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  1. 1. STUDY OF ERGONOMICS IN INDUSTRIAL AND COMMON LIFEMade by : Surbhi sanchali Gupta 080909460 (192)
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES Understand the definition, purpose of ergonomics. Understand Primary Causes of Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs). Understand ways to prevent CTDs Study the basic methods to reduce / relieve ergo-stress in industrial environment and hence, increase the workforce efficiency.
  3. 3. What is Ergonomics? Ergonomics, also known as human factors, is the scientific discipline that seeks to understand and improve human interactions with products, equipment, environments and systems. Drawing upon human biology, psychology, engineering and design, ergonomics aims to develop and apply knowledge and techniques to optimise system performance, whilst protecting the health, safety and well-being of individuals involved. The attention of ergonomics extends across work, leisure and other aspects of our daily lives. Basically, Ergonomics is a science concerned with the fit between people and their work. It puts people first, taking account of their capabilities and limitations. Ergonomics aims to make sure that tasks, equipment, information and the environment suit each worker.
  4. 4. Factors taken into account:■ body size and shape■ fitness and strength■ posture■ the senses, especially vision, hearing and touch■ the stresses and strains on muscles, joints, nerves.■ mental abilities■ personality■ knowledge■ experience.■ the job being done and the demands on the worker■ the equipment used (its size, shape, and how appropriate it is for the task)■ the information used (how it is presented, accessed, and changed)■ the physical environment (temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, vibration)■ the social environment (such as teamwork and supportive management).
  5. 5. 1. Applied AnthropometryIntroduction The workplace should be designed to accommodate the body size of the user. Anthropometry is the measure of physical human traits that is applied to determine allowable space and equipment size and shape used for the work environment. Factors that are considered include agility and mobility, age, sex, body size, strength, and disabilities. Engineering anthropometry applies these data to tools, equipment, workplaces, chairs and other consumer products, including clothing design.
  6. 6. Example In the design of controls, the size of the operator‘s hand must be considered. Important hand dimensions include the circumference of the hand, breadth of the hand, circumference of the wrist, and the maximum grip. Knobs, for example, must consider these dimensions so they fit the hand comfortably and turn easily.1. Important Hand Dimensions:1—Circumference of hand2—Breadth of hand3—Circumference of wrist4—Maximum grip (circumference of thumb and forefinger)
  7. 7. 2. BiomechanicsIntroduction Biomechanics is the study of the structural elements of the human body in relation to how the body functions and how much stress, acceleration and impact it can stand. Simply defined, it is the application of the principles of mechanics to living biological material. Today, the total energy demanded from a person in the performance of an industrial task has often been drastically reduced through better engineering and technology.
  8. 8.  For example, poorly designed or improperly held hand tools may squeeze the hand’s Ulnar nerve, which can lead to numbness and tingling of the fingers. The simplest of hand tools, if designed without the due consideration to biomechanical principles, can adversely affect the health of people as well as their performance and productivity.
  9. 9. Equipment Improperly designed chairs or other poorly designed equipment may obstruct the blood flow to body tissues. It is essential that designers as well as the evaluators of tools and equipment be familiar with the location of blood vessels vulnerable to compression. Of special importance is the knowledge of the location of blood vessels and other pressure sensitive anatomical structures in the hand.
  10. 10. 3. Illumination Lighting of a sufficient intensity is essential to adequately perform visual tasks and to reduce worker fatigue. How a space is used and what it is used for influence how lighting should be applied. Other factors that influence lighting design for a task include appearance, economics, building costs, energy consumption and the quality of lighting desired. Factors affecting the visual environment include lighting fixtures, visual tasks, lighting maintenance, lighting system design and the individuals’ eyesight.
  11. 11.  The quantity of illumination relates to the amount of light that exists or is required at a workplace. The amount of light necessary for effective work depends on the nature of the work, the sharpness of a worker’s vision and the environment in which the work is done. In the design of good lighting, safety and welfare should be taken into account as well as visual efficiency. In some jobs where visual demands are not great, it is normal for recommended levels of illumination to be based on safety, welfare and amenity (creation of a pleasant environment). Too much light can be as damaging as too little.
