Rule Based System


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  • The slides are impressive but there are no explanations, which makes it difficult to understand. I suppose there is an overlap between forward/backward chaining of rules/reasoner. Mentioning about SWRL as an approach towards standardisation could have been beneficial.
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Rule Based System

  1. 1. Rule Based System Suresh Sambandam
  2. 2. Rule Based System <ul><li>Also commonly know as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Based System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence (AI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1970 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycin experiment </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Rule Based System? Rule based system or knowledge based systems are specialized software that encapsulate ‘Human Intelligence’ like knowledge there by make intelligent decisions quickly and in repeatable form
  4. 4. Key words <ul><li>Quick </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatable </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul>
  5. 5. Understanding Knowledge <ul><li>Factual Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Logical knowledge </li></ul>
  6. 6. Factual Knowledge <ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Data </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Info about Employees, Customers, Products, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Represented in the memory of the computer </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sequential Knowledge <ul><li>Set of Steps / Task </li></ul><ul><li>In a specific order </li></ul><ul><li>Represented by the CPU which processes instructions sequentially </li></ul>
  8. 8. Logical Knowledge <ul><li>What is it ? </li></ul><ul><li>If NASDAQ goes below 500 point in a day, then sell 100 of my IBM Stocks. </li></ul><ul><li>How can it be represented in the current architecture of the computer? </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately it can’t be represented as is, without specialized tools </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Expressed in ‘IF Then’ statements </li></ul><ul><li>Like a Rule, hence the name rule based system </li></ul><ul><li>‘ IF Then’ in programming languages </li></ul><ul><li>Easy for human beings to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Computer can create other computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Rule engines, Logic Engines and Inference Engines </li></ul></ul>Logical Knowledge
  10. 10. Gap between the way the problem is stated naturally by a lay person and the way it needs to be coded as a program in a computer. Semantic Gap <ul><li>Scientific Equation </li></ul><ul><li>FORTRAN vs Assembly Language </li></ul>
  11. 11. Components of a rule engine Rule Engine Rule Base Working Memory
  12. 12. Business Rule Business Rule Fact Rule Term Computation Rule Constraint Rule Conditional Rule
  13. 13. Two types of rules <ul><li>Forward Chaining Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deductive Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Backward Chaining Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal Driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive Approach </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Forward Chaining - Engine
  15. 15. Backward Chaining - Engine
  16. 16. <ul><li>Why are they not widely used ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No standard language for rule definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary and vendor specific </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Huge learning curve in vendor specific rule languages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule Engine Still expects to deal with meta-data (not data) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beats the purpose </li></ul></ul>Current State of Rule Based Systems
  17. 17. And there is more to it .... <ul><li>Business Rules are core part of any application </li></ul><ul><li>But there is more to it.You still have to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Interface to drive the business rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanisms to exchange data between the rule engine and application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanisms to store the result to a permanent storage (database). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanism to reload a previously saved data into the rule engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to deal with multiple versions of the rule base and its effect of past results stored in the database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Some Real Examples of usage of Rule Engines <ul><li>Dell </li></ul><ul><li>Cisco </li></ul><ul><li>Vodafone </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Cross Blue Shield - Insurance </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thank You