Ijrime complimentary copy vol1 issue5


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International Journals of Marketing and Technology(IJMT) is a refereed research journal which aims to promote the links between management and IT. The journal focuses on issues related to the development and implementation of new methodologies and technologies, which improve the operational objectives of an organization. These include, among others, product development, human resources management, project management, logistics, production management, e-commerce, quality management, financial planning, risk management, decision support systems, General Management, Banking, Insurance, Economics, IT, Computer Science, Cyber Security and emerging trends in allied subjects. Thus, the journal provides a forum for researchers and practitioners for the publication of innovative scholarly research, which contributes to the adoption of a new holistic managerial approach that ensures a technologically, economically, socially and ecologically acceptable deployment of new technologies in business practice.

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Ijrime complimentary copy vol1 issue5

  2. 2. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  REAL TIME NETWORK MONITORING SYSTEM IN LAN ENVIRONMENTM. Shoaib Yousaf *Ahmed Mattin *Ahsan Raza Sattar* ABSTRACTIn this research thesis, I have compared different NMS tools and their feature. I have alsoanalyzed the available three SNMP versions and compare them in respect of security to selectwhich one is best to use. The SNMP v1 and v2 have most of similar features but in SNMPv2some modifications were made to overcome the deficiencies in version 1. After that SNMPversion 3 (SNMPv3) added security and remotely configurations is added in the earlier versionsand SNMP v3 is now most up to date version available today. I have examines the two methodsto secure network traffic i.e. SNMP v3, the latest version and combination of SNMP with thenon secure version like Internet Protocol Security i.e. SNMP over IPSec. These two techniquesimplement authorization, safety and privacy of network traffic passing through SNMP.Keywords: NMS, LAN, SNMP, TCP /IP, IPSec.*Computer Science Department, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 1
  3. 3. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 INTRODUCTIONNetwork management systems are use to make sure accessibility and complete take care ofcomputers and network devices installed in LAN. An NMS is able of detection and reportfailures of devices configured in network to administrator efficiently. NMS continuously sendmessages across the network to all other host to confirm their status. When failures of devicesand slow responses from devices shown, then these systems send extra messages called alerts toinform system administrators regarding the problems.To have control of overall network, administrator wants to know the condition of all devices onconfigured on the network i.e. Data flowing in / out from each host etc. there is a protocolavailable within the TCP / IP suite called Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) tomeet this purpose (Amir and Maccane, 2003).Administrator used multiple tools for monitoring the internet as there is no restriction to selectspecific monitoring tool available. E.g. to have complete view of network devices on the internet,shared intranet, mail servers, database servers etc administrators use IP monitor software andupdate them upon receiving alerts via alarms, messages or e-mail etc is case of a connection fails(Bradley, 2002).The basic idea of this thesis is to compare the different NMS tools and their feature. In thisresearch paper we will discuss the available three SNMP versions. The SNMP v1 and v2 havemost of similar features but in SNMPv2 some modifications were made to overcome thedeficiencies in version 1. After that SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3) added security and remotelyconfigurations is added in the earlier versions and SNMP v3 is now most up to date versionavailable today. Our main target is to examines the two methods to secure network traffic (i)SNMP v3, the latest version (ii) combination of SNMP with the non secure version like InternetProtocol Security i.e. SNMP over IPSec. These two techniques implement authorization, safetyand privacy of network traffic passing through SNMP.MATERIALS & METHODSIn this section the main focus is on the design of the network management system as well as themajor parts of the system will be discus in this chapter. Also different parts and how these parts International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 2
  4. 4. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 correlate each other in network management system to work will be discuss here. We are goingto compare the SNMP versions available and find out the better one to be used with networkmanagement system. Also administrator should be well aware of the security issues such asability to restore, capable to delete / add user, able to monitor network accessibility, amount oftraffic, rerouting, user authentication and response time of the faults.WORKING MECHANISMSNMP was proposed as a protocol that manages the nodes of network such as important servers,workstations, routers, switches etc. SNMP protocol is placed inside the UDP transport layerwhich is a connectionless layer in OSI model. To calculate the network performance, to locatethe hosts and resolve network problem and to update the network, SNMP is used. SNMPmanaged networks consists of there fundamental parts: NMS devices, NMS agents and NMSs.An SNMP managed device comprises of an SNMP agent which is placed inside the network andwatches all activities of network. The SNMP agent collects all the network information andstores that information to the use of this information by NMSs. All devices of network likerouters, servers, switches and printers etc are control by the NMSs in the network. An agent isplaced inside the SNMP device that is regularly watching all events of network. SNMP agent isprovided limited access to the collected data and converted this data to a readable form necessaryto use with SNMP. How NMS Works (Swee, 2006).Three versions of SNMP are most commonly used: SNMP v1, SNMP v2 and SNMP v3. Theboth versions 1 and 2 are similar in function except that in v2 security has been enhanced to International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 3
  5. 5. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 overcome the security issues. Keeping in view the importance of security a new version SNMPv3 was developed that covers all the security issues and provide more features like remoteconfiguration.SNMP v1 is placed inside the layers of OSI and performs its functions independently withoutany disturbance to those OSI layers. SNMPv1 is most commonly used protocols in early daysand before the invention of next version. An NMS generates a request to devices and devicesrespond back to these requests. There are four operations used in v1: Get, Get Next, Set, andTrap. The Get command used to request objects their values by the NMS. The Get Nextoperation is used to request the next value in the table. The Set operation used to fix the valuesinside SNMP agent. The last operation that is used for updating any change of the network toNMS is Trap. The basic limitations in version 1 are the security i.e. message authentication andprotection from outside intruders. SNMP v2 was designed in 1993 to overcome above problemsand was to be an improvement of its ancestor.SNMPv2 was modified then with GetBulk and Inform operation after version 1. The GetBulkfunction collects the huge block of information simultaneously and provides access to NMS tothis information. And Inform function is used in communication of one NMS with another NMSusing trap operation and then receives a response from other NMS. The major area enhanced inSNMP v2 was security that makes developers for its invention. SNMP v2 has different messageformats. The difference in version 1 and 2 is purely in the field of security. However messageformat is same as of version 1 in the UDP for version 2. More security and remote configurationis added in newer version SNMP V3 that protects messages and provide an easy module toaccess these messages for SNMP.A new characteristic that was not available in previous versions is the user friendly view modulefor SNMPv3 addition. This feature allows the elements to control the access to the importantinformation. SNMP engine having VACM that is consists of many message formats withdifferent security models. This improvement in NMS and SNMP is suitable for all types ofhardware. In SNMPv3 security is modified into three levels: upper level is authentication andprivacy, middle level is authentication with no privacy and the bottom level is no authentication International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 4