  12. 12. Measures taken: The best ergonomic solution for these varying needs is to provide general workplace lighting and supplement it with specific task lighting. Lighting systems should be designed to provide a uniform distribution of light over the entire work area. To ensure that a given illumination level will be maintained, give more light initially than is minimally required. The reason for this is that such factors as dirt, use and time deteriorate lighting. Lighting should be directed to the work, or special local lighting should be provided to match the needs of the work and the general lighting levels.
  13. 13. Methodology•Analyse the ergonomical seating arrangements, chairadjustments.•Describe the ergonomically correct driving postures.•List the various CTDs and MSDs, their causes and preventiontechniques.•Analyse the industrial material handling issues, and risksinvolved.•Analyse the WISHA Calculator for Analyzing Lifting Operations.•Study the overexertion theory, and essential resting periods.•Collect information regarding job mediated injuries, their typesand their frequency.• Study trade specific injuries, and hence, suggest the preventiontechniques for the same.•Conduct a survey about job satisfaction dependency and drivinghabits and organize the results for a definite conclusion.
  14. 14. Importance of proposed workThis report: mentions the significance of ergonomic design of environment. glances upon the various negative health effects of improper postures, arrangements and positions, and gives alternate yet healthier options for the same. lists the various methods which if taken into consideration; increases the harmony, ergonomical stability in a system, and significantly reduces the work, or mechanically related injuries. Improves the efficiency of an industrial workforce.The overall performance of an industry depends upon the individual and overall health and well being of the workers involved, and hence increase in their output and performance improves the industrial growth and value.
  15. 15. Cumulative Trauma Disorders(CTDs)Introduction Musculoskeletal injuries caused by working are common. The majority of these injuries are not accident-related broken bones or strained ligaments. They usually develop over a period of time as a result of repeated stress on a particular body part. The condition is often ignored until the symptoms become chronic and permanent injury occurs. Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) and repetitive motion injuries are terms used to refer to certain musculoskeletal injuries.
  16. 16.  A key reason for the increase in CTDs is the increase in production due to automation. The assembly line, computerized office machines and electronic checkout stations in grocery stores are examples of workstations that require a high volume of output. One simple, strain-producing task may be repeated several thousand times a day. High production demands do not allow much time for rest and recovery. The aging workforce relates to the incidence of CTDs because the ability to withstand shock, chronic strain and stress decreases as an individual ages.
  17. 17. A. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is a common nerve CTD. It is a progressively disabling and painful condition of the hand. CTS results from injury to the median nerve, which is located in the wrist. It is a nerve entrapment that develops from the build-up of pressure on the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel. This is a dime size passage between the carpal (wrist) bones and the anterior transverse carpal ligament. Since musculoskeletal strain from repeatedly flexing the wrist or applying arm-wrist-finger force does not cause observable injuries, it often takes months or years for workers to detect damage.
  18. 18.  Symptoms of CTS include weakness, clumsiness, numbness, pain, tingling and a lack of sweating in parts of the hand innervated by the median nerve. The condition is progressive and can lead to hand disabilities. CTS is considered an occupational disease, as it is often associated with the performance of particular repetitive tasks.
  19. 19.  Tenosynovitis. Tenosynovitis is the inflammation of the tendons and sheaths. It is often associated with tasks demanding extreme wrist deviation. For example, wrist deviation is required to hold an in-line nut-runner in a horizontal position. Trigger finger. Trigger finger is a form of Tenosynovitis that results when any finger must be frequently flexed against resistance. It may be avoided by designing tool handles for operation by the thumb, by more than one finger, with lower force requirements, or by not requiring constant pressure. De Quervain’s Disease. In De Quervain’s disease, the tendon sheath of both the long and the short abductor muscles of the thumb narrows. The disease is common among women, particularly those who perform repetitive manual tasks involving radial or inward hand motion and firm grips.
  20. 20.  Tennis Elbow. This form of tendinitis is an inflammatory reaction of tissues in the elbow region. In an industrial environment, tennis elbow may follow effort requiring palm-upward hand motion against resistance, such as using a screwdriver, the violent upward extension of the wrist with the palm down. The condition may be avoided by ensuring that the rotation axis of the tool or machine coincides with the rotation axis of the forearm. Raynauds Syndrome Raynauds syndrome occurs when blood vessels and nerves in the hands constrict from conditions such as cold temperature, vibration or emotion. The hands, fingers or finger tips may become cold, blue, numb, and lose fine manipulative ability. Upon recovery, the hands become red, accompanied by a burning sensation. It can be confused with the one-sided numbness of carpal tunnel syndrome.
