INTRODUCTION Everyone in this universe come across some problem or other irrespective of their age, sex, and occupation or profession, for which from time immemorial man has been talking help of elders, parents, friends and teachers in solving their problem.In the field of education, most teachers provide a high standard of pupil care but it is fact that they have little talent and attitude of counsellor. It require special knowledge and attitudes to recognise the problem and help an individuals pupils.
GUIDANCE - The help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments and in solving problems.COUNSELING - Helping relationship, that includes(a)someone seeking help,(b)someone willing to give help who is capable or trained to help,(c) a setting that permits help to be given and received.
Leads Help (move) What show the waysDirection G &C? Interaction/ Assist relationship
GUIDANCEAccording to Crow & Crow – Guidance is assistance made available by personally qualified and adequately trained personnel to an individual of any age to help him manage his own life activities, to develop his own points of view, make his own decisions and carry his own burdens.In other word It is a continuous educational process which goes on from whomb to tomb.Educational point of view – It is an educational service designed to help students make more effective use of the schools training programme.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GUIDANCE it help individual to recognize and use his inner resources – (a) to set goals, (b) to make plans, (c) to work out his own problems of development. Choice & problem points are distinctive concerns. Assistance to the individual in the process of development rather than the direction of the development. Generalized & specialized service Guidance is centered – around the needs and aspirations of students.
Quick ReviewWhat is Counseling? According to the American Counseling Association, counseling is: “The application of mental health, psychological or human development principles, through cognitive, affective, behavioral or systemic interventions, strategies that address wellness, personal growth, or career development, as well as pathology.”
COUNSELING CONCEPTSRelationship between two persons, where one assist to other.Formulation of acceptance, trusting and safe relationship.Interaction between counselor and counselee.Develop and set of goals for future behavior of an individual.Helps the individual to become aware of him and the ways of solutions.
COUNSELLING Acc to Cormier and hackney (1987) counseling is the helping relationship, that includes some one seeking help, some one willing to give help who is capable or trained to help, in a setting that permits help to be given and received Acc to vedanayagam(1988) It is an accepting, trusting and safe relationship in which client learn to discuss freely what upsets them, to define their goals to acquire the essential social skills and to develop the courage and self confidence to implement desired new behavior. In other word Counseling is a specialized service of guidance and basically an enabling process designed to help an individual come to terms with him/her life and grow to greater maturity through learning to take responsibility and to make decisions for himself/herself.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING Involves two individuals. Relationship of mutual respect between the two individuals. The counselor discovers the problems of counselee helps him to set up the realistic goals & guide him through difficulties and problems. Helps to acquire independence and develop a sense of responsibility. It also helps to explore and fully utilize his potentials and actualize himself. If a counselee is a student, counseling helps him to take a decision, make a choice or find a direction in matters r/t an educational problems.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING contd…..It is more than advice giving, solution emerges through the thinking rather than solutions suggests.More than offering an assistance to find a solutions.It is democratic – elected by counselorConcerns itself with attitudes as well as actions.In the educational context, it is centered around the needs & aspirations of students.
Guidance CounsellingTo Students, Nurses, individuals etcStudents, Nurses,whom either who facing problems or individuals etc who facinggiven not problemsBy Tutors, parents, counsellors Counsellors:- speciallywhom trained professional peoplegiven with counselling skillsWhere Schools, home, everywhere, In a special setting womb to tomb conductive to giving and receiving help for interviewingHow By way of giving educational, Giving guidance with a viewgiven vocational, information and to enabling individual to helping individuals to understand make decisions for themselves himself/herself and coming to terms with life-----Purpose Optimum development of Helping individuals develop individual student for ultimate self confidence and adjust development for student to life strategies and
Difference B/W guidance & counsellingGUIDANCE COUNSELINGIt is mainly preventive and It is remedial as well as preventivedevelopmental. and developmental.Intellectual attitudes are the raw Emotional rather than purelymaterials of the guidance process. intellectual attitude are the raw materials of the counseling process.Decision making operates at It operates at emotional level.intellectual level.In education, goal is guidance. In education, techniques among others is counseling.Distributive phase can be aptly Adjustive phase can be considered asdescribed as guidance. counseling.
PURPOSESIndividual R/T Purposes To recognize and develop their potentialities To know about vocational opportunities Helps students for all round personal and social development To develop proper attitude towards nursing and nursing profession. To recognize their capacities, develop self confidence and adjustments.