  6. 6. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 no privacy. SNMP has the ability to reboot the network devices due to its security features.Below figure 3.4.3 shows security subsystem of SNMP v3 (Swee, 2006).COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXISTING SYSTEMSIt is a basic requirement that the network which I selected must have the capability to reduce theproblems and other issues of traffic concerning with the delay, response time and throughput.Several materials are existing on the internet or market as concern to these networks and theirrelevant problems, furthermore several procedure also exist concerning to the each kind ofnetworks. But the research is concerned with the performance analysis of NMS protocols andselecting best one protocol from them. Certain issues are there regarding to the types of traffic,throughput, latency and network availability. These issues are very common and challenging forthe administration especially in those organizations having WAN link contains the routingdevices. Such organizations can suffer from various kinds of issues regarding to the traffic delaysif the careful selection of the proper network is not made by suspicious investigation.RESULTSI have analyzed security of SNMP in this research thesis to conclude which is best to be used innetwork. I have examined two techniques of security for secure SNMP traffic: firstly SNMPv3,most up-to-date invention of SNMP and non secure version of SNMP in a combination ofInternet Protocol Security (IPSec). The security used in SNMP V2 consumes less networkcapacity as compare to SNMPv3 and also provides security to IP application which is notpossible in SNMP v3. Also reduces load on administrators in configuring, managing, andmaintaining monitoring systems so that their concentration is focused more on higher levelpolicies and critical abnormal circumstances also discusses in previous chapter.Result 1 for one variableThe network capacity used by SNMP is examine by running the SNMP agent with the help of anSNMP management function. The IPSec used a tunnel mode security mechanism tocommunicate between the gateways. Ethereal captured the IP packets generated by SNMPoperations running of the host machine are shown in below table 3.3.1. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 5
  7. 7. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  SNMP Version / Get Response Total Security Scheme V2c 78 102 180 V2c over IPSec 137 153 288 V3 noAuthNoPriv 141 165 306 V3 authNoPriv 153 177 330 V3 authPriv 168 192 358V3 noAuthNoPriv over 191 217 408 IPSec V3 authNoPriv over 209 233 440 IPSecV3 authPriv over IPSec 223 249 472Table 1 shows the SNMP-Get messages, SNMP-Response messages and the total of SNMPGet/Response sizes in byte using different security schemes for one variable.Result 2 for seven variablesThe second result is almost same as we get the first except it is obtain using 7 variables. SNMP Version / Security Get Response Total Scheme V2c 176 288 464 V2c over IPSec 233 345 578 V3 noAuthNoPriv 249 351 590 V3 authNoPriv 251 363 614 V3 authPriv 265 378 643 V3 noAuthNoPriv over IPSec 289 401 690 International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 6
  8. 8. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  V3 authNoPriv over IPSec 305 417 722 V3 authPriv over IPSec 321 433 754Table 2 shows the SNMP-Get messages, SNMP-Response messages and the total of SNMPGet/Response sizes in byte using different security schemes for seven variables.From the above results we can conclude that the IPSec using authentication and triple-DESencryption scheme consume 57 bytes more than the normal IP packet moving this payload. AlsoSNMPv3 consume 89 bytes more than the normal IP packet by using HMAC-MD5- 96authentication and DES encryption schemes.RESULT 3 NETWORK CAPACITY CONSUMED BY SNMPThe SNMP agent running on gateways is used to get the processing time consumed by a secureSNMP operation. Ethereal captured the IP packets generated by the SNMP-Get operationrunning on observer host. We use node to node tunnel-mode security connection to distinguishthe source of packet and destination of packet. As DES encryption scheme processing iscomputationally extremely intensive and by using triple-DES adds three times more processingthan DES. But we can experiment to draw results to gain insight conclusions. The Processingtime interval can be define as the time from capturing the SNMP Get message by Ethereal to thetime corresponding the SNMP Response Message. Table 3.3 shows the average processing timeinterval and the standard deviation calculated for both approach. Mean Time SNMP Version / Security Scheme Standard Deviation V2c 310.4 12.2 V3 noAuthNoPriv 525.9 6.5 V3 AuthNoPriv 591.7 6.1 V3 AuthPriv 696.8 57.7 V2c over IPSerc 778.8 80.1 V3 noAuthNoPriv over IPSec 1057.0 19.4 International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 7
  9. 9. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  21.2 V3 AuthNoPriv over IPSec 1160.0 V3 AuthPriv over IPSec 1457.7 79.5Table 3 shows the network capacity consumed by SNMP.RESULT 4 CAPACITY CONSUMED BY SNMP V3 FOR DISCOVERING EXCHANGEWe calculate the capacity consumed by SNMPv3 during discovering exchange for SNMP-Getmessage, its corresponding SNMP-Report message and the total bytes used in discoveryexchange. From the result shown below we can predict that a SNMPv3 discovery exchange issame in size and function to a typical SNMP Get/Response exchange. A more stylish SNMPmanagement suite remembers the most recent timeliness parameters received from eachSNMPv3 unit to which it communicates, thus reducing the need for discovery exchanges. SNMP Version Request Report Total SNMP V3 AuthPriv 102 139 241 SNMP V3 AuthPriv 159 193 352 over IPSecTable 4 shows capacity consumed by SNMP v3 for discovering exchange.RESULT 5 CAPACITY CONSUMED BY AN IPSECTo get the result of network capacity consumed by IPSec Free S/WAN IPSec tool is configuredto keep informed about security between the gateways every minute. Many of these updates arealso capture by the ethereal application running on host observer. Below table shows the IPpacket sizes (in bytes) for all nine packets captured while the initial tunnel-mode securityassociation is established. Packet # Mode Length 1 Main 204 2 Main 108 International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 8
  10. 10. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  3 Main 208 4 Main 208 5 Main 96 6 Main 96 7 Quick 344 8 Quick 320 9 Quick 80Table 5 shows network capacity consumed by IPSec.SUMMARY / CONCLUSIONFrom the obtained results in previous chapter, we conclude that the version 3 of SNMP required24 % more capacity of network than the use of SNMP v2 with IPSec design. Also with thechange in the size of application layer, the output of SNMP v2 with IPSec changes significantly.Both techniques SNMPv2 over IPSec and SNMPv3 overheads network devices equally. It willdoubles the processing overhead of devices in SNMP v2 when used authentication andencryption schemes and when installing IPSec on that device. We can get better results if weused security and SNMP processing on separate devices. The security gateway is different fromnetwork devices where SNMP agent is implemented in case of SNMP v2 over IPSec. Howeverin SNMP v3 both security processing and SNMP processing are running on single devices whichcreates problems to implement SNMP v3.The discovery exchange with SNMP v3 consumes 240 more bytes of network capacity. Thecomplexity of SNMP application effect on discovery exchanges frequency. There is no AsSNMP application has no feature to store the parameters of timelines, hence efficiency ofnetwork capacity badly affected in discovering process making network more overloaded.REFERENCES International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 9
  11. 11. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 Amir, E. and S. McCanne 2003. An active service framework and its application,Communications Architectures and Protocols, pp: 178–189.Apostolopoulos, T. and V. Daskalou 1995. On the Implementation of a Prototype forPerformance Management Services, IEEE symposium on computers and communications, 57-63. A research paper on a prototype for management services.Behrouz, A. F. 2004. TCP-IP Protocol Suit, McGraw Hill publication, pp: 156-163.Bettati R. 2008. Modern Fault Trace Analysis and its Capabilities Department of ComputerScience and Center for Information Assurance and Security Texas A&M University CollegeStation, TX, 77801,USABierman, A. and L. Bucci 2002. Remote Network Monitoring MIB Protocol Identifiers,Proposed technical specification for RMON2 protocol identifiers, pp: 194-220.Blum A. and D. Song 2004. Monitoring and Measurements of network bounds. In Proceedingsof the 7th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection, RAID ’04,September 2004.Bradley, M. 2002. Remote Network Monitoring MIB Extensions for Switched Networksproposed technical specification for RMON of switched networks, pp: 51-68.Symantec Internet Security threat report highlights (Symantec.com),http://www.prdomain.com/companies/Symantec/newreleases/Symantec_internet_205032.htmAccessed on 15 May 2011.Chang, C. and L. Sung. 2008. Integration and Application of Web-Service-Based Expert Systemand Computer Maintenance Management Information System. In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEEAsia-Pacific Services Computing Conference, pp: 207-212.Cheswick R. 2002. Firewall and Internet Security, Addison Wesley Professional ComputingSeries; pp: 201-223. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 10
  12. 12. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 Corey V. and C. Peterman 2005. IEEE Internet Computing Volume 6, Issue 6 Pages: 60 – 66.Year of Publication: 2002 ISSN: 1089-7801Cottrell, L. and C. Logg. 2004. Network monitoring for the LAN and WAN,http://www.slac.stanford.edu/grp/scs/net/talk/ornl-96/ornl.html,A tutorial paper on monitoring onWide Area Network including the internet.Ergin, M., K. Ramachandran and M. Gruteser 2007. Understanding the effect of access pointdensity on wireless LAN performance, International Conference on Mobile Computing andNetworking Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM international conference on Mobile computingand networking, pp: 62-64.Gast, M. 2002. 802.11 wireless networks: the definitive guide, Wiley, pp: 85-89.Huges, J. 1996.Characterizing Network Behavior Using Remote Monitoring DevicesTelecommunications, pp: 43-44.Jung H.J. and J.Y.Choen 2007. Real-time network monitoring scheme based on SNMP fordynamic information, Journal of Network and computer Applications, 30 (1), pp: 331-353. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 11
