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Newer techniques of sterilization & 
contraception ,injectable contraceptives 
&emergency contraceptives 
by Dr.surendra b...
RISUG (Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance) 
• A local anaesthetic is applied to the scrotum at the injection si...
Adiana sterilization system : 
• A clinician delivers a catheter through a hysteroscope into the fallopian tube & 
uses th...
ESSURE : 
• The Essure is a permanent birth control (female sterilization) by, an occlusion of 
the fallopian tubes with t...
Approved by FDA in 2002
Advantages : 
• No incision 
• No hormones 
• No anaesthesia 
• outpatient 
• Effective 
The one-year and two-year failure...
Complications : 
• Complications include device expulsion, tubal perforation, and 
pregnancy. 
• Unlike laparoscopic steri...
• The highly charged polymer attaches to the inner walls of the vas deferens, and 
when it comes in contact with the negat...
What’s New in Contraception? 
Factors to consider: 
• Innovative methods 
• Longer term 
• Reduced dosing 
• Reduced risks...
Methods of Contraception 
Methods of Contraception 
I. Combined 
Hormonal 
Oral contraceptive pills 
Depot medroxyprogeste...
What’s new? 
 Contraceptive patch ( Ortho Evra ) 
 Vaginal ring ( Nuvaring ) 
Intrauterine system ( Mirena ) 
 Progest...
Transdermal patch :
It is a beige-colored patch applied once a week to the abdomen, 
buttock, upper outer arm, or upper torso (excluding brea...
Advantages: 
 Very effective 
 Rapidly reversible 
 Excellent cycle control by 3 months of use 
 Easy to use, start, a...
Vaginal ring (nuva ring )
 Vaginal ring is a thin, transparent, flexible ring that contains 
oestrogen/progestogen hormones that are absorbed throu...
Advantages: 
 Easy to use 
 Can be worn for three weeks 
 Effects fertility one month at a time 
Disadvantages: 
 Does...
Adverse effects 
• Vaginitis (14.1%) 
• Headache (9.8%) 
• URTI (8%) 
• Leukorrhea (5.8%) 
• Nausea (5.2%) 
• Weight gain ...
Prostogen only implant 
This is a matchstick-size, flexible rod that is put under the skin of the upper arm. 
• It is ofte...
Female barrier method 
Female Condom
 A lubricated polyurethane pouch that is inserted inside the vagina during intercourse. 
Advantages: 
 Prevents the tran...
Emergency contraception : 
• It is a method of contraception used to prevent pregnancy ,also 
known as “morning after pill...
• This method is recommended with in 48 to 72 hrs of unprotected intercourse 
• They act by stopping ovulation or by inter...
Recent advances in emergency contraception : 
Danazol :it is progestogen only with anti-gonadotropic activity 
Mechanism o...
Mechanical method of emergency contraception : 
• This consists of insertion of cooper IUD within 3 to 5 days of unprotect...
Method & Dose Time after Intercourse Failure rate (%) Comments 
High dose estrogen 
< 72 hours 
Diethyl stilbestrol 50mg o...
Injectable contraceptives : 
• They are called as “depot formulations” or “slow release formulations” 
• These are formula...
Injectable contraceptives : 
• They are called as “depot formulations” or “slow release formulations” 
• These are formula...
Merits : 
• very safe ,affective ,convenient & reversible 
• Does not interfere with lactation & sex 
• Can be used by wom...
Contraindications : 
• Suspected malignancy 
• PID 
• Bleeding disorders
Newer techniques of sterilization  & contraception ,injectable contraceptives &emergency contraceptives
Newer techniques of sterilization  & contraception ,injectable contraceptives &emergency contraceptives
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Newer techniques of sterilization & contraception ,injectable contraceptives &emergency contraceptives

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Newer techniques of sterilization & contraception ,injectable contraceptives &emergency contraceptives

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Newer techniques of sterilization & contraception ,injectable contraceptives &emergency contraceptives

  1. 1. Newer techniques of sterilization & contraception ,injectable contraceptives &emergency contraceptives by Dr.surendra babu (pg 1st yr) Moderator: Dr.Prof, O.P. Panigrahi
  2. 2. RISUG (Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance) • A local anaesthetic is applied to the scrotum at the injection site. • The vas deferens—the tube that sperm pass through on their way from the testes to the penis—is extracted through the scrotum and injected with a polymer made from styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). • On the market, this non-toxic polymer is known as Vasalge. The process is then repeated on the other side with the second vas deferens
  3. 3. Adiana sterilization system : • A clinician delivers a catheter through a hysteroscope into the fallopian tube & uses the cathter to apply low level radio frequency energy ,followed by an insertion of a matrix (polymer implant,smaller than grain of rice ) • The matrix is left in the fallopian tube and the surrounding tissue will grow into it causing permanent blockage • Failure rate :0.2 per 100 women years • US FDA approval recently
  4. 4. ESSURE : • The Essure is a permanent birth control (female sterilization) by, an occlusion of the fallopian tubes with the use of trans-cervical bilateral insertion of blocking coils directly into the lumen of the tubes • . The device itself is made from dual coils that expand into the tubal lumen when deployed. Its fibers stimulate occlusive tissue growth over a 3 month period. • Successful placement and tubal occlusion is confirmed by hysterosalpingography • It is irreversible Removal of the micro-inserts requires surgery. Its hould not be considered 100% effective.