PURPOSES CONTDSociety R/T Purposes To develop good citizenship in students. To develop positive attitude towards family life and community living. Proper utilization of resources to provide good nursing care to needy client.
Process of Whole Edu helping & problems & v catio o ca n al effecting tion al changes Co Unique t nti p/ pro nuo el stH si ces us s as Identifi Pr cation & gr om develop ow oti ment of o abilities dir th in n o and ec se f interest tio lf- s n
PRINCIPLES1. It is unique to an individual .2. It is concerned with the whole individual and not just with his/her intellectual life alone.3. It is always goal oriented and goal directed.4. It is a professional activity.5. It should be based on a thorough knowledge of characteristics of the stages of human growth and development.6. It is concerned with all, not only with special or problem students, therefore have adequate evidence before designating a person as abnormal.7. It is meant for all those who need help.8. It is not specific of any stage of development student.9. It is a continuous process.
Cont……10. It is concerned with developing student’s self understanding and self determination.11. It recognizes the existence of individual differences, hence limits and problems of each individual are different from one another.12. It accepts that problems have causes and are interrelated, so a deep knowledge of causes are essential.13. It should have a flexible approach.
NEED FOR GUIDANCE & COUNSELINGTo help students adjusting with the new environment of the nursing institute, hospital etc.To help in developing qualities required for a successful nursing practice.To help students in getting adjusted with the clinical environments.Keeping in touch with the latest trends in nursing and to report benefits from the trends.Developing positive learning habits, especially skill learning.
CONT….In the development of appropriate coping strategies in order to deal with stress.To develop positive attitude towards life.To overcome periods of anxiety and confusion.To develop their leadership qualities To motivate them for taking membership in professional organizations after completing their studies. Help them to make advantages of the technological advancements in the patient care.
CONT….Help them to develop readiness for changes and to face challenges both in the personal as well as professional life.Help them to carry out the responsibilities as a worthwhile health team member.Help them in the proper selection of careers both in India & Abroad.Motivate them to do higher studies according to their abilities and interest.To assist the needy students in availing financial assistants from appropriate organizations.
Why counselling is importantcounselling aims to:enable citizens to manage and plan their learning and work pathways in accordance with their life goals,assist educational and training institutions to have well motivated pupils, students and trainees who take responsibility for their own learning and set their own goals for achievementassist enterprises and organisations to have well motivated, employable and adaptable staff, capable of accessing and benefiting from learning opportunities both within and outside the workplace
Why counselling is importantcounselling aims to:provide policymakers with an important means to achieve a wide range of public policy goalssupport local, regional, national and economies through workforce development and adaptation to changing economic demands and social circumstancesassist in the development of societies, in which citizens actively contribute to their social and democratic development
Importance of guidance and counselling within education systemcareer counselling has an important role to play within education in laying the foundations for lifelong career development wider curriculum choice results in more diverse and complex routes into later stages of education, into employment, or into both This can help to:reduce dropouts from and back-tracking within education systems, and thus improve internal flowsimprove flows between different levels of education, thus raising national levels of educational attainment These outcomes help to make better use of educational resources, and to increase both individual and social returns to investments in education
MAJOR AREAS EDUCATION – Educational guidance help the students to get maximum benefit out of education and to solve their problems related to education. VOCATION – Vocational guidance is the assistance provided for selection of a area of interest in education & preparation for the career development. PERSONAL – adjust themselves to their environment for efficient citizenship. It also helps in emotional instability, personal problems, competition, irrational expectations of the parents, etc..
SOCIAL –• make substantial contributions to the society, assume leadership,• confirm to the social norms,• work as team members.• develop healthy and positive attitudes.• acquires traits of patience and friendship. AVOCATION –• Assistance to be provided to students to spend their available leisure time profitably.• Activities & programmes outside the formal classrooms provide many opportunities for the blossoming of talents of the students. HEALTH – It implies the assistance related to students for maintaining sound health.
MARITAL –students may need guidance for the right choice ofa life partner or for happy marital life. MORAL – For the students who are having undesirable practices, moral guidance has to be provide to keep them in trackand lead noble lives. FINANCIAL – Help the needy students in determining the financial assistance, also regarding freeships, fee concessions, scholarships, stipends, etc….
TYPES OF GUIDANCE W.M.PROTECTOR’S, JOHN M BREWER,1) Educational guidance.2) Vocational guidance.3) Guidance in social and civic activities.4) Guidance in health and physical activities.5) Guidance in the worthy use of leisure time.6) Guidance in character building activities.7) home relationship.8) Guidance in personal well being.9) Guidance in thoughtfulness and co-operation.