  13. 13. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  QUALITY OF WORKING LIFE IN INSURANCE SECTORRita Goyal* ABSTRACTThe study of Quality of working life has been an important and critical area in management andorganizational performance from last several years especially in the LIC.. This paper aims tostudy the extent of QWL in the LIC, and explores the proposed link between the QWL andemployees productivity. Two hundred fifty employees responded to the researcher’squestionnaire. The study makes use of statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviation, ttest. ANOVA analysis to process and analysis the data collected for this study .The demographicportion of the instrument was developed by the researcher to sort out the demographicinformation. To explore difference between the means of two group t-test was applied. One wayANOVA was used for exploring the difference among more than two groups. The paper ends byoffering useful suggestions to the management involved in the operations of the corporations.Key words: Quality of working life, Insurance Sector, Competency Development, EmployeesProductivity, Work-Life Balance*Lecturer Dept. of Humanities and Social Sciences, Maharishi Markendeshwar University,Mullana (Ambala) International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 12
  14. 14. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 INTRODUCTIONQuality of Working Life is a process of work organizations which enables its members at alllevels to actively participate in shaping the organization environment, methods and outcomes.Conceptual categories which together make up the quality of working life are adequate and faircompensation, safe and healthy working conditions, immediate opportunity to use and develophuman capacities, opportunity for continued growth and security, social integration in the workorganization, constitutionalization in the work organization, work and the total life space and thesocial relevance of work life. Quality of Work Life was the term actually introduced in the late1960’s. From that period till now the term is gaining more and more importance everywhere, atevery work place. Initially quality of work life was focusing on the effects of employment on thegeneral well being and the health of the workers. But now its focus has been changed. Everyorganization need to give good environment to their workers including all financial and nonfinancial incentives so that they can retain their employees for the longer period and for theachievement of the organization goals. The concept of QWL is based on the assumption that ajob is more than just a job. It is the center of a person’s life. In recent years there has beenincreasing concern for QWL due to several factors: Increase in education level and consequentlyjob aspirations of employees; Association of workers; Significance of human resourcemanagement; widespread industrial unrest; Growing of knowledge in human behaviors, etc.LITERATURE REVIEWSBear field, (2003) used 16 questions to examine quality of working life, and distinguishedbetween causes of dissatisfaction in professionals, intermediate clerical, sales and serviceworkers, indicating that different concerns might have to be addressed for different groups. Thedistinction made between job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in quality of working life reflectsthe influence of job satisfaction theories. Lawler, (2004) Quality of Working Life is not aunitary concept, but has been seen as incorporating a hierarchy of perspectives that not onlyinclude work-based factors such as job satisfaction, satisfaction with pay and relationships withwork colleagues, but also factors that broadly reflect life satisfaction and general feelings ofwell-being suggested that quality of working life was associated with satisfaction with wages,hours and working conditions, describing the “basic elements of a good quality of work life” as: International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 13
  15. 15. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  safe work environment, equitable wages, Equal employment opportunities and opportunities for advancement.Waddell Jane and Carr Paul (2005) In addition to competition of globalization and products,organization face competition related to employee retention at the same time employees facecompetition for their time. As increasing number of employees face competing demands betweenwork and family, the importance of maintaining a healthy work life balance is of paramountconsideration. In spite of family- friendly policies, many employees perceive negativeconsequences associated with availing themselves of these policies. At the same time, over 50%of American employees fail to take their allotted vacation time. Failure to achieve a healthy worklife balance can lead to overload, which may result in loss of employees. Encouraging a healthywork life balance benefits both the organization and the employees. Lawler and Porter (2006).An individual’s experience of satisfaction or dissatisfaction can be substantially rooted in theirperception, rather than simply reflecting their “real world”. Further, an individual’s perceptioncan be affected by relative comparison – am I paid as much as that person - and comparisons ofinternalized ideals, aspirations, and expectations, for example, with the individual’s current stateIn summary, where it has been considered, authors differ in their views on the core constituentsof Quality of Working Life (e.g. Sirgy, Efraty, Siegel & Lee, 2001 and Warr, Cook & Wall,1979). It has generally been agreed however that Quality of Working Life is conceptually similarto well-being of employees but differs from job satisfaction which solely represents theworkplace domain. Banerjee Indranil (2006) Jobs are getting increasingly demanding, as theorganization face competition and become leaner in structure, leading to conflict betweenpeople’s professionals deliverable and personal requirements. It is acknowledged that continuousdisregard of personal issues ultimately lead to employees’ underperformance and so people oftendiscuss work life balance but seldom act on it. So, the focus now is “Who is going to bell thecat?” For tackling the problem, multi-pronged effort, comprising the organization, the employee,the Government, the Industry, the society, etc., is required. Tekuru Siva ram (2007) Work- lifebalance is all about need for individuals having complete control over their work, i.e. decidingwhen, why, where and how to work. Finding these pressures encroaching into their private lifeand time, they are unable to do anything about it and are finally squeezed out. Organizationshould consider Work –life balance as an extension of the fringe benefits offered to the International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 14
  16. 16. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 employees. This will help both the employees and the organization. Aggarwala Tanuja (2007)Conflicting demands and pressures from works and life (family) can interfere with each othersince the two domains are complementary, not conflicting priorities. Acceptance of this realityby the organization and new business and societal trends, have seen the growth of family-friendly practices at work place. Adopting a win- win approach, growing number of organizationbelieve that helping employees balance and integrate their work lives with the rest of their livesleads to positive outcomes for both the employee and the employer. Work- family practicesshould be viewed as a part of overall HR and business strategy that is related to a firm’scompetitive advantage. Swamy (2007) In today’s business context the pressures of work havebeen intensifying and there is a growing feeling among employees that the demand of workbeing to dominate life and a sense of work-life imbalance is felt. The challenge of integratingwork and family life is a part of everyday reality for the majority of employees. Organizationshave to continually innovate and come up with programs that provide scope for employees tobalance their responsibility at their work place and interest they have outside work.Suman Ghalawat (2010) states that QWL is a Process of work organizations which enables itsmembers at all levels to actively  participate in shaping the organizations’ environment, methodsand outcomes. This value based process is aimed towards meeting the twin goals of enhancedeffectiveness of organization and improved quality of the life at work for employees. Work is anintegral part of our everyday life, as it is our livelihood or career or business. On an average wespend around twelve hours daily in the work place, that is one third of our entire life; it doesinfluence the overall quality of our life. It should yield job satisfaction, give peace of mind, afulfillment of having done a task, as it is expected, without any flaw and having spent the timefruitfully, constructively and purposefully. Even if it is a small step towards our lifetime goal, atthe end of the day it gives satisfaction and eagerness to look forward to the next day. The factorsthat influence and decide the Quality of Work Life are: Attitude, environment, opportunities,nature of job, people, stress level, career prospects, growth and development, risk involved andreward.OBJECTIVES OF STUDYIn light of the domain for research, the study was undertaken:- International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 15