  5. 5. Approved by FDA in 2002
  6. 6. Advantages : • No incision • No hormones • No anaesthesia • outpatient • Effective The one-year and two-year failure rates established in the Essure clinical trials were both 0%. • Rapid recovery • High patient satisfaction
  7. 7. Complications : • Complications include device expulsion, tubal perforation, and pregnancy. • Unlike laparoscopic sterilization, it is not immediately effective
  8. 8. • The highly charged polymer attaches to the inner walls of the vas deferens, and when it comes in contact with the negatively charged sperm, ruptures their tails so that they are incapable of fertilizing eggs • This is what separates RISUG from a vasectomy—sperm can still be expelled from the scrotum, but cannot reach and fertilize an egg • The procedure typically lasts no more than a few minutes • The reversal process is also simple, with a quick injection of water and baking soda to flush out the Vasalgel. • The side effects of the procedure are minimal, and may including swelling at the injection site.
  9. 9. What’s New in Contraception? Factors to consider: • Innovative methods • Longer term • Reduced dosing • Reduced risks • Quick reversibility • Equally as effective as OCP • Less reliant on the user
  10. 10. Methods of Contraception Methods of Contraception I. Combined Hormonal Oral contraceptive pills Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injections Transdermal patches and Vaginal rings, II. Barrier and Behavioral Male condoms, Diaphragms Caps, Female condoms, Spermicides Withdrawal, Fertility awareness method, Natural family planning III. Longer Term Progestin implants and Intrauterine devices IV. Sterilization Female sterilization and Vasectomy
  11. 11. What’s new?  Contraceptive patch ( Ortho Evra )  Vaginal ring ( Nuvaring ) Intrauterine system ( Mirena )  Progestogen-only Implants ( Implanon ) Transcervical sterilization methods Yasmin Seasonale Male contraceptive method
  12. 12. Transdermal patch :
  13. 13. It is a beige-colored patch applied once a week to the abdomen, buttock, upper outer arm, or upper torso (excluding breasts). The patch releases 150 mcg of norelgestromin and 20 mcg of ethinyl estradiol to the bloodstream daily to inhibit ovulation. 3 consecutive 7-day patches (21 days) are applied, followed by 1 patch-free week per cycle. The patch contains 9 days of medication.
  14. 14. Advantages:  Very effective  Rapidly reversible  Excellent cycle control by 3 months of use  Easy to use, start, and stop  Extra protection built in; serum hormone levels will remain in the contraceptive range for up to 2 additional days Disadvantages:  Requires a prescription  Concern about visibility of patch for some women  Possible skin reactions  Slight increase in risk of VTE compared with COCs  Lack of protection against STIs
  15. 15. Vaginal ring (nuva ring )
  16. 16.  Vaginal ring is a thin, transparent, flexible ring that contains oestrogen/progestogen hormones that are absorbed through vaginal mucosa.  The ring is 92% to 99% effective for pregnancy prevention (typical to perfect use).  It stops ovulation and thickens the cervical mucus. Worn continuously for three weeks followed by a week off, each vaginal ring provides one month of birth control.
  17. 17. Advantages:  Easy to use  Can be worn for three weeks  Effects fertility one month at a time Disadvantages:  Does not protect against sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/ AIDS  Spotting  Increased vaginal discharge
  18. 18. Adverse effects • Vaginitis (14.1%) • Headache (9.8%) • URTI (8%) • Leukorrhea (5.8%) • Nausea (5.2%) • Weight gain (4.9%) • Expulsion & Coital problems (2.6%)
  19. 19. Prostogen only implant This is a matchstick-size, flexible rod that is put under the skin of the upper arm. • It is often called by its brand name, Implanon. • The rod releases a progestin, which causes changes in the lining of the uterus and the cervical mucus to keep the sperm from joining an egg. • Less often, it stops the ovaries from releasing eggs. Advantages : It is affective for 3 years Disadvantages : • May cause side effects, including irregular bleeding. Doesn't protect against STIs.