  21. 21. CORRECTIVE ACTIONS: Corrective actions to prevent CTDs include adjusting the height of work tables, conveyors and seats; automating tasks to eliminate manual handling; reducing the frequency of tasks or increasing the frequency to a point where automation is necessary; reducing the size or weight of loads; providing arm rests; redesigning hand tools so that the axis of rotation or application of force coincides with the axis of rotation of the arm; providing operator training ( as explained further in the presentation) using careful pre-placement screening to identify high risk employees; changing load positions in relation to the body or hands; minimizing the time that a load is held in the hands; and eliminating gloves if they cause a problem or trying different gloves.
  22. 22. Among recommendations to help prevent the development of CTDs are these:  Low frequency vibration in hand tools should be eliminated or reduced.  Wrist deviation from the straight position should be minimized especially where a great deal of force must be exerted.  Where possible, a closed fist (rather than a pinch) should be used to reduce tendon tension
  23. 23. 1. Hand tool corrections Each year, hand tools are the source of approximately 6 percent of all compensable injuries. Improper use of hand tools and defective tools can cause biomechanical stress and injuries. Types of injuries frequently reported include broken bones, contusions, loss of eyes and eyesight, and puncture wounds. Additionally, fingers, tendons and arteries are severed from the use of cutting tools. Basic safety precautions mandate that tools always be kept in good condition and be used properly. Workers should be careful to use the proper tool for the job performed. Figure illustrates particular hand tools with ergonomically designed features
  24. 24. Hand Tools with ErgonomicFeatures
  25. 25. 2. Hand and Wrist Postures Some hand tools may force the wrist to assume awkward postures. The wrist position affects the effective strength of the contracting muscles. Therefore, as the angle of the joint increases or decreases from the neutral position, there is more stress on the tendons. Ulnar deviation is the bending of the wrist toward the little finger, and radial deviation is the bending of the wrist toward the thumb. Extension is bending the wrist up and back, and flexion is bending of the wrist down towards the palm
  26. 26. 3. Finger and Hand Grips The grips used most frequently to hold objects are shown in Figure. The tip grip (pinching) is a position grasp used for precise manipulations. The side grip is also classified as a precision grip. Repeated use of these grips creates stress on the two tendons controlling the thumbs and fingers. The power grip requires the thumb to align with the long axis of the forearm and the wrist assumes a slight ulnar deviation. The posture may be stressful when combined with high repetition and extreme force.
  27. 27. 4. Seating Almost 50 percent of workers in the industrial world are thought to suffer from back problems. Many back problems originate from improper sitting positions. Complications that may arise from poor seating conditions include:  Lumbar damage from lack of support in the lumbar region.  Damage to the erector spine muscles due to sitting without back support.  Damage to the knees, legs, and lumbar region, from sitting without footrests of the proper height.  Damage to various muscle groups
  28. 28. A. Proper Sitting Positions Proper sitting contributes to the physical well-being of a worker. It may also add as much as 40 minutes of production to each worker’s day if the chair is properly selected and customized to support the lower back. The ideal position for sitting at work exists when there is a slight curve in the lumbar region of the back, as is found in the standing position. The worker’s shoulders should be relaxed, with the upper arms hanging down loosely. During work, the neck should not be bent too much
  29. 29. B. Guidelines to Chair Adjustment The human body dimension that provides a starting point for determining correct chair height is the “Popliteal” height. Figure illustrates the Popliteal height. This is the height from the floor to the point at the crease behind the knee. The chair height is correct when the entire sole of the foot can rest on the floor or footrest and the back of the knee is slightly higher than the seat of the chair. This allows the blood to circulate freely in the legs and feet. The back of the chair should be adjusted so that it catches the concave portion of the back’s lumbar region.
  30. 30. 5. Physical Space Arrangements For workspace to be functional, both the user of the space and the work to be performed must be considered. Workspace arrangements should consider worker comfort, physical constraints and performance requirements. Four basic considerations regarding the worker that must be taken into account are:  What the worker needs to see.  The amount of communication needed with co-workers and supervisors.  Equipment and material that the worker must be able to work with and reach.  Body clearances that are needed by the worker.
