SAP R/3 Technical Configuration An SAP R/3 System can consist of one or more instances (e.g. a central instance or a distributed SAP R/3 System). Multiple instances are represented by the configuration of a database server and one or more application servers. Only one database and dictionary will exist for an SAP R/3 System. Note: with R/4, you can have multiple database instances. To isolate each distinct phase of an implementation, a typical or recommended configuration for an SAP R/3 System implementation will consist of three separate systems: Development: for configuration of SAP applications with user specific data and user development. Quality Assurance Testing: to isolate development from final testing and user training for production. Production: of live business transactions and company data.
SAP R/3 System Business ModulesLogistical Sales & Distribution Financial Accounting Financial Materials Mgmt. Controlling Production Fixed Assets Planning Mgmt. R/3 Client / Server Quality Mgmt. ABAP/4 Project System Plant Maintenance Workflow Human Industry Resources Solutions
Typical Client Server Architectures Presentation Application Database Central System Two - tierDistributed System Two - tier Client/Server Three - tier Client/Server Multi-layer Cooperative Client/Server
R/3 System Configurations SAP Central System 2-Tier Configuration 3-Tier Configuration Web-enabled Presentation Presentation Internet Transaction Service/Web Application Service Database, Application, Database and Database Presentation ApplicationIn a central R/3 System configuration, one host is responsible for all processingtasks.
R/3 System Configurations SAPCentral Systems 2-Tier Configuration 3-Tier Configuration Web-enabled Presentation Presentation Internet Transaction Service/Web Application Service Database, Application, Database and Database Presentation ApplicationTwo‑ tier R/3 System configurations are usually implemented using specialpresentation servers that are responsible solely for formatting the graphical interface.Many R/3 System users use PCs with Microsoft Windows ‑installed, for example, aspresentation servers.
R/3 System Configurations SAPCentral Systems 2-Tier Configuration 3-Tier Configuration Web-enabled Presentation Presentation Internet Transaction Service/Web Application Service Database, Application, Database and Database Presentation ApplicationAn alternative two‑tier configuration is to install powerful desktop systems and to usethese for presentation and applications (two‑tier client/server). This type ofconfiguration is particularly useful for expensive applications (such as simulations) orfor software developers.
R/3 System Configurations SAPCentral Systems 2-Tier Configuration 3-Tier Configuration Web-enabled Presentation Presentation Internet Transaction Service/Web Application Service Database, Application, Database and Database Presentation ApplicationIn a three‑ tier configuration, you use your own host for the three tiers. Using datafrom the database server, several different application servers can operate at the sametime. To ensure that the load on individual servers is as even as possible and toachieve optimal performance, you can use special application servers for individualapplication areas such as sales planning, distribution or financial accounting.
R/3 System Configurations SAP Central Systems 2-Tier Configuration 3-Tier Configuration Web-enabled Presentation Presentation Internet Transaction Service/Web Application Service Database, Application, Database and Database Presentation ApplicationTo web‑ enable the SAP Applications, a Web Server and an ITS (Internet TransactionServer) are needed. The web‑service and the services for the ITS can run on oneserver or on two dedicated servers. The presentation in this configuration is providedby an Internet Browser. The new SAP Web platform is NetWeaver.
Basis System: Three-Tier Computer Hierarchy Central Database (Storage of all data) Access to Dataase: (Read / Write data) DatabaseInput / Outputof data to users Processing of data Application using application logic Presentation of the processed data to Presentation the user
Client/Server Overview Server LAN/WAN TCP / IPClient
Client/Server Overview (Logical Structure) Server Data Storage Application Logic Client Presentation
Common Client Roles CUST Development & Configuring of client settings and Customizing creation of new functionality QTST Quality Assurance Functionality testing and verification of configuration Production Productive activities and business PROD data
Additional Client Roles SAND Sandbox Sampling of customizing transactions and settings TEST Test Testing of configuration settings with data TRNG Training End-user customer training environment PPRD Pre-production Configured environment for the load of legacy data prior to the start of productive activities
Sample SAP System LandscapeDevelopment Testing Production Database Servers Application Servers Presentation Servers
Object Migration Corrections and TransportDevelopment QA Testing ProductionProgram A Program A Program A Table A Table A Table AScreen A Screen A Screen A
Object Migration Corrections Development and QA Testing TransportProgram AProgram A Program A Program AVersion 1 Version 1 Version 1 Version 1 ? Program A Program A Program A Program A Version 2 Version 2 Version 2 Version 2 ?Program AProgram A Program A Program AVersion 3 Version 3 Version 3 Version 3 Originals
Geography-based Clients America America Client 010 Client 010 Europe Europe Client 020 Client 020 Japan Japan Client 030 Client 030 R/3 Europe R/3 R/3America Japan
Client Copies Configuration Development Quality AssuranceInterface Testing User Training
ERP: IntegrationIntegrate people, data and business processes within and between organizations.Collaboration, non-redundancy, consistency and internal process optimization.