CONT… PATERSON ETALS’ VIEW.1) Educational guidance.2) Vocational guidance.3) Personal guidance ( includes social, emotional and leisure time guidance.)4) Health guidance.5) Economic guidance.
APPROACHES TO COUNSELING1. Directive counseling or prescriptive counseling:- counselor-centered counseling. Steps are- Starting the counseling session Collect the relevant data of the problem. Analyze the problems. Synthesis the problem Diagnosis Prognosis Prescribe remedial measure Follow up.
CONT..1. Non-directive counseling:- counselee or Client centered Time consuming Some time require training Steps are:- I. Opening the session II. Establishing rapport III. Exploration of the problem IV. Exploration of the Cause of problem. V. Discovering alternative solution. VI. Termination of the session. VII.Follow up.
CONT..3.Eclective approach of counseling:- Based on difference between every individual No single approach Relate past and present events. Ready to change plan.
CONT..4.Group counseling. By applying group interaction Phases of activities:- Selection of participants Starting the session Orientation towards discussion. Checking unwanted behaviour Assisting in self disclosure Assisting in decision making Closure of the session Follow up.
CONT… Educational counseling. Counseling in health and living conditions Personal counseling. Moral, religious and social counseling. Counseling in leisure time. Peer-group counseling. Orientation service counseling. Appraisal service counseling.- gather record, maintain and use adequate information Information service counseling. By:- newspaper, pamphlets, occupational guide, career talk etc…
CONT…Counseling service – 1. developmental counseling. – to help:- Personal growth Set goal for future behavior Values and moral 3.facilitative counseling. To correct a fault or an undesirable behaviour
CONT…3.Preventive counseling. – prepare future problem Failure in exam Not getting job or admission Delay married4.crisis counseling. Help to overcome from crisis situation Loss of family member, family conflict etc.
Factors that Influence Change Not these all Structure characteristics apply to Setting all situations, but Client Qualities generally, the following condition can create Counselor Qualities problem in counseling:-
Factors that Influence ChangeStructure. The “joint understanding between the counselor & client regarding the characteristics, conditions, procedures, and parameters of counseling” (DAY & SPARACIO,1980) what the formal process will look like. Many clients come to counseling with no idea what to expect. Counseling moves forward when client and counselor know the boundaries of the relationship and what is expected.
Factors that Influence Change Physical Setting. Counseling can happen anywhere, but the professional generally works in a place that provides - Privacy, Confidentiality, Quiet and Certain comfort
Factors that Influence Change: ClientReadiness :- motivation that the client brings into the session. Create interest in it.Reluctanceclients who are referred for help by a third party and are unmotivated.Hesitation, and without enthusiasm.Resistance :-clients who are forced into counseling.They bring a motivation to cling to their issues through various sorts of actions.
Transference & Counter- transference A concept as old as Freud, transference and countertranference are issues that affect all forms of counseling, guidance, & psychotherapy.
TransferenceThis is the client’s projectionof past or present feelings,attitudes, or desires onto thecounselor. It can be direct orindirect and will cause the client to react to you as they would in the past or present relationship.
Counter-transferenceThis is the counselor’sprojected emotionalreaction to or behaviortowards the client. It can take on many forms, from a desire to please the client, to wanting to develop a social or sexual relationship with the client. When this happens, supervision or counseling for the counselor is called for.
Factors which influence changeClient & Counselor Qualities. Counselors generally like to work with clients who are most like them. Counselors is influenced by the physical characteristics of the client. It is important to be aware of how you work with all clients and offer your best work to all clients. Clients, depending on culture, initially like to work with counselors who are perceived as experts, attractive, trustworthy.
Some Non-Helpful Behaviors There are several lists of non-helpful behaviors of counselors. Most common among them Advice Giving include: Lecturing Excessive Questioning Storytelling Asking “Why?” Asking “How did that make you feel?”
PSYCHOTHERAPYIt is the treatment of personality problems, maladjustments and mental disorders.It is a process in which a person who wishes to relieve symptoms or resolve problems in living or is seeking personal growth enters in implicit or explicit contract to interact in a prescribed way with a psychotherapist.
COUNSELING & PSYCHOTHERAPY Counseling is a science , psychotherapy is an art. Counseling has its bases, principles, logic certain characteristics through the counselor helps the patients/individual to solve his problems and fulfils his self demands accordingly. Whereas psychotherapy is a methods, through one person explicitly and purposefully assist a client to handle the situation.