  31. 31. 6. Driving The goal of ergonomics is to fit your car so you can drive in a way that maximizes the natural ability of your body to move and respond to physical stress. This minimizes exposures to risk factors that may result in injury or illness.
  32. 32. Here are 10 easy things to look for before youstart your next drive: Remove items from your pockets, such as a wallet or keys, which may press on soft tissue as you sit down. This compression can reduce circulation or press on nerves and other soft tissues. Position items that you may need during your drive : sunglasses, tissue, if you have allergies like the rest of us, throat lozenges or mints, etc. Place these in a location so you do not have to reach for them while driving. If you have to reach for an item, take the time to pull over in a safe place instead of risking an accident and/or injury due to awkward reaching. Buckle up! If the seat belt strap is uncomfortable, take a short piece of large diameter soft pipe insulation or foam and place it on the part of the strap that is not comfortable against your body. If you like to spend money, purchase a shoulder strap cushion at your favourite store where car accessories are sold.
  33. 33.  Adjust your mirrors so that you do not have to crane your neck to see. If you have a blind spot in your car you can attach a small mirror your dashboard to improve your view. Lumbar support – the lower part of your back should feel supported. If it is not supported by your car seat you can roll up a small towel and place it in the curve of your lower back. A lumbar roll is a cylindrical shaped pillow sold at back stores and physical therapy offices. This is more expensive but some people like the support of foam and they also like to spend money. Back tilt – The least amount of pressure on the back occurs when your seat back is at 100-110 degrees so that you are slightly reclined. The seat back should fully support your back. If you cannot recline your seat back, take frequent breaks from your upright posture by shifting your weight side to side and using small upper body motions to relax the back (see the Wellness Centre staff for more ideas on exercises and stretches while driving). Seat cushion length – when seated in your car, scoot your tale bone as far back to the seat back as possible. After doing this, you should be able to place your hand comfortably between the back of your knee and the front of the seat. If you cannot do this, add a pillow or back cushion to your car seat to move you forward.
  34. 34.  Seat pan tilt – the seat of your car should allow for your knees to be slightly lower than your hips. This opens up your hip flexors and increases circulation to the back and decreases pressure on the lower back. Stepping up and stepping out – If you drive one of those large vehicles with a high step up/down add an extra step or slowly step in and out of your vehicle versus jumping down. Over time, the jumping down can cause compression to your spine. Straps and other hand assist devices for holding on to should be checked frequently for wear and tear. Steering wheel grip – “the best posture is the next posture.” It is advisable to keep two hands on your steering wheel except when shifting gears. Change your hand postures frequently to improve circulation and reduce fatigue.
  35. 35. There are common postures that should beavoided : The death grip – this grip results in decreased circulation and muscle tension. Your grip should be light. If your knuckles are white, you are gripping too hard! The one arm cool dude -the wrist rests at 12 o’clock on the steering wheel and the fingers flop over the top. Not only does this cause compression of soft tissue of the wrist, but it reduces circulation at the neck and shoulder, too. Arms straight out in front to reach the steering wheel – you should be able to drive with your shoulders relaxed and your arms close to the sides of your body. If you have to reach too far forward your steering wheel maybe too far away. You can try tilting the steering wheel upwards and using a light grasp lower on the steering wheel. One arm propped on your window – this posture decreases circulation at the neck and shoulder and may compress soft tissue on the arm/wrist.
