Dr. SURENDRAN PARAMBADATH           (M.Sc, M.Phil, M.Tech)  Formerly: Post Doctoral Research Associate,Nano-Information Ma...
Organic Compound                              Inorganic Compound1    Found in living organisms                     Found i...
The number of organic compounds is very large (~90%)Because:1. Catenation capacity2. Strength of C-C bond3. Tetra-covalenc...
The tendency of an element to form chain of identical atoms iscalled catenation.Due to catenation, carbon atoms can form s...
Compared to Si-Si, S-S, N-N or O-O bond C-Cbond is stronger and requires higher energy forbreaking.Hence chains with C-C b...
Carbon atoms has four electrons in its valence shell andcan form four covalent bonds. This tetra-covalency orquadri covale...
Isomerism is the phenomenon in which one and the same molecularformula represents more than one compound with differentpro...
Organic compounds with only single covalent bondsbetween the carbon atoms are called saturatedcompounds.         CH3-CH2-C...
1. Unsaturated compounds decolorizes yellow colored bromine water.2. Baeyrs test: Unsaturated compounds decolorize alkalin...
Open Chain (Acyclic or aliphatic) CompoundsThese compounds contain an open chain of carbonatoms which may be a straight or...
Closed Chain (Cyclic or ring) CompoundsThese compounds contain one or more rings of carbon atoms.If the ring contains only...
Cyclopropane   Cyclobutane    Benzene         N     O            O   Oxazole      Furan        Naphthalene
Organic                    Compound                                    Closed      Open Chain                             ...
Aromatic Compounds
Alicyclic
Heterocyclic
Class of   Nature of the   Formula of the     Example Organic     functional       functionalCompound       group         ...
IsomerismTwo or more compounds having the samemolecular formula but different properties arecalled isomers and the phenome...
Structural isomerism CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3                                      CH3 Normal butane (n-butane)                    ...
CH3-CH2-CH2-OH                                OHNormal propyl alcohol                          CH3-CH-CH3                 ...
Stereo isomerism             CH3    H3C         CH3    CH3   Trans-2-butene    cis-2-butene
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath
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Organic chemistry Dr. Surendran Parambadath

  1. 1. Dr. SURENDRAN PARAMBADATH (M.Sc, M.Phil, M.Tech) Formerly: Post Doctoral Research Associate,Nano-Information Materials Research Laboratory, Pusan National University, Busan-South Korea Currently: Assistant Professor Govt. Polytechnic College, Perinthalmanna
  2. 2. Organic Compound Inorganic Compound1 Found in living organisms Found in non living matters-minerals2 Besides carbon they are compounds of H, They are composed of one or more of any O, N, S and P of the known elements.3 They are covalent compounds They are electrovalent compounds4 They are volatile and inflammable They are generally nonvolatile and non inflammable5 Generally insoluble in water and soluble in Soluble in water and insoluble in non polar non polar solvents, like benzene. solvents.6 Reaction involving organic compounds are Reaction is fast slow7 They exhibit isomerism Only coordination compounds exhibit isomerism8 They are non conductors of electricity Many of them conduct electricity in solution or fused form9 Their number is very large Small in number10 Generally, solids, liquids or gases Generally liquids or high melting solids.
  3. 3. The number of organic compounds is very large (~90%)Because:1. Catenation capacity2. Strength of C-C bond3. Tetra-covalency4. Capacity to combine with other non-metals like, H, O, N, S, P, Cl, Br, I etc.5. Possibility of multiple bonds and6. Isomerism
  4. 4. The tendency of an element to form chain of identical atoms iscalled catenation.Due to catenation, carbon atoms can form straight chains, branchedchains or closed chain compounds. C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
  5. 5. Compared to Si-Si, S-S, N-N or O-O bond C-Cbond is stronger and requires higher energy forbreaking.Hence chains with C-C bonds are stable.
  6. 6. Carbon atoms has four electrons in its valence shell andcan form four covalent bonds. This tetra-covalency orquadri covalency of carbon gives rise to variouspossibilities for formation of variety of structures. C C C C
  7. 7. Isomerism is the phenomenon in which one and the same molecularformula represents more than one compound with differentproperties.Due to directional character of covalent bonds different spacialarrangements and isomers are possible for compounds with thesame structural formula. CH3 H3C CH3 CH3 Trans-2-butene cis-2-butene
  8. 8. Organic compounds with only single covalent bondsbetween the carbon atoms are called saturatedcompounds. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3In saturated compounds there will be no double ortriple bond between carbon atoms.In unsaturated compound, double or triple bondbetween carbon atoms. CH3-CH=CH-CH2-CH3
  9. 9. 1. Unsaturated compounds decolorizes yellow colored bromine water.2. Baeyrs test: Unsaturated compounds decolorize alkaline potassium permanganate solution.Saturated UnsaturatedContain only single covalent bonds Contain at least one covalentbetween carbon atoms. double or triple bond between carbon atoms.Less reactive More reactiveDoes not decolorize bromine water Decolorize bromine water
  10. 10. Open Chain (Acyclic or aliphatic) CompoundsThese compounds contain an open chain of carbonatoms which may be a straight or a branched chain.CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 CH3Normal butane (n-butane) Straight chain CH3-CH-CH3 Isobutane (iso-butane) Branched chain
  11. 11. Closed Chain (Cyclic or ring) CompoundsThese compounds contain one or more rings of carbon atoms.If the ring contains only carbon atom, it is called homocyclicring system.If it contains carbon and oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur it is calledheterocyclic ring system. Alicyclic Homocyclic Aromatic
  12. 12. Cyclopropane Cyclobutane Benzene N O O Oxazole Furan Naphthalene
  13. 13. Organic Compound Closed Open Chain ChainStraight Branched Heterocyclic Homocyclic Chain Chain Alicyclic Aromatic
  14. 14. Aromatic Compounds
  15. 15. Alicyclic
  16. 16. Heterocyclic
  17. 17. Class of Nature of the Formula of the Example Organic functional functionalCompound group group Alkenes Double bond C=C Ethene Alkynes Triple bond -CC- Acetylene Alcohols Hydroxy -O-H MethanolAldehydes Aldehydic -CHO Acetaldehyde Group Acids Carboxyl -COOH Acetic acid Ethers Ether group -O- Diethyl ether Ketones Ketonic group -CO- Acetone Amines Amino group -NH2 Methyl amine Esters Ester group -COO- Methyl acetate
  18. 18. IsomerismTwo or more compounds having the samemolecular formula but different properties arecalled isomers and the phenomenon is calledisomerism.Structural: If the difference in properties of two isomersis due to difference in their structure, it is calledstructural isomerism.Stereo: If the isomers have the same structure butdifferent configuration it is called stereoisomerism.
  19. 19. Structural isomerism CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 CH3 Normal butane (n-butane) CH3-CH-CH3 Isobutane (iso-butane) Molecular Formula: C4H10
  20. 20. CH3-CH2-CH2-OH OHNormal propyl alcohol CH3-CH-CH3 Isopropyl alcohol Molecular Formula: C3H7-OH
  21. 21. Stereo isomerism CH3 H3C CH3 CH3 Trans-2-butene cis-2-butene

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