  20. 20. Female barrier method Female Condom
  21. 21.  A lubricated polyurethane pouch that is inserted inside the vagina during intercourse. Advantages:  Prevents the transmission of HIV and other STDs  No hormonal side effects  Can be used by people with latex sensitivities  Does not affect future fertility Disadvantages:  Sometimes difficult to insert or use  Friction/noise during intercourse  Loss of sensation  Can break or leak
  22. 22. Emergency contraception : • It is a method of contraception used to prevent pregnancy ,also known as “morning after pill” or postcoital contraception • A woman who had an unprotected sex & want to prevent pregnancy can use emergency contraception in following circumstances Unprotected intercourse Rape ,sexual assault ,incest Failure of contraceptive method this method can save the lady from agony & embracement of restoring illegal abortion even suicide
  23. 23. • This method is recommended with in 48 to 72 hrs of unprotected intercourse • They act by stopping ovulation or by interfering with implantation of the ovum High dose progesterone High dose estrogens Estrogen – progesterone combination (yuzpe) Content Levonorgestrel 1.5 mg (i-pill) One pill to be taken preferably with in 12hrs & not later than 72 hrs & 2nd pill to be taken witin 12 hrs after the 1st pill Diethylstilbestrol 50 mgm for 5 days Ethinyl estradiol 05mgm for 5 days 100 mgm estrogen &1mgm progestrogen (Mala-N & mala-D) Failure rate < 1% 0.2 to 2% Side effects Nausea ,vomiting ,headache & breast Severe & high due to high doses of estrogen Due to high doses of estrogen
  24. 24. Recent advances in emergency contraception : Danazol :it is progestogen only with anti-gonadotropic activity Mechanism of action :Prevents implantation by making unfavourable endometrium Dose : 2 doses of 400 mgm each at 12 hrs interval This method is more effective than yuzpe regimen Mifepristone :(RU486 )it is anti progesterone Mechanism of action :Prevents ovulation & hinders development of endometrium Dose :600 mg stat with in 120 hrs This method is more effective than yuzpe & danzol
  25. 25. Mechanical method of emergency contraception : • This consists of insertion of cooper IUD within 3 to 5 days of unprotected intercourse • Mechanism of action :prevents implantation of embryo &embryo toxic effect by cooper ions • This is useful particularly when hormonal pills are contraindicated • Contraindication :in woman who are at risk of STD because of rape • This is more effective than hormonal method as emergency contraceptive
  26. 26. Method & Dose Time after Intercourse Failure rate (%) Comments High dose estrogen < 72 hours Diethyl stilbestrol 50mg or Ethinyl Estradiol 5mg X 5 days 0.3-1.6 severe nausea & vomiting, failure to complete regimen Yuzpe’s Regime (E+P) - Ethinyl Estradiol 100 μg + Levonorgestrel 0.5 m <72 hrs., repeat after 12 hrs. O.2-3.2 (75-80% effective risk of estrogen use low efficacy Danazol 800mgm X 3 doses 1200mg X 2doses 72 hrs 0.8-1.7 androgenic effect on repeated use IUD (CuT) 5 days <1 risk of PID, unsuitable for nullipara, infrastructure & training required Centchroman 50mg 2 tablets 72-120 hrs repeat after 12 hrs to be evaluated menstrual delay Levonorgestrel - 0.75 mg X2 1.5 mg X 1 upto 120 hrs, 0.75mg (two doses 12 hrs apart) or 1.5mg (single dose) 1.1 safe & effective cheap Anti-Progestin RU 486 (Mifepristone) 10mg single dose 120 hrs 1.1-1.3 menstrual delay, risk of ectopic pregnancy
  27. 27. Injectable contraceptives : • They are called as “depot formulations” or “slow release formulations” • These are formulations containing only synthetic progesterone which is released over long period of time ,thus providing long lasting hormonal contraceptive activity Most widely used injectables are DMPA & NET-EN
  28. 28. Injectable contraceptives : • They are called as “depot formulations” or “slow release formulations” • These are formulations containing only synthetic progesterone which is released over long period of time ,thus providing long lasting hormonal contraceptive activity Most widely used injectables are DMPA & NET-EN DMPA (depot medroxy progesterone acetate) NET-EN (norethisterone ethnalthate ) Suspension Micro crystalline suspension Oily suspension Route of administration Deep intramuscular once in 3 months Deep intramuscular once in 2 months Dose 150mgm of progestin (synthetic progesterone) 200 mgm synthetic progesterone Duration of protection 3 months 2 months Return of fertility 4 to 6 months ,after stoppage of drugs Same
  29. 29. Merits : • very safe ,affective ,convenient & reversible • Does not interfere with lactation & sex • Can be used by women of any age in the reproductive period • Helps prevent ectopic pregnancies,endometrial cancer & uterine fibroids Demerits : Menstrual cycle become irregular Weight gain 1or 2kg per year Head ache ,breast tenderness ,mood changes Postpartum use : if used with in 6 wks of delivery ,it may result in heavy bleeding
  30. 30. Contraindications : • Suspected malignancy • PID • Bleeding disorders

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