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Water environment measuring system using ph sensor

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ppt on water environment

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Water environment measuring system using ph sensor

  1. 1. WATER ENVIRONMENT MEASURING SYSTEM USING PH SENSOR PRESENTED BY L SURESH BABU 403  SHAIK WAJID ALI 406  SR SAI KUMAR 408 B SRINIVASA REDDY 417
  2. 2. CONTENTS:  ABSTRACT  BLOCK DIAGRAM  HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS  SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS  HARDWARE TESTING  CIRCUIT DIAGRAM  FUTURE SCOPE  CONCLUSION
  3. 3. ABSTRACT  In aquiculture field, water environment parameters as Such as temperature, velocity of flow, pH value and content of ammoniac nitrogen must be reported and handled in time.  Each sensor node of the network, which is composed of various sensors and a Zigbee chip CC2430, could measure temperature, velocity of flow, pH value, content of ammoniacal nitrogen etc.  A GPRS module is used to complete data exchanging between remote monitoring center and the wireless sensor network.  This system is an application in aquiculture field. This system could diagnose the type of water environment parameter abnormity automatically.
  4. 4. BLOCK DIAGRAM
  5. 5. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 1. TRANSFORMER (230 – 12 V AC) 2. VOLTAGE REGULATOR (LM 7805) 3. RECTIFIER 4. FILTER 5. MICROCONTROLLER (AT89S52/AT89C51) 6. PH SENSOR 7. LCD 8. BC547 9. 1N4007 10. RESISTORS
  6. 6. 1. TRANSFORMER (230 – 12 V AC)  Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with a little loss of power.  Step-up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce voltage  Most power supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high voltage to a safer low voltage.
  7. 7. 2. VOLTAGE REGULATOR (LM 7805) Features:  Output Current up to 1A.  Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V.  Thermal Overload Protection.  Short Circuit Protection.  Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection.
  8. 8. 3. RECTIFIER  A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), current that flows in only one direction, a process known as rectification.  The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier.  It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier.  In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification.
  9. 9. 4. FILTER  Capacitive filter is used in this project.  It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter  The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power supply filter.  The use of this filter is very limited.  It is sometimes used on extremely high-voltage, low-current power supplies for cathode-ray and similar electron tubes that require very little load current from the supply.
  10. 10. 5. MICROCONTROLLER (AT89S52/AT89C51)  The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory.  The Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.
  11. 11. FEATURES:  8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory  4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range  256 x 8-bit Internal RAM  32 Programmable I/O Lines  Three 16-bit Timer/Counters  Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode  Fast Programming Time
  12. 12. 6. PH SENSOR  The Model PHE-45P pH Sensor measures the pH of aqueous solutions in industrial and municipal process applications.
  13. 13. SENSOR SPECIFICATIONS  Measuring Range 0 to 14.00 pH  Sensitivity 0.002 pH  Stability 0.02 pH per 24 hours  Wetted Materials PEEK, ceramic, titanium, glass  Temperature Range -5 to +95 C (23 to 203 F)  Pressure Range 0 to 100 psig  Maximum Flow Rate 10 feet (3 meters) per second  Max. Sensor-Analyzer 3,000 feet (914 meters) Distance  Weight 1 lb. (0.45 kg)
  14. 14. 7. LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY)  LCD display is an inevitable part in almost all embedded projects and this article is about interfacing 16 2 LCD with 8051 microcontroller.  By using it you can easily design embedded projects like digital voltmeter / ammeter, digital clock, home automation displays, status indicator display, digital code locks, digital speedometer/ odometer, display for music players etc etc.  LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications.  A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits.  A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines.
  15. 15. 8. TRANSISTOR BC547  The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor.  The BC547 transistor is a general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages.  It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors.  In typical operation, the emitter base junction is forward biased and the base collector junction is reverse biased.
  16. 16. 9. DIODE (1N4007)  Diodes are used to convert AC into DC these are used as half wave rectifier or full wave rectifier  Diodes of number IN4001, IN4002, IN4003, IN4004, IN4005, IN4006 and IN4007 have maximum reverse bias voltage capacity of 50V and maximum forward current capacity of 1 Amp.
  17. 17. 10. RESISTORS  A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component designed to oppose an electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in proportion to the current  Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits.  They are extremely commonplace in most electronic equipment.  Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel/chrome).
  18. 18. COLOUR CODING OF RESISTORS
  19. 19. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS  KEIL MICRO VISION 2  CONCEPT OF COMPILERS  KEIL C CROSS COMPILER  EMBEDDED C
  20. 20. KEIL MICRO VISION 2  Keil an ARM Company makes C compilers, macro assemblers, real-time kernels, debuggers, simulators, integrated environments, evaluation boards, and emulators for ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3, XC16x/C16x/ST10, 251, and 8051 MCU families.  When starting a new project, simply select the microcontroller you use from the Device Database and the µVision IDE sets all compiler, assembler, linker, and memory options for you.  Keil is a cross compiler. So first we have to understand the concept of compilers and cross compilers. After then we shall learn how to work with Keil.
  21. 21. CONCEPT OF COMPILER  Compilers are programs used to convert a High Level Language to object code.  Desktop compilers produce an output object code for the underlying microprocessor, but not for other microprocessors. I.E the programs written in one of the HLL like ‘C’ will compile the code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86 (underlying microprocessor in the computer).  The compiler derives its name from the way it works, looking at the entire piece of source code and collecting and reorganizing the instruction.  The advantage of interpreters is that they can execute a program immediately.
  22. 22. KEIL C CROSS COMPILER Keil is a German based Software development company. It provides several development tools like  IDE (Integrated Development environment)  Project Manager  Simulator  Debugger  C Cross Compiler, Cross Assembler, Locator/Linker
  23. 23. EMBEDDED C  Use of embedded processors in passenger cars, mobile phones, medical equipment, aerospace systems and defense systems is widespread, and even everyday domestic appliances such as dish washers, televisions, washing machines and video recorders now include at least one such device.  These popular chips have very limited resources available most such devices have around 256 bytes (not megabytes!) of RAM, and the available processor power is around 1000 times less than that of a desktop processor.
  24. 24. HARDWARE TESTING  In electronics, a continuity test is the checking of an electric circuit to see if current flows  A continuity test is performed by placing a small voltageacross the chosen path  If electron flow is inhibited by broken conductors, damaged components, or excessive resistance, the circuit is "open".  Devices that can be used to perform continuity tests include multi meters which measure current and specialized continuity testers which are cheaper, more basic devices, generally with a simple light bulb that lights up when current flows.
  25. 25. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
  26. 26. FUTURE SCOPE  A wireless sensor network was developed in the hope of tackling with the problem of the lack of a practical environment monitoring system. This monitoring system consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, data base station and remote monitoring center.  It presents us with useful features such as large monitoring ranges, flexible configuration, low power consumption, small damage to the natural environment and low cost.
  27. 27. CONCLUSION  The system's measurement capacity ranges from 0 to 80 C on water temperature, with an accuracy of 0.5 C and from 0 to 14 on pH value, with an accuracy of 0.05.  Sensors applicable to different water quality could be installed at the node to meet the monitoring demands in different water environments and to obtain different parameters.  The monitoring system thus promises broad applicability.
  28. 28. THANK YOU

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