  17. 17. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 1. To examine the nature of quality of working life prevailing in some selected Branches of LIC.2. To study the differences in the perception of employees on the basis of gender.3. To study the differences in the perception of employees on the basis of designation.4. To study the differences in the perception of employees on the basis of Qualification.HYPOTHESISIn view of the objectives set for the study, following null hypothesis was formulated:Ho1.1 There is no significant difference between the perception of male and female employeesregarding quality of working life.Ho1.2There is no significant difference between the perceptions of employees at different levelsregarding quality of working lifeHo1.3 There is no significant difference between the perception of graduate and post graduateemployees regarding quality of working life.RESEARCH METHODOLOGYDataA total of 400 employees were chosen randomly from the 4branches, keeping in view their totalstrength and range of activities. Out of 400 questionnaires distributed only 250questionnaireswere received completed in all respects. Therefore with 62.5% response rate the researcher hasconducted this study.SAMPLE OF THE STUDYFollowing table represents the sample of study: Gender-wise distribution of employees N Percent Male 185 74 Female 65 26 Total 250 100 International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 16
  18. 18. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  Designation-wise distribution of employees Employees N Percent Class-1 100 40 Class-11 69 27.6 Class-111 81 32. 4 Total 250 100Qualification wise distribution of Employees Employees No. Percent Graduate 140 56 Post Graduate 110 44 Total 250 100QUESTIONNAIREThe questions were designed to facilitate the respondents to identify major strengths andweakness of the Corporations and provide insights. The endeavors were to identify the keyquality of working life issues, on which employee’s perception can be obtained. The respondentswere requested specifically to ignore their personal prejudices and use their best judgment on a 5point Likert scale. The purpose of this exercise was to make the response a true reflection oforganization reality rather than an individual opinion. The 5 point of the scale indicated in thequestionnaire are- 1. Strongly disagree, 2 disagree, 3-Undecided, 4-Agree and 5- Strongly Agree.Reliability (Cronbach’s coefficient alpha) of the questionnaire has found to be 0.89.This showsdata has satisfactory internal consistency.Descriptive Analysis:Result & DiscussionThe results in the following table reveal that in the scale for quality of working Life, the highestmean score (44.29) is for male and the lowest (33.56) is for level III employees. The same hasbeen shown graphically in figure1.1 International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 17
  19. 19. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 Summary of “t”test presented in the table 1.2 indicates that t-value (1.60) is significant as p-value (.110) is more than 0.05.Hence the hypothesis stating the difference is not significantbetween the perception of male and female employees regarding. Quality of working life isaccepted at 0.05 level of significance. So there is not a significant difference between theperception of male and female employees regarding quality of working life.Mean value for males (74.29) is less than females (78.89) therefore it is concluded that femaleemployees have better perception of QWC than male employees.Summary of the univariate analysis of variance presented in the table 1.3 indicates that p-value(0.232) is greater than 0.05as F value (1.469) is not significant at 0.05 level of significance.Hence the hypothesis is accepted at 0.05 level of significance, so there is no significantdifference among the perception of employees at different levels regarding quality of workinglife.Summary of “t”test presented in the table 1.4 indicates that t-value (.348) is significant as p-value (0.728) is more than 0.05.Hence the hypothesis stating, The difference is not significantbetween the perception of graduate and post graduates employees regarding QWC. “Is acceptedat 0.05 level of significance. So there is not a significant difference between the perception ofgraduate and post graduate employees regarding QWC in selected branches of LIC.Mean value for graduate (34.69) is less than Postgraduate Employees (35.58) therefore it isconcluded that post graduate employees have better perception of QWC than graduateemployees. Thus findings are:The difference is not significant between the perception of male and female employees regardingquality of working life. It shows that gender does not affect the perception of QWL System ofemployees as all are equally aware of the significance of it.There is no significant difference among the perception of employees at different levelsregarding quality of working life. As all are equally aware of the significance of it. It shows thatthe need of the employee’s development is felt in all cases. The difference is not significantbetween the perception of Graduates and Post Graduates employees regarding the quality ofwork life in selected branches of LIC. As both areas are equally related to improvement andprogress. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 18
  20. 20. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 CONCLUSIONIn LIC, Quality of Working Life principles are the principle of security, the principle of equity,the principle of individuation and the principle of democracy. On the basis of my study I can saythat employees of LIC in Northern region are happy with the working conditions of the LIC.They feel that they are safe and secure in LIC. They feel that corporation should start their owntransport facilities for the staff. However, the dissatisfaction among them is the less growthopportunities. They are not provided with extra care like health camps etc Poor work life balanceleads to many disastrous things like tardy, bad performance, lack of motivation, more errors,absence from work and so on. The worst thing is that poor work-life balance reduces workquality and productivity without any doubt. When an employee wont be able to give time to hisfamily at home, he will feel stressed out at work Sound work life balance will definitely have apositive impact on employee’s productivity. The quality of work improves significantly asemployees feel fresh and not stressed out at all.Suggestion1.Corporation must be committed to an open and transparent style of operation that includesharing appropriate information with employees and sincerely inviting their input regardingproblems opportunities and implementation of improvement plans.2. Employees must be given opportunities for advancement in the corporation.3. Traditional status barriers between different classes must be broken to permit establishment ofan atmosphere of trust and open communication.4. Employees should receive feed back on results achieved and recognition for superiorperformance. Other forms of positive reinforcement such as financial incentives should also bemade available where feasible.5. Improved communication and co-ordination among the workers and organization helps tointegrate different jobs resulting in better task performance.6. Better working condition enhances workers motivation to work in a healthy atmosphereresulting in motivation and increase in production.7. As QWL includes participation in group discussion and solving the problem, improving theskill, enhancing their capabilities and thus building confidence and increased output. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 19
  21. 21. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 REFERENCES:Anonymous (2005). Quality of Work Life Task Force looks to integrate home and work.Vanderbilt University Medical Center, House Organ. Available from http://www.Quality20%of/20%work/20% life. htm.Anbarasan, V & Mehta, N. (2009), "An Exploratory Study on Perceived Quality of Working Lifeamong Sales Professionals Employed in Pharmaceuticals, Banking, Finance and InsuranceCompanies in Mumbai", Abhigyan, 27(1): 70-81.Ebrahim (2010) “The relation between QWL and job satisfaction”, Middle –East Journal ofscientific Research 6(4), 317-323-2010.Feuer, D., Quality of work life: a cure for all ills? Training: The Magazine of Human ResourcesDevelopment, 26: 65-66, 1989.Mishra, S. & Gupta, B. (2009), "Work Place Motivators and Employees Satisfaction: A Studyon Retail Sector in India", The Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(3): 509-17.Raduan,C. R., Loosee .B., Jegak,U & Khairuddin, I. (2006), "Quality of Work Life: Implicationsof Career Dimensions", Journal of Social Sciences. 2 (2): 61-67.Sandrick k (2003). Putting the emphasis on employees as an award. Winning employer, Baptisthealth care has distant memories of the workforce shortage, Trustee. pp. 6-Straw, R.J. and C.C. Heckscher, 1984. QWL: New working relationships in the communicationindustry. Labor Studies J., Vol. 9: 261-274.Walton, R. (1973), ― Quality of Work life Indicators- Prospects and Problems- A PortigalMeasuring the Quality of working life, pp-57-70, Ottawa International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 20