  36. 36. The Back andMaterial Handling IssuesIn Industrial Processes
  37. 37. The Spinal Column CervicalThoracic Lumbar
  38. 38. Epidemiology of Back InjuriesShort Term or acute effects: • Sharp Surfaces • Dropped Material • Struck-by Moving Materials • Mechanical Stress • Slips and Falls“Simpler” Cause and effect relationship
  39. 39. Chronic or Long Term Effects • Back Ache or Pain • Disc DegenerationCause and effect not as simple, more difficult to analyze
  40. 40. Material Handling •Lifting/Lowering •Pushing/Pulling •Carrying •Weights and Forces •Frequency of Activities •Load Center of Gravity
  41. 41. Job Risk Factors • Weight of the Object • Location (position of load w.r.t. worker) • Frequency of Lifts • Stability of the Load • Hand Coupling • Workplace Geometry Twisting/Stooping • Environmental Factors
  42. 42. Personal Risk Factors •Gender •Age •Anthropometry •Lift technique •Attitude •Strength •Training
  43. 43. Examples ofManual Handling Controls• Avoid extreme range of motion when lifting• Redesign work station/work area to allow freedom of movement• Provide handles on material handling equipment• Provide lift-assist devices and tables• Unit Load Concept
  44. 44. Job Design Minimize reach and lift distances • Keep off floor • Work station design •Frequency • Relax time standard • Rotation • Work-Rest allowances
  45. 45. Job Design •Minimize Weight • Mechanical aids • Carton capacity • Balance contents •Convert • Carry to push/pull • Push over pull • Use large heels
  46. 46. Training •Focus on awareness and avoidance •Get object as close to body as possible •Planning •Use of handling aids •Back Schools •Strength and fitness important
  47. 47. WISHACalculator for Analyzing Lifting Operations
  48. 48. WISHAIf the job is a hazard • Reduce weight of load • Increase weight of load so that it requires mechanical assistance. • Reduce the capacity of the container, Etc.
  49. 49. Overexertion injuries A plethora of epidemiological studies reported in the literature reveal beyond doubt a strong association between exertion and injuries to the various regions of the human body. A number of cross-sectional and case studies have shown that various disorders were caused in the neck and shoulder regions by increased muscle contraction. The rapid increase of upper limb repetitive strain injury (RSI) or cumulative trauma disorders (CTD) has been largely attributed to the loads of posture force levels, and repetition of posture and/or force application.
  50. 50. Components of the overexertion theory Force of exertion  A reliable measure of strength is a single maximal voluntary contraction exerted over a period of up to five seconds  The value of strength varies in different activities.  Different levels of strength exertion have different levels of physiological demands.  the duration for which a muscular contraction can be sustained depends on the level of contraction.
  51. 51.  Contractions of the levels of 15 to 20 per cent only can be held indefinitely as a continuous hold. Higher levels of contraction impede the blood supply and thereby availability of nutrients and oxygen to the muscles doing the work. Furthermore, such an occlusion of the blood supply also interferes with the removal of metabolites, which results in a sensation of pain.
  52. 52. Relationship between exertion and risk of overexertion injuries. The graph shown (taken from biomechanics in ergonomics, by shrawan kumar) clearly indicated that there is a direct relationship between the MVC and job mediated risk. Also, higher the constant work level (CWL) higher the risk. Whereas the preferred work level (PWL) is at neutral risk.
  53. 53.  Duration of exertion  The significance of the time variable of exertion is dependent upon the type of contraction, the magnitude of contraction, the recovery period and the repetition of the activity in question.  the strength required on the job increases the injury incidence also increases.
  54. 54. Relationship between the frequency of job activity andthe job mediated risk of overexertion injuries.Therefore, from the graph, we can conclude that the repetitions of asimple job also need to be controlled. The management of an industrywould do well to rotate its employees if the job has a very highfrequency. It is true that a more experienced employee yields betterresults. But an employee who is ailing yields nothing.
  55. 55. So, we can conclude that, making even small changes in material handling habits can result in a large decrease in the chances for a vocational injury for a worker. The weight lifted/carried/transferred is not same for everybody or even for the same person in different positions. The people responsible for the worker class should take note of this, and implement this for a better and more effective workforce. The resting periods vary from job to job and can change drastically for an individual and must be taken into account, or the worker faces the danger of being burned out. Which leave him, and the industry dissatisfied, hence must be kept in mind. The industrial employers should make the resting cycles small but many, instead of only some long cycles.
  56. 56. Common Job mediated injuries andprevention techniques. Workplace injuries happen all the time. The most susceptible employees who experience workplace injuries are those working in more dangerous areas such as construction sites and factories. However the most common types of injuries which have greatly affected both employees and employers are those that we dont necessarily think as dangerous but are nevertheless detrimental to the health and safety of workers.
