly move on to the next question. When a question that isnot relevant to the presentation is asked, it is appropriate to point it out politely that questionis not relevant and the group should focus on the issues at hand. Don t debate. Stick to facts.There is no need to be very persuasive, be informative. No matter how hard you try, noteveryone in the world will agree with you!
While a question is being asked, focus on who asks, but when you respond, look at the entireaudience. This will indicate that matter concerns everyone. When you re running out of time,signal it. Announce before hand that there is time for only one more question.Answers that last 10 to 40 seconds work best. If they are too short, they seem abrupt; whilelonger answers appear too elaborate. Also, be sure to keep on track. Do not let off-the-wallquestions sidetrack you into areas that are not relevant to the presentation.Make a good conclusion even after Q&A session. This will help you summarize thepresentation and the important issues raised during the session.Finally ...,Enjoy yourself. The audience will be on your side and want to hear what you have to say!Preparation and knowledge are the pre-requisites for a successful presentation, but confidenceand control are just as important.Remember and apply Eleanor Roosevelts maxim that "no-one can intimidate me without mypermission".Remember also that "Depth of conviction counts more than height of logic, and enthusiasm isworth more than knowledge",Good presenting is about entertaining as well as conveying information. As well, peopleretain more if they are enjoying themselves and feeling relaxed. So whatever your subject andaudience, try to find ways to make the content and delivery enjoyable - even the most seriousof occasions, and the driest of subjects, can be lifted to an enjoyable or even an amusing levelone way or another with a little research, imagination, and humour.Quotes are a wonderful and easy way to stimulate emotions and feelings, and of coursequotes can be used to illustrate and emphasise just about any point or concept you canimagine. Research and collect good quotations and include then in your notes. Memorise oneor two if you can because this makes the delivery seem more powerful. Always credit thesource of quotes you use.See the funny quotations and inspirational quotes webpages for ideas and examples.Team PresentationsWhile many business professionals re still responsible for giving individual presentations, thetea presentations are becoming an important part of today s corporate culture. Understandinghow to approach the task of working as a team and working through the steps in systematicway will ensure the success of your writing and presentation projects. The normal temptationfor a team is to select one who is the best speaker and nominate that person to do the entirepresentation. Sometimes it does not work all that well. The simple reason is that if the work isof the entire team, all the members should be involved.. It does not matter if there arevariations in the levels of presentation skills. The expertise that each one brings into the teammakes up this minor lacuna. Further, demonstrating the commitment of all team members tothe presentation can enhance the team s credibility and drive home the message creditably.
Lets first acknowledge that in some ways, team and solo presentations are alike. Both rely onthe same fundamentals setting objectives, preparing, structuring, and then presenting withthe right skills and techniques. But the similarities pretty much end there, and the recognitionthat youre now part of a team becomes all-important.To be successful, a team presentation must come off as just that: a team presentation.Every team should have a team leader, one who leads the team in deciding on the specificoutcome to be achieved. Most important, the team leader should guide, not dictate. Theleaders job really is to facilitate the process of deciding objectives and key messages. Whatresponse does the team want from its audience? If the team is successful, what will happen?Deciding who should present what topics depends on your overall objectives and thecommand of the content each person has. Among close colleagues, thats usually an easydecision. In any case, consider the special knowledge and job experience of each member andhow that fits into the overall scheme. Thats more important than picking team membersbased on rank alone.Consistency applies as well to the use of visuals. Its best to have a single template, witheveryone following the same design guidelines. Use the same color coding and consistentfont style and size throughout. And, of course, stick with the same graphics software.Rehearse as a group early and oftenRun through all the presentations. Focus on how each one is structured. Review visuals.Clearly establish everyones role and how the presentations link to one another. Get used toone anothers speaking styles and especially, strengths and weaknesses. Is there too muchcontent? Too little? Is there overlap? Do the presentations complement and support oneanother? Do they flow logically? Are they aligned with your objectives?The team should also prepare for Q&As as a group. That means anticipating questions thatare likely to come up and agreeing as a team on the answers. Also agree in advance on theteam member or members who are best suited to respond to a given questionYoure "on," even when youre not speaking.In a team presentation, everyone is being watched, not just the presenter. So stay alert. Listen.Show interest in whats being said. Remember: your body language can convey a positive ornegative message.. Dont slouch or look bored. And unless its absolutely necessary, do notwhisper an aside to another team member. Also pay attention to the audience. You may pickup signs helping you to gauge audience response. That can be useful if you are yet to present.General Guidelines for Making Team Presentations1. The responsibility of answering questions towards the end of the presentation could be distributed according to individual s specialisation and aptitude. But care should be taken that all members of the team are familiar with the steps and content of the presentation.
2. Practice the presentation as a team, especially when it is made through written material. This will give the presentation good cohesion without it being isolated pieces of information. 3. Introduce yourself and the other members of the team at the beginning of the presentation itself. Give an outline of the presentation and inform the audience who will do it what. 4. Always use we in stead of I . 5. Make clear and smooth transition from presenter to presenter. Now that I have talked about the financial part, our dietician will make a brief presentation about the food you should be taking for keeping yourself fit and healthy. 6. Follow a uniform pattern in visual aids. If you are using Microsoft Power point, use consistent template as a package. If the format, medium and appearance are consistent, it will help to knit the parts of presentations together.Dos and Don ts for good presentations · Do not put both hands in your pockets for long periods of time. This tends to make you look unprofessional. It is OK to put one hand in a pocket to ensure there is no loose change or keys to jingle around as they will distract the listeners. · Do not lean on the podium for long periods. The audience may begin to wonder when you are going to fall over. · Speak to the audience...NOT to the visual aids, such as flip charts or overheads. Also, do not stand between the visual aid and the audience. Now-a-days LCD projectors are hung from the ceiling; so there may not be this problem. · Speak clearly and loudly enough for all to hear. Do not speak in a monotone voice. Use inflection to emphasize your main points. · Use coloured backgrounds for your slides (such as yellow) as the bright white light can be harsh on the eyes. This will quickly cause your audience to tire. · It would make your presentation very effective if you know at least some names of your audience. If they are wearing badges, or if you have a list of them with photographs, you can do that. It will clearly tell them that you are interested in your work. · Listen intently to comments and opinions, rather than dismissing them. The audience will feel that their ideas, comments, and opinions are worthwhile. · Move around the room as you speak. This movement creates a physical closeness to the audience. But do it slowly. · Get to the presentation before your audience arrives; be the last one to leave.