GOALS OF PSYCHOTHERAPYTo help the patient in – Changing maladaptive behavior patterns. Reducing/eliminating environmental conditions that may be causing such a behavior. Improving interpersonal and other competencies i.e. communication skills. To resolve inner conflicts & overcome feelings of handicap (such as the patient feels he can’t socialize, or take a decision or communicate effectively. Modifying an individual’s accurate assessment of himself and the world around him. Helping him to develop a sense of self identity.
Important Skills/Tools for the Counselor Empathy There are several important skills Leading which we will cover Responding briefly. Each is Self Disclosure considered a “micro- Immediacy skill” which you will Humor need to develop during the clinical Confrontation sequence of the Respect counselor training Genuineness program. Self disclosure
Empathy You want to build the relationship with the client through all the previously mentioned skills. Yet all these skills will be hindered without the use of empathy.
EmpathyAccording to Rogers (1961)… This is the ability to enter the client’s phenomenological world, to experience the client’s world as if it were your own without ever losing the ‘as if’ quality.It involves two specific skills: Perception/understanding of what is taking place emotionally. The ability to communicate your understanding of that to your client.
Moving the Client—LeadingTo “lead” the client forward in a session. They include using silence, acceptance, paraphrasing, etc…Be aware of how you lead and where you are going. You are working on the client’s issues, not your issues, or what you think the client should be working on.
Moving the Client—LeadingRestatement of contentReflection of contentReflection of feelingMinimal Encouragers: “I see” or “uh huh”General Encouragers: Direct client talk more on a specific topic, e.g., “Please say some more about…”Encouragement/SupportTherapeutic Silence
Responding StylesCounseling is often perceived as just focusing on feelings. This is not true.While counseling helps people work through feelings; how one responds and communicates with others will effect how the counselor responds to the client.
Responding StylesAffective Responding. Focusing on feelings.Behavioral Responses. Focusing on actions and behaviors.Cognitive Response. Focusing on thoughts and cognitions.You will balance these throughout the session with a client.
Self-DisclosureSelf-disclosure is making oneself known to another person (the client) by revealing personal information.Counselors self-disclosure is only necessary as it relates to the therapeutic process.Too much self-disclosure hinders the counseling process, while not enough, may inhibit the client from forming a bond with the counselor.
Immediacy This involves a counselor’s understanding and communicating of what is going on between the counselor and client within the helping relationship. There are 2 types: Relationship immediacy. (Between client & counselor) “Here & Now” immediacy focuses on some particular event in the session.
Humor Humor can have a positive effect on the counseling process when used properly. It must be used with sensitivity and timing. It does not demean and is supportive. A session is not a time to try out a new joke heard at lunch.
ConfrontationThis is not skill at putting theclient down for doing something wrong!!This is an invitation to the client to look more closely at behavior that is not working or interfering with growth, change, or healthy functioning.A Challenge…
ConfrontationBefore you confront someone you want to make sure the relationship is strong and able to withstand the challenge of the confrontation.Example: “You have said you want to change this behavior but it seems you keep doing it over and over again. Help me to understand what is going on and how repeating this pattern is helpful to you.”
Others Important Skills/Tools for the CounselorNon-judgmental.ApproachableMature.Makes time.Common sense.Imaginative.genuineness
Able to Notices:- • non verbal response • where pain is. • what is felt out. Good pacing. Calm. Knowledgeable. Supportive. Does not advise. Makes good, pleasing eye and eye to eye contact.
PROCESS OF COUNSELLINGA) Preparatory stage :- Attending • Attitudes: Counsellor • Respect gets the • Genuineness • Empathy counselee Skills: interest 1)Social skills Greeting skills – good morning……,my name……. Politeness- use please, thank you……… Kindness skills- one’s good wish for others Use:- Develop interpersonal interaction Chance to explore each other Make trustful IPR
Preparatory stage :- Attending2) Skill of attending physically 4)Skills of listening3) Skills of observing. When working with a S.O.L.E.R. client, you want to send a message that you are listening. This can be done by being attentive both verbally (responding to the client) and nonverbally. SOLER is an acronym which serves to remind us how to listen.
S: Face the client squarely; that is, adopt a posture that indicates involvement. O: Adopt an open posture. Sit with both feet on the ground to begin with and with your hands folded, one over the other. L: As you face your client, lean toward him or her. Be aware of their space needs. E: Maintain eye contact. Looking away or down suggests that you are bored or ashamed of what the client is saying. Looking at the person suggests that you are interested and concerned. R: As you incorporate these skills into your attending listening skills, relax.