  57. 57. Here are some of the most common and disabling workplaceinjuries according to the 2008 Workplace Safety Index:1. Overexertion-- This includes injuries related to pulling, lifting, pushing, holding, carrying, and throwing activities at work. Overexertion has consistently been a number one workplace injury among the surveys and statistics.2. Fall on Same Level Surfaces-- This pertains to falls on wet and slippery office floors. Other related examples are falls and slips especially by elderly people on snow covered pathways on their way to work.3. Fall to Lower Level - This type of fall happens from an elevated area such as roofs, ladders, and stairways.
  58. 58. 4. Bodily Reaction-- These are injuries caused by slipping and tripping without falling.5. Struck by Object-- Objects that fall from shelves or dropped by another person. These can cause very serious injuries.6. Struck against an Object - This happens when a person accidentally runs into concrete objects such as walls, doors, cabinets, glass windows, table, chairs etc.7. Highway Incident - Transportation used for business purposes such as trucks and cars may be involved in an automobile accident just like any regular traveller.8. Caught in/ compressed by - This type of injury usually occurs in a factory where large and dangerous machinery is used. Sometimes little or no precaution in its usage may endanger the safety of its operators. Exposure to extreme temperature is also an example of this workplace injury.
  59. 59. 9. Repetitive Motion - This type of workplace injury is one of those less obvious but definitely harmful ones in the long run. Repetitive motions such as typing and using the computer 24/7 can strain muscles and tendons causing back pain, vision problems, and carpal tunnel syndrome.10. Assaults and violent acts - Attacks caused by office politics and other arguments have led to serious physical injuries.11. Since workplace injuries will surely affect the employees physical and mental health, it is clearly stated by the law that they are entitled to receive proper compensation for the damages. Workplace injuries can cause a major disability that is ultimately detrimental to the employees work and personal life. So in the event that the company fails to address this concern, the worker may sue the company for the damages and medical expenses.
  60. 60. Prevention There are a lot of ways that employers and employees can do in order to prevent work related injuries. First is a careful planning of the office or work area from the location of the equipment, tables and chairs, and also warning signs for other dangerous equipment. Using engineering control systems, work materials can minimize awkward positions, strenuous handling, and repetitive motion problems. Manuals on the proper use of work tools should be regularly updated and enforced to the employees. It is also best if the management can include fitness and exercise programs to avoid overexertion. Finally, employees should realize that being extra careful will definitely go a long way. Preventing work injuries will always be a two way street for both employers and employees.
  61. 61. Nature of injury or illness of non-fataloccupational injuries and illnesses involving daysaway from work, 2003Nature of injury PercentSprains, strains 42.9Bruises, contusion 9Cuts, lacerations 7.3Fractures 7.2Heat Burns 1.5Carpal tunnel syndrome 1.7Tendonitis .6Chemical burns .6Amputations .6Multiple Traumatic Injuries 3.6Other 25.0
  62. 62. Sprains and strains were the leading nature of injury or illness in everymajor industry sector in 2003, with 33 percent of these cases occurring inthe trade, transportation, and utilities major industry sector and anadditional 19 percent in the education and health services major industrysector.The three occupations with the overall greatest number of injuries andillnesses were labourers and material movers; heavy and tractor-trailertruck drivers; and nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.Labourers and material movers, and heavy and tractor-trailer truckdrivers often suffered sprains and strains to the trunk or lowerextremities, stemming from overexertion or contacts with objects orequipment.Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants predominantly suffered sprainsand strains to their trunk (typically their back), due to overexertionrelated to lifting or moving patients.
  63. 63. Preventing common injuries Back injuries Low back pain is the most common and costly of work related musculoskeletal disorders. Other back injuries include: spinal disc rupture (particularly of the lower lumbar spine) nerve compression (the most common is sciatica nerve pain) muscle spasm of the back/hip muscles Aggravation of a pre-existing degenerative condition.
  64. 64. The major causes of back injuries are: Manual tasks such as lifting, pushing and pulling (by far the major cause at 50%) frequent twisting postures slipping, tripping and falling static sitting or standing for long periods sustained fixed postures (even the most comfortable) Vibration (particularly plant and vehicle seating).Ways to control hazards Redesign the work and the manual tasks to eliminate or minimise the degree of handling required. If working with a bent back: take short breaks to straighten your back and stretch. If lifting repeatedly: take regular breaks, particularly in hot weather when you fatigue faster. If continuously sitting: stand and walk occasionally. Store some work items just out of reach so you have to move. If standing for long periods: occasionally sit on a high stool or a sit/stand chair. When you need to position a load in another direction: turn with your whole body. Do not twist your trunk. Store loads close to where you need them to save double handling. Return mechanical aids to where they belong so others can locate them easily. Alternate heavy jobs with light jobs. Use assistance to move heavy or awkward loads.