  22. 22. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 Table 1.1: Scale for Quality of working LifeFactor No. Mean S.DGender-Male 185 44.29 19.85Female 65 38.89 20.13Designation-Level 1 100 39.27 18.69Level 11 69 34.72 20.88Level 111 81 33.56 22.86Qualification- 140 34.69 19.34GraduatePost Graduate 110 35.58 20.95Tab 1.2 Perceptual differences between male and female employees regarding quality ofworking life.Group Sample Mean S.D. t- value df p-value sizeMale 185 44.29 19.85 1.60 248 .110EmployeeFemale 65 48.89 20.13EmployeesP>0.05 International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 21
  23. 23. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 Tab.1.3 Perceptual differences between employees at different level regarding quality ofworking life. Particulars Sample size Mean d.f F value P value Class-1 100 39.27 2 1.469 0.232 Class-11 69 34.72 Class-111 81 33.56 P>0.05Tab1.4: Perceptual differences between Employees with graduate and postgraduatequalification regarding quality of working life. Particulars Sample Size Mean SD t-test df p-Value Graduate 140 34.69 19.34 .348 248 .728 Employee Postgraduate 110 35.58 20.95 EmployeesP>0.05 International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering www.gjmr.org 22
  24. 24. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  REFACTORABILITY ANALYSIS USING LINEAR REGRESSIONGauri Khurana*Sonika Jindal ** ABSTRACT Software refactoring - improving the internal structure of the software without changing itsexternal behavior - is an important action towards avoiding software quality decay. Key tothis activity is the identification of portions of the source code that offers opportunities forrefactoring -- the so called bad smells. The underlying objective is to improve the quality ofthe software system, with regard to future maintenance and development activities. The goalof this review paper is the discussion of an approach to help on the detection of code badsmells through source code metrics and the results obtained from its use. In this discussion,we propose measure of refactorability based on the four factors- reusability,understandability, modifiability and maintainability. Since, each of the factors is intangible innature and is hard to measure. It is also proposed that they should be measured in terms ofpoint system. It is also important to bring new elements that might be affected through arefactoring sequence as, for example, structural testing requirements that can be used in thefuture as a new metric to detect refactoring opportunities.Keywords: Refactoring, reusability, understandability, modifiability, maintainability, badsmell, metrics*CSE, SBSCET, Ferozpur. PTU, Jalandhar** Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, SBSCET, Ferozpur. PTU,Jalandhar. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     23 
  25. 25. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction to refactoringRefactoring is a well-defined process that improves the quality of systems and allowsdevelopers to repair code that is becoming hard to maintain, without throwing away theexisting source code and starting again. By careful application of refactorings the system’sbehavior will remain the same, but return to a well-structured design. The use of automatedrefactoring tools makes it more likely that the developer will perform the necessaryrefactorings, since the tools are much quicker and reduce chance of introducing bugs.“Refactoring is the process of changing a software system in such a way that it does not alterthe external behavior of the code yet it improves its internal structure.”-Martin Flower inRefactoring, Improving the Design of Existing Code.Refactoring is a kind of reorganization. Technically, it comes from mathematics when youfactor an expression into an equivalence- the factors are cleaner ways of expressing the samestatement. Refactoring implies equivalence- the beginning and the end product must befunctionally identical. The shift from Structured Programming to Object-orientedProgramming is a fundamental example of refactoring. [1]“Refactoring is the process of taking an object design and rearranging it in various ways tomake the design more flexible and/or usable.” – Ralph Johnson.Four Reasons to change the code:The four primary reasons to change the code are [2]: 1. Adding a feature 2. Fixing a bug 3. Improving the design 4. Optimizing resource usage 1.2 Preserving BehaviorFeature addition and bug fixing are very much like refactoring and optimization. In all casesof changing code, we want to change some functionality, some behavior, but we want topreserve much more (see Figure 1) International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     24 
  26. 26. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  Existing Behavior New Behavior Figure 1: Preserving Behavior [2]Figure 1 shows what is supposed to happen when we make changes, but what does it meanfor us practically? On the positive side, it seems to tell us what we have to concentrate on.We have to make sure that small numbers of things that we change are changed correctly. Onthe negative side, that isn’t the only thing we have to concentrate on. We have to figure outhow to preserve the rest of the behavior. The amount of behavior to be preserved is usuallyvery large.Preserving behavior is a large challenge. When we need to make changes and preservebehavior, it can involve considerable risk. [2] To mitigate risk, we have to ask threequestions: 1. What changes do we have to make? 2. How will we know that we’ve done them correctly? 3. How will we know that we haven’t broken anything? 1.3 Why do we need refactoring?The longer object oriented systems are in use, the more probable it is that these systems haveto be maintained [3], i.e. they have to be optimized to a given goal (Perfective Maintenance),they have to be corrected with respect to identified defects (Corrective Maintenance) and theyhave to be adjusted to a changing environment (Adaptive Maintenance). Whereas many ofthese activities can be subsumed under the reengineering area, there are additional changingactivities that are much less difficult to apply than typical reengineering activities, and whichdoes not change the external behavior [4]. The main goal of these “mini-reengineeringactivities” is to improve the understandability and to simplify reengineering activities. Flowercalls these activities Refactorings, which he defines a “a change made to the internalstructure of a software to make it easier to understand and cheaper to modify withoutchanging its observable behavior” [1, p. 53]. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     25 
  27. 27. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 Fowler suggests four purposes of refactoring [1]: 1. Improve the design of software – Through accumulating code changes, code loses its structure, thereby increasingly drifting towards a state of decay. Refactoring can be used to cure software decay by redistributing parts of the code to the “right” places, and by removing duplicated code. The claim that refactoring can improve the design of software is confirmed by [3] with regard to cohesion and with respect to coupling, as indicators for internal software quality. Another claimed benefit in the area of improved design is improved flexibility. 2. Make software easier to understand – Refactoring can help make the code more readable by making it better communicate its purpose. A different way in which refactoring supports program understanding is in reflecting hypotheses about the purpose of the code by changing the code, and afterwards testing that understanding through rerunning the code. The suggested process to do so is to start refactoring the little details to clarify the code, thereby exposing the design. The potential to improve understandability through refactoring is confirmed by many authors [1, 3]. In more specific terms, [5] discusses how refactorings can be used to improve communicating the purpose of the code. 3. Help find bugs – Through clarifying the structure of the code, the assumptions within the code are also clarified, making it easier to find bugs. 4. Program faster – Through improving the design and overall understandability of the code, rapid software development is supported. 1.4 When should one consider refactoring?Ideally, refactoring would be part of a continuing quality improvement process. In otherwords, refactoring would be seamlessly interwoven with other day-to-day activities of everysoftware developer.Refactoring may be useful, when a bug has surfaced and the problem needs to be fixed or thecode needs to be extended. Refactoring at the same time as maintenance or adding newfeatures also makes management and developers more likely to allow it, since it will notrequire an extra phase of testing.If the developer in charge finds it difficult to understand the code, he will (hopefully) askquestions, and begin to document the incomprehensible code.Often, however, schedule pressures do not permit to implement a clean solution right away.A feature might have to be added in a hurry, a bug patched rather than fixed. In these cases, International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     26 