B) First stage : responding • Attitudes: • Respect • Genuineness • Empathy • Concreteness • Self disclosureSkills:-I. RESPONDING TO FEELING & CONTENTII. RESPOND WITH A SUMMARYIII.RESPOND WITH QUESTIONIV.COMPLETION OF THE STAGE Present her with picture of whole situation a) Enter into the counselee frame of reference b) Blocks of self exploration
C) second stage : personalizing • Attitudes: • Respect • Genuineness • Empathy • Concreteness • Self disclosure • Confrontation • ImmediacySkills 1. Personalizing the meaning Counsellor ability to go beyond What meaning has the situation for this counselee? Point out area of problem. 2. Personalizing the problem and the goal together
Subsequent stage : evaluating • Attitudes: skills :- Respect 1)a week or so after the counselee has • Genuineness taken the first step, evaluate with her • Empathy performance and modify the plan of • Concreteness action in the light of her feedback. • Self disclosure 2)sustain his motivation using • Confrontation reinforces • ImmediacyPurpose What modification should need? How to sustain motivation? Make sense to personal achievement. Observe the counselee behaviour
Termination of a Session There is no great secret to ending sessions. There are some guidelines: Start and end on time. Leave 5 minutes or so for a summary of the session. Introduce the end of the session normally (“Our time is coming to a close.”). Assign homework. Set up next appointment.
Termination of the Relationship Termination is the end of the professional relationship with the client when the session goals have been met. A formal termination serves three functions: Counseling is finished and it is time for the client to face their life challenges. Changes which have taken place have generalized into the normal behavior of the client. The client has matured and thinks and acts more effectively and independently.
Timing of Termination There is no one answer when termination is to take place. Questions you may wish to ask yourself concerning termination include: Have clients achieved behavioral, cognitive, or affective goals? ? Can clients concretely show where they have made progress in what they wanted to accomplish? ? Is the counseling relationship helpful? ? Has the context of the initial counseling arrangements changed?
Resistance to TerminationClients & Counselors may not want counseling to end. In many cases this may be the result of feelings about the loss and grief or insecurities of losing the relationship. For clients, this is something to process. For counselors, this is an issue for supervision.
Premature TerminationClient. Many clients may end counseling before all goals are completed. This can be seen by not making appointments, resisting new appointments, etc… It is a good idea to try and schedule a termination/review session with the client so closure may take place. At this time a referral may be in order.
Premature TerminationCounselors. At times, counselors have to end counseling prematurely. Whatever the reason for the termination, a summary session is in order and referrals are made, if appropriate, to another counselor.
ReferralsAt times, a counselor needs to make a referral. When this is done, specific issues need to be addressed with the client: Reason for the referral. Note specific behaviors or actions which brought the need for a referral. Have the names of several other counselors ready for referral. You cannot follow up with the new counselor to see if the client followed through (Confidentiality issue).
Follow-UpAt times, a follow-up may be scheduled for various reasons including evaluation, research, or checking-in with client.Follow-ups need to be scheduled so as to not take the responsibility of change away from the client.
CONCLUSION Guidance & counseling enjoys a dominant role in the present day education system. It helps the students to acquire ability which promote self- direction & self-realization.Guidance & counseling have three fold functions namely adjustmental, orientational and developmental which are needed to maintain a healthy climate in the educational sector. In nursing education, it helps the teacher’s & students to become more professional so that they can face the challenges badly. The main purpose is to help the students or individual to help himself.
BIBLIOGRAPHY NEERAJA K P, “ TEXTBOOK OF NURSING EDUCATION,” JAYPEE BROTHERS, MEDICAL PUBLISHERS (P) LTD, NEW DELHI, 1ST EDITION, 2003, (PAGES – 447-494). BT BASAVANTHAPPA “NURSING EDUCATION” JAYPEE BROTHERS, MEDICAL PUBLISHERS (P) LTD, NEW DELHI, 1ST EDITION, 2003, (PAGES – 864-897). J.M. FUSTER, “PERSONAL COUNSELING” BETTER YOURSELF PUBLISHER ,3RD REVISED EDITION, 1986. CHRISTINE S. FAWCET “FAMILY PSYCHIATRIC NURSING” , MOSBY PUBLICATION A,S. SHARMA“COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY”, COMMONWEALTH PUBLISHERS. WWW.GOOGLE.COM FOR GUIDANCE & COUNSELING.