  65. 65. Upper limb injuries Upper limb injuries are common in keyboard work and processing, production and manufacturing industries. They affect nearly all soft tissues of the upper limb (including muscles, tendons, tendon sheaths, nerves and blood vessels) and may affect the lower limb. Common injuries include tendon disorders (like tendonitis), nerve disorders (like carpal tunnel syndrome) and neurovascular disorders (like Raynauds Syndrome which affects the circulatory and nervous systems).
  66. 66. Upper limb injuries are caused by: repetitive motions (such as packing or sorting) static postures or sustained exertions (such as gripping and manipulating a hand tool that is too big) forceful exertions (such as lifting a heavy load or cutting with a blunt knife). vibration compression or contact stress (caused by hard or sharp edges) awkward postures working in low temperatures prolonged duration and frequency of work psychosocial stresses.
  67. 67. Ways to control hazards Redesign the work and the manual tasks to eliminate or minimise the degree of handling. Remove or reduce repetition in the job. Modify the workplace layout. Modify equipment. Maintain equipment. Provide task-specific training (given in combination with other control options).
  68. 68. Survey results and conclusions drawn (the survey conducted can be found at and the answer collected can be seen after completing the survey.)
  69. 69. The Survey Conducted1. Were you aware that there are ergonomically stable chair, keyboard and other materials available very easily?  No, and I dont frankly know what "ergonomically" means.  Yes I have heard of them, but dont know how effective they are.  Yes, I have heard of them, and plan to use some of them.  Yes, and have used several, but dont think they make much difference.  Yes, and use them to my extreme satisfaction.2. Do you drive an automobile? If yes then how often?  No, not really.  Yes, but only if I need to. I dont like doing it.  Yes, I do it as often as I have to, I cant really get anywhere without it.  Yes, I do it often, my work requires me to.  Yes, I love to drive. I like taking long drives several times a week.
  70. 70. 3. How tiring do you find driving as a work?  Driving = work? not really. It is fun. I dont get tired at all even after long hours of driving a vehicle.  Very tiring. I try avoid doing it myself as often as possible. My muscles ache because of it.  Only a little bit tiring. I dont really mind doing it. After all it is not like you can avoid it.  Other (please specify)4. Have you ever had a work related injury? like a muscle pull or a bone fracture? Can you please describe it please if yes?5. Have you ever quit a job/ thought seriously about quitting it, because you are uncomfortable, tired a lot at it? If yes, then why?6. have you ever had a driving related injury or an accident? if yes, can you please describe the injury and how it happened? Even if you were you not behind the wheel.
  71. 71.  7. How often do you find yourself straining your neck because you forgot to adjust your side/back view mirrors?
  72. 72. Question1) were you aware that there are ergonomically stable chair, keyboard and other materials available very easily?50 No, and I frankly know what "ergonomically means4540 Yes, I have heard of 35 them, but dont know how 30 effective they are 25 Yes, I have heard of 20 them, and plan to use some of them 15 10 Yes, I have used several, but 5 dont think they make much difference 0 %age Yes, and I use them to my satisfaction
  73. 73. Conclusion: people have either not heard of them (ergonomic friendly products) at all, or have not been satisfied with their marketing/ final product. There needs to be a more focused market on this so people can make use of them more efficiently.
  74. 74. Question2) Do you drive an automobile? If yes then how often? No, not really 35 30 Yes, but only if I need to. I dont really like doing it 25 Yes, I do it as often as I 20 have to, I cant really get anywhere without it 15 Yes, I do it often, my work requires me to 10 I love to drive. I Like 5 taking long drives several times a week 0 %age
  75. 75. Conclusion: contrary to popular belief, most people do not relish the idea of driving excessively, and they see it more as a ‘thing they have to do in the new world.’ Or they avoid it all together. If the drive was more comfortable, and less of a stressful activity, more people would enjoy a necessary task that they have to perform. Today, a number of solutions are available to make the driving less stressful a task, as posted further on.