Procurement Process Outline Agreement Purchase Scheduling Requisition Vendor Agreement DemandAccounts PurchasePayable Goods Receipt Order Invoice Verification & Inventory Mgmt.
Production Process Schedule/ReleaseGoods Issue Shop Floor Order Settlement Goods Receipt
Sales Process — Trading Goods Customer Order Picking PackingAccounts Receivable Billing Goods Issue
Client• This is a numeric field.• This number defines a whole business entity.
User• Every SAP user has a user name.• Users of SAP system are client-specific, which means that having a user identification on one client will only allow access to that particular client.
Password Rules• Letters• Numbers• Easy to remember• 3-8 Characters long• No 3 Characters can be the same• Do not start with a ? or an !• Do not use previous 5 passwords
Language• SAP supports multi-national character sets and languages on the same system, at the same time.• Default languages are English and German.
Field Types• There are three types of Entry Fields – Required – Default entry – Optional entry field
Sessions• An SAP session is a window in which the user may perform a particular task.• A User may have up to nine sessions open at one time.
SAP R/3 Resource Management: The DispatcherPresentation SAP GUI CommunicationsApplication Dispatcher Work Work Work Buffers Process Process ProcessData base
SAP R/3 Resource Management: Data FlowPresentation SAP GUI SAP GUI Terminal Process 1 1 7 7Application 2 Request queues 2 Request queues Dispatcher 3 3 6 6 SAP Memory Buffer SAP Memory Buffer Roll Work Process Page 4 4 5 5Data base Relational database system Relational database system
SAP R/3 Resource Management: Work Processes A A B B Message Dialog Update Sold to party: C100 Sold to party: C100 Item Material Qty Item Material Qty 10 6301 10 10 6301 10 20 6412 10 20 6412 10 30 1507 25 30 1507 25 Order Order Sold to party: C100 M Sold to party: C100 Item Material Qty Item Material Qty 10 6301 10 10 6301 10 20 6412 10 20 6412 10 30 1507 25 30 1507 25 Order Order Background Jobs Enqueue SAP Dispatcher C C Gateway 1999 1 2 3 45 6 7 8 9 10 11121926 13 20 27 14 21 28 15 22 29 16 23 30 17 24 31 18 25 Spool R/3 G R/2
SAP R/3 Resource Management:Lock Management by the Enqueue Work Process Instance A Dispatcher Message Server Work Work Process Process Instance B Update Enqueue Dispatcher Lock table in Work Work Process Process main storage Update Enqueue
SAP R/3 Resource Management: R/3 InstanceDatabaseDatabase Instance Profiles Instance ProfilesInstance Instance Message Message SAP SAP (parameters) (parameters) Server Server Gateway Gateway Dispatcher Back- Dialog .... Update Spool Enqueue ground SAP Buffers SAP Buffers ce In stan Start Start Central or or Stop Stop
SAP R/3 Resource Management: Distributed SAP R/3 ProcessingInstance 03 Instance 02 Dispatcher Dispatcher Back- Dialog Enqueue Enqueue Dialog ... ground Instance 01 Dispatcher Mess- Gate- age way Dialog Update Enqueue Spool
Reporting• Three basic steps to running a report – Access the report – Enter selection criteria – Execute the report
System Messages E - Error – An invalid entry has been made. – The cursor moves to the field where the error has occurred. W - Warning – A possible error has been made. –The user can continue without changing.I – Information – Feedback from the system.
Customizing - Modeling the Business – Organizational Structures in each module – Master Data - Customers, Materials, … – Rules - required entries, tolerances, …
Mapping– Assignment of organizational structures to reflect the enterprise model– Establishes integration among modules