  28. 28. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 the code in question should be marked with a FIXME note, in order to be reworked, whentime permits. Such circumstances call not for individual refactorings, but for a wholerefactoring project. When the time has come to address the accumulated problems, a scan forFIXMEs, TODOs, etc. over the code base will return all the trouble spots for review. Theycan be refactored according to priority. 2. SEMANTIC GAPThe concept of Semantic gap is relevant whenever a human activity, observation and task aretransferred into computational representation [6]. Like programs, programming languages arenot only mathematical objects but also software engineering artifacts. Describing thesemantics of real-world languages can help bring language theory to bear on both excitingand important real-world problems. Achieving this is not purely a mathematical task, butequally one of (semantic) engineering. The implementations of all major languages—especially scripting languages defined by implementations—come with large and well-structured test suites. These suites embody the intended semantics of the language. Weshould be able to use such a test suite to retrofit semantics. For this to be useful, it is notsufficient to merely create semantics for the core language [4].  More precisely the gap means the difference between contextual knowledge in a powerful language (e.g. natural language) and its reproducible and computational representation in a formal language (e.g. programming language).  The semantic gap actually opens between the selection of the rules and the representation of the task.With the passage of time, the business scenario keeps on changing and the softwaredevelopment must match the business environment. Therefore the code of any software alsochanges with respect to the business scenario. There might be architectural changes insoftware due to business reengineering process. The programmer has to rethink how to do theimplementation of the code due to changes in the requirements. So, it offers opportunity torelook, redesign, as well as refactor the code. Thus, it forces new semantics to be laid withrespect to the changing business scenario. 3. REFACTORING ACTIVITIESThe refactoring process consists of a number of different activities, each of which can beautomated to a certain extent [7]: International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     27 
  29. 29. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 1. Identify where the code should be refactored;2. Determine which refactorings should be applied to the identified places;3. Guarantee that the applied refactoring preserves behavior;4. Apply the refactoring;5. Assess the effect of refactoring on software quality characteristics;6. Maintain consistency between refactored program code and other software artifacts (or vice versa).The steps taken when applying the refactoring should be small enough to oversee theconsequences they have and reproducible to allow others to understand them. Generalizedrefactoring steps in away, are mere a rule that can be applied to any structure.Refactoring not only covers the mechanics of restructuring, but also addresses the followingissues [Martin Flower]:1. Refactoring emphasizes that, in absence of more formal guarantees, testing should be used to ensure that each restructuring is behavior preserving. A rich test suite should be built, which must be run before and after each test is applied.2. Refactorings are described in a catalog, using a template reminiscent of design patterns.3. Refactorings are applied in small steps, one by one, running the test suite after every step to make it into commercial development tools. 4. METRICS FOR REFACTORABILITYThe various metrics are identified for calculating the values of four factors proposed hereseparately. Those are defined as follows: 1. LinesOfCode (NbLines): The LOC for a method is equals to the number of sequence point found for this method in the file. A sequence point is used to mark a spot in the IL code that corresponds to a specific location in the original source. Notice that sequence points which correspond to braces ‘{‘ and ‘}’ are not taken into account. Interfaces, abstract methods and enumerations have a LOC equals to 0. Only concrete code that is effectively executed is considered when computing LOC. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     28 
  30. 30. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619   Namespaces, types, fields and methods declarations are not considered as line of code because they don’t have corresponding sequence points.  LOC computed from an anonymous method doesn’t interfere with the LOC of its outer declaring methods. Recommendations: Methods where LinesOfCode is higher than 20 are hard to understand and maintain. Methods where ILInstructions is higher than 40 are extremely complex and should be split in smaller methods (except if they are automatically generated by a tool). 2. LinesOfComment(NbComments): This metric can be computed only if PDB files are present and if corresponding source files can be found. The number of lines of comment is computed as follow:  For a method, it is the number of lines of comment that can be found in its body. If a method contains an anonymous method, lines of comment defined in the anonymous method are not counted for the outer method but are counted for the anonymous method.  For a type, it is the sum of the number of lines of comment that can be found in each of its partial definition.  For a namespace, it is the sum of the number of lines of comment that can be found in each of its partial definition.  For an assembly, it is the sum of the number of lines of comment that can be found in each of its source file. Notice that this metric is not an additive metric (i.e. for example, the number of lines of comment of a namespace can be greater than the number of lines of comment over all its types). Recommendations: This metric is not helpful to asses the quality of source code. We prefer to use the metric PercentageComment. 3. NbMethods: The number of methods. A method can be an abstract, virtual or non- virtual method, a method declared in an interface, a constructor, a class constructor, a finalizer, a property/indexer getter or setter, an event adder or remover. Recommendations: Types where NbMethods > 20 might be hard to understand and International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     29 
  31. 31. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  maintain but there might be cases where it is relevant to have a high value for NbMethods. 4. NbFields: The number of fields. A field can be a regular field, an enumerations value or a read only or a const field. Recommendations: Types that are not enumeration and where NbFields is higher 20 might be hard to understand and maintain but there might be cases where it is relevant to have a high value for NbFields. 5. Afferent coupling (Ca): The number of types outside this assembly that depend on types within this assembly. High afferent coupling indicates that the concerned assemblies have many responsibilities. 6. Efferent coupling (Ce): The number of types outside this assembly used by child types of this assembly. High efferent coupling indicates that the concerned assembly is dependant. There is a whole range of interesting code metrics relative to coupling. The simplest ones are named Afferent Coupling (Ca) and Efferent Coupling (Ce). Basically, the Ca for a code element is the number of code elements that use it and the Ce is the number of code elements that it uses. Figure 2: Afferent and Efferent Coupling You can define Ca and Ce for the graph of assemblies dependencies, the graph of namespaces dependencies, the graph of types dependencies and the graph of methods dependencies of a code base. You can also define the Ca metric on the fields of a program as the number of methods that access the field. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     30 
  32. 32. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  7. Cyclomatic Complexity (CC): Cyclomatic complexity is a popular procedural software metric equal to the number of decisions that can be taken in a procedure. Concretely, in C# the CC of a method is 1 + {the number of following expressions found in the body of the method }: if | while | for | foreach | case | default | continue | goto | && | || | catch | ternary operator? : | ?? Following expressions are notcounted for CC computation: else | do | switch | try | using | throw | finally | return | object creation | method call | field access The Cyclomatic Complexity metric is defined on methods. Adapted to the OO world, this metric is also defined for classes and structures as the sum of its methods CC. Notice that the CC of an anonymous method is not counted when computing the CC of its outer method. Recommendations: Methods where CC is higher than 15 are hard to understand and maintain. Methods where CC is higher than 30, are extremely complex and should be split in smaller methods (except if they are automatically generated by a tool). 8. Efferent coupling at method level (MethodCe): The Efferent Coupling for a particular method is the number of methods it directly depends on. 9. Afferent coupling at field level (FieldCa): The Afferent Coupling for a particular field is the number of methods that directly use it. 10. NbOverloads: The number of overloads of a method. . If a method is not overloaded, its NbOverloads value is equals to 1. This metric is also applicable to constructors. Recommendations: Methods where NbOverloads is higher than 6 might be a problem to maintain and provoke higher coupling than necessary. This feature helps reducing the number of constructors of a class. 11. Association Between Classes (ABC): The Association between Classes metric for a particular class or structure is the number of members of others types it directly uses in the body of its methods. 12. Depth of Inheritance Tree (DIT): The Depth of Inheritance Tree for a class or a structure is its number of base classes (including the System.Object class thus DIT >= International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     31 
  33. 33. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  1). Recommendations: Types where DepthOfInheritance is higher or equal than 6 might be hard to maintain. However it is not a rule since sometime your classes might inherit from third-party classes which have a high value for depth of inheritance. 13. NbAssemblies: Only application assemblies are taken into account. 14. NbNamespaces: The number of namespaces. The anonymous namespace counts as one. If a namespace is defined over N assemblies, it will count as N. 15. PercentageCoverage: The percentage of code coverage by tests. Code coverage data are imported from coverage files. If you are using the uncoverable attribute feature on a method for example, if all sibling methods are 100% covered, then the parent type will be considered as 100% covered. Coverage metrics are not available if the metric LinesOfCode is not available. Recommendations: The closer to 100%, the better. 16. Relational Cohesion (H): Average number of internal relationships per type. Let R be the number of type relationships that are internal to this project (i.e. that do not connect to types outside the project). Let N be the number of types within the project. H = (R + 1)/ N. The extra 1 in the formula prevents H=0 when N=1. The relational cohesion represents the relationship that this project has to all its types. Recommendations: As classes inside an project should be strongly related, the cohesion should be high. On the other hand, too high values may indicate over- coupling. A good range for RelationalCohesion is 1.5 to 4.0. Projects where, RelationalCohesion < 1.5 or RelationalCohesion > 4.0 might be problematic. 5. RATING SCALEA rating scale is a set of categorize designed to elicit information about a quantitative or aqualitative attribute. In the social sciences, common examples are the Likert scale and 1-10rating scales in which a person selects the number which is considered to reflect theperceived quality of a product. More than one rating scale is required to measure an attitudeor perception due to the requirement for statistical comparisons between the categories in thepolytomous Rasch model for ordered categories (Andrich, 1978). 5.1 Likert scale International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     32 
  34. 34. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 A Likert scale is a psychometric scale commonly used in questionnaires, and is the mostwidely used scale in survey research, such that the term is often used interchangeably withrating scale even though the two are not synonymous. When responding to a Likertquestionnaire item, respondents specify their level of agreement to a statement. The scale isnamed after its inventor, the US organizational-behavior psychologist Rensis Likert (1903-81). Each item may be analyzed separately or in some cases item responses may be summedto create a score for a group of items. Hence, Likert scales are often called summative scales.Likert scale data can, in principle, be used as a basis for obtaining interval level estimates ona continuum by applying the polytomous Rasch model, when data can be obtained that fit thismodel. In addition, the polytomous Rasch model permits testing of the hypothesis that thestatements reflect increasing levels of an attitude or trait, as intended. For example,application of the model often indicates that the neutral category does not represent a level ofattitude or trait between disagree and agree categories. Again, not every set of Likert scaleditems can be used for Rasch measurement. The data has to be thoroughly checked to fulfillthe strict formal axioms of the model.Likert scales usually have five potential choices (strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree,strongly disagree) but sometimes go up to ten or more. The final average score representsoverall level of accomplishment or attitude toward the subject matter [8].Since, each of the factors is intangible in nature and is hard to measure. It is also proposedthat they should be measured in terms of point system as follows: Table 1: Scale of Reusability: High Reusability 10-9 Medium Reusability 8-7 Low Reusability 6-5 Very low Reusability 4-3 No Reusability 2-1 International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     33 
  35. 35. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  Table 2: Scale of Maintainability: High Maintainability 10-9 Medium Maintainability 8-7 Low Maintainability 6-5 Very low Maintainability 4-3 No Maintainability 2-1 Table 3: Scale of Understandability: High Understandability 10-9 Medium Understandability 8-7 Low Understandability 6-5 Very low Understandability 4-3 No Understandability 2-1 Table 4: Scale of Modifiability: High Modifiability 10-9 Medium Modifiability 8-7 Low Modifiability 6-5 Very low Modifiability 4-3 No Modifiability 2-1 International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     34 
  36. 36. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  6. CORRELATION AND REGRESSION ANALYSISCorrelation and regression are generally performed together. The application of correlationanalysis is to measure the degree of association between two sets of quantitative data. Thereare virtually no limits of applying correlation analysis to any dataset of two or more variables.It is the researcher’s responsibility to ensure correct use of correlation analysis. Correlation isusually followed by regression analysis in many applications. The main objective ofregression analysis is to explain the variation in one variable (called the dependent variable),based on the variation in one or more other variables (called the independent variables). Ifthere are only one dependent variable and only one independent variable used to explain thevariation in it, then the model is known as simple regression. If multiple independentvariables are used to explain variation in one dependent variable, it is called multipleregressions [9]. Even though the regression equation could be either linear or non-linear, welimited our discussion to linear models.From the regression analysis of the various four factors (reusability, understandability,modifiability, maintainability) separately, using their respective metrics, the analysis ofrefactorability can be done by applying linear regression over refactorability using these fourfactors. Thus, the regression equation for refactorability will be as follows: Y=a+bX1+cX2+dX3+eX4Where, Dependent Variable= YIndependent Variables are: X1, X2, X3, and X4.The above mentioned regression equation is applied to each factor that is considered to beaffecting the refactorability of the software. The underlying steps are carried out for each ofthe factor separately, by considering their respective metrics as their independent variables.Step 1: Collect the dataset containing the values for each metric identified. And based on thatdataset, the points based on the rating scale are assigned, considering the rules.Step 2: The correlation is found among the independent variables and dependent variables,for each factor affecting refactoring. The SPSS 16 tool is used to find the correlation. Thepositive value of correlation specifies that the factor is directly affected by that variable. And,the negative value shows that the factor is inversely affected by the respective variable. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     35 
  37. 37. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 Step 3: The regression analysis is done to explain the variation in one variable (dependentvariable), based on the other variable (independent variable). The linear equation is used for aregression analysis and the values of the coefficients of the linear equation are determined.Step 4: The output of the regression is determined with the help of value of R-square. Themeasure of strength of association in the regression analysis is given by the determination ofR-square. The coefficient varies between 0 and 1 and represents the proportion of totalvariation in the dependent variable that is accounted by the variation in the factors.After applying all the steps to each factor, the refactorability is estimated using the linearregression equation, considering refactorability as the dependent variable and other fourfactors affecting refactoring as independent variables. The partial regression plots areobtained for each factor, the slope of which determines that the model designed to determinethe refactorability is good or bad. The linear slope of the graph determines that the modeldeveloped for refactorability based on that factor is good enough to determine therefactorability.The results of the regression analysis of all the factors, considered, that affect refactoring arestudied. Based on the results of each factor the points on the Rating scale are obtained forrefactorability. 7. CONCLUSIONSoftware Refactoring is an important area of research that promises substantialbenefits to software maintenance. Refactoring is a process that improves thequality and allows developers to repair code that is becoming hard to maintain,without throwing away the existing source code and starting again. We can returnwith a well structured and well designed code after proper application ofrefactoring techniques. By careful application of refactorings the system’s behavior willremain the same, but return to a well-structured design. The use of automated refactoringtools makes it more likely that the developer will perform the necessary refactorings, sincethe tools are much quicker and reduce chance of introducing bugs.From the literature survey of various research papers, the following factors are determined formeasuring refactoring of code and level of optimization of code namely- reusability,maintainability, understandability, modifiability. Here, we have proposed a 10-point system,to measure refactorability. The 10-point system is based on the Likert’s Rating Scale. The International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     36 
  38. 38. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 metrics that affect each factor of refactoring are determined and the values are calculated.The correlation and regression analysis is performed to determine the associations andvariations among the various metrics used and their respective factors. The linear regressionequation for applying regression analysis used is given asY=a + bX1 + cX2 + dX3 + eX4Where, Y= dependent variable, a, b, c, d, e are correlation coefficients, and X1, X2, X3, X4are independent variables. The variation in independent variables affects the variation independent variable.The measure of strength of association in the regression analysis is givenby the coefficient of determination, denoted by R-square. The coefficient varies between 0and 1 and represents the proportion of total variation in the dependent variable that isaccounted for, by the variation in the factors.REFERENCES[1] Martin Flower, Kent Beck, John Brant, William F. Opdyke, Don Roberts, 1999,Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code, Addison Wesley.[2] Robert C. Martin Series, 2004, Working Effectively with Legacy Code, Michael C.Feathers, Prentice Hall.[3] Frank Simon, Frank Steinbruckner, Claus Lewerentz, 2001, Metrics Based Refactorings,In: Proceedings of 5th European Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering,IEEE CS Press, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 30-38.[4] Arjun Guha, Shriram Krishnamurthi, 2010, Minding the (Semantic) Gap, EngineeringProgramming Language Theory.[5] W. C. Wake, 2003. Refactoring Workbook, Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co.,Inc., Boston, MA, USA.[6] C. Dorai, S. Venkatesh, 2003. Bridging the Semantic Gap with Computational MediaAesthetics, IEEE Multimedia, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp.15-17.[7] Tom Mens, Tom Tourwe, 2004, A Survey of Software Refactoring, IEEE Transactions onSoftware Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 126-139.[8] http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/Likert-scale.html[9] John Fox, 1997, Applied Regression Analysis, Linear Models, and Related Methods,Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     37 
  39. 39. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  OPTIMIZING FILTERING PHASE FOR NEAR-DUPLICATE DETECTION OF WEB PAGES USING TDW-MATRIXTanvi Gupta* ABSTRACTThe voluminous amount of web documents has weakened the performance and reliability ofweb search engines. Web content mining face huge problems due to the existence of duplicateand near-duplicate web pages. These pages either increase the index storage space orincrease the serving costs thereby irritating the users. In this paper, the proposed work is tooptimize the filtering phase consists of prefix and positional filtering by adding suffix filteringwhich is a generalization of positional filtering to the suffixes of the records. The goal is toadd one more filtering method that prunes candidates that survive the prefix and positionalfiltering.Keywords: near-duplicates, TDW-matrix, Prefix-filtering, Positional-filtering, suffix-filtering*Lingaya’s University, Faridabad, India International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     38 
  40. 40. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 INTRODUCTION:Over the last decade there is tremendous growth of information on World Wide Web(WWW).It has become a major source of information. Web creates the new challenges ofinformation retrieval as the amount of information on the web and number of users using webgrowing rapidly. It is practically impossible to search through this extremely large databasefor the information needed by user. Hence the need for Search Engine arises. Search Enginesuses crawlers to gather information and stores it in database maintained at search engine side.For a given users query the search engine searches in the local database and very quicklydisplays the results.But, the voluminous amount of web documents has resulted in problems for search enginesleading to the fact that the search results are of less relevance to the user. In addition to this,the presence of duplicate and near-duplicate web documents has created an additionaloverhead for the search engines critically affecting their performance. The demand forintegrating data from heterogeneous sources leads to the problem of near-duplicate webpages. Near-duplicate data bear high similarity to each other, yet they are not bitwiseidentical [2][4]. A. TDW Matrix AlgorithmTDW Matrix Algorithm is a three-stage algorithm which receives an input record and a thresholdvalue and returns an optimal set of near-duplicates. In first phase, rendering phase[3], all pre-processing are done and a weighting scheme is applied. Then a global ordering is performed to form aterm-document weight matrix. In second phase, filtering phase, two well-known filtering mechanisms,prefix filtering and positional filtering, are applied to reduce the size of competing record set andhence to reduce the number of comparisons. In third phase, verification phase, singular valuedecomposition is applied and a similarity checking is done based on the threshold value and finallywe get an optimal number of near-duplicate records. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     39 
  41. 41. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619  Fig.1: General Architecture [1]. B. Suffix Filtering Method:-Suffix filtering method, is a generalization of the positional filtering to the suffixes of therecords. However, the challenge is that the suffixes of records are not indexed nor their partialoverlap has been calculated. Therefore, we face the following two technical issues: (i) How to establish an upper bound in the absence of indices or partial overlap results? (ii) How to find the position of a token without tokens being indexed?The first issue is solved by converting an overlap constraint to an equivalent Hammingdistance constraint. Then lower bound the Hamming distance by partitioning the suffixes in acoordinated way. The suffix of a record x is denoted as xs. Consider a pair of records,(x, y), that meets the Jaccard similarity threshold t, and without loss of generality, |y| ≤ |x|.Since their overlap in their prefixes, is at most the minimum length of the prefixes, thefollowing upper bound can be derived in terms of the Hamming distance of their suffixes.H (xs, ys) ≤ Hmax =2|x| − 2 t/1 + t ・ (|x| + |y|) − ( t ・ |x| − t ・ |y| ) –(1)In order to check whether H (xs, ys) exceeds the maximum allowable value, an estimate of thelower bound of H (xs, ys) is provided below. First we choose an arbitrary token w from ys, International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     40 
  42. 42. IJRIME     Volume1Issue5   ISSN‐2249‐ 1619 and divide ys into two partitions: the left partition yl and the right partition yr. The criterionfor thepartitioning is that the left partition contains all the tokens in ys that precede w in the globalordering and the right partition contains w (if any) and tokens in ys that succeed w in theglobal ordering. Similarly, divide xs into xl and xr using w too (even though w might notoccur in x). Since xl (xr) shares no common token with yr (yl), H(xs, ys) = H(xl, yl) + H(xr, yr).The lower bound of H (xl, yl) can be estimated as the difference between |xl| and |yl|, andsimilarly for the right partitions. Therefore,H (xs, ys) ≥ abs (|xl| − |yl|) + abs (|xr| − |yr|) -(2)Finally, we can safely prune away candidates whose lower bound Hamming distance isalready larger than the allowable threshold Hmax.RELATED WORK:A .Prefix Filtering: Consider an Ordering O of the token universe U and a set of records,each with tokens sorted in the order of O. Let the p-prefix of a record x be the first p tokensof x. If O(x, y) ≥ α, then the (|x|−α+1)-prefix of x and the (|y|−α+1)-prefix of y must share atleast one token. Prefix filtering is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the corresponding overlapconstraint, an algorithm is designed as: first build inverted indices on tokens that appear inthe prefix of each record in an indexing phase. Then generate a set of candidate pairs bymerging record identifiers returned by probing the inverted indices for tokens in the prefix ofeach record in a candidate generation phase. The candidate pairs are those that have thepotential of meeting the similarity threshold and are guaranteed to be a superset of the finalanswer due to the prefix filtering principle. Finally, in a verification phase, evaluate thesimilarity of each candidate pair and add it to the final result if it meets the similaritythreshold. B. Positional Filtering: Consider an ordering O of the token universe U and a set ofrecords, each with tokens sorted in the order of O. Let token w = x[i], w partitions the recordinto the left partition xl (w) = x [1 . . . (i − 1)] And the right partition xr(w) = x[i . . |x|]. If O(x,y) ≥ α, then for every token w x ∩ y, O (xl (w), yl(w)) + min(|xr(w)|, |yr(w)|) ≥ α. International Journal of Research in IT, Management and Engineering                                                             www.gjmr.org     41