  76. 76. Question3) How tiring do you find driving as a work?40 Driving is not work. I dont get tired even35 after long hours of driving.30 Very tiring. I try to25 avoid doing it myself as often as possible. It20 makes my muscles ache Only a little tiring. I15 dont really mind doing it. It is not like I can10 avoid it. I dont drive 5 0 %age
  77. 77. Conclusion: A very large number of people either treat driving as a tiresome work, or don’t do it at all. That seems to point out, that driving and by that extension, prolonged sitting is uncomfortable. It can be made more comfortable by some aforementioned postures and ways.
  78. 78.  Question4) Have you ever had a work related injury? like a muscle pull or a bone fracture? Can you please describe it please if yes?Responses (very similar responses have not been written repeatedly)  Yes, While gyming it happens very often, when muscles expand and you tend to put more pressure it gets to a point when u find it hard to move your limbs for even the most common things that you normally do.  neck, shoulder , upper back discomfort from the extremely uncomfortable lab stools  Yes, I have pulled my back out twice at my current job.  Pulled muscle in back, pulled hamstring, dislocated knee cap, spinal compression, and separated shoulders, among many others at my job.  Yes, I have pulled my back out twice at my current job.
  79. 79.  Upper back, and neck pain due to sitting hunched over my PC.  Tendinitis on my right thumb: According to the doctor its due to the excessive use of the thumb in activities such as texting, videogames, writing and use of devices such as an iPod. Its also known as the iPod finger or a Nintendo or a blackberry finger.  Yes, muscle tear during my work as an Army Officer.  Back and neck pain while sitting in front of laptop.  shoulder dislocation  Yes. Back ache and muscle pull in hand because of long hours in front of PC.  EtcConclusion: the most common injuries mentioned here are job related injuries, and they discourage people from working hard, and spread job dissatisfaction. Also, the some of the injuries mentioned here are due to improper postures in front of computers, which are a big part of the modern life. So, the importance of a good posture is very significant.
  80. 80. Question5) Have you ever quit a job/ thought seriously about quitting it, because you are uncomfortable, tired a lot at it? If yes, then why? yes...not happy with boss... yup, quit one of my internships once when they made me travel 2 hours daily in a really uncomfortable way. Yes. the discomforts mimics the pain seen in spondilitis patients Yes, got tired of it and found a better job hence left it Yes, when I had the problem with excessive dust, and they wouldn’t take a very inexpensive action needed to get rid of it. It showed me I wasn’t important enough, so.Conclusion: when administration fails to show the employee they matter by avoiding taking care of their safety/comfort, it breeds dissatisfaction, anger, and result of human resources.
  81. 81. Question6) How often do you find yourself straining your neck because you forgot to adjust your side/back view mirrors? not really I adjust as and when required Never, first thing I check, even when getting into my own car very very often quite often Sometimes, but usually I dont forget. Quite some times. not often twice a day SeldomConclusion: A high number of people forget to adjust the mirrors while driving, and have to strain their neck because of it. That can and usual does result in CTDs.
  82. 82. CONCLUSION AND FUTURESCOPE OF WORKThis project gives the various postures for a better health, for avoiding CTDs/MSDs andergonomic stability of an environment, various material handling techniques, handtool corrections, the design for a home stair support railing, and various techniques toimprove the sitting and driving experience. •Small and slight changes in the equipments/ chairs/ space arrangement/ lifting methods ensure that the posture and the blood supply to all the nerves and vessels are optimised. •Material handling risks can be minimized by the help of proper training, a conscious decision to follow the correct lifting methods. •Overexertion injuries are caused by either doing too big a job, or doing it too many times. The preferred work level for an employee makes the job mediated risk minimal. It is the duty of the industrial administration to ensure that the workforce is not abused or made to burn out.
  83. 83. The survey conducted can be summed as: the market for ergonomics paraphernalia is not evolved, and needs to be developed in order to help people. Driving, or simply sitting for long durations can be made more comfortable, and should be given more attention; as it a big part of the modern day life. Job satisfaction depends very significantly on the comfort level/safety of the employee. It is the job of administration to make sure the job mediated risk is minimized to increase loyalty and job security for their work force.
  84. 84. Future Scope There should be further research on the safety and hazard factors for industries, and also in the field of ergonomics as a whole. The administration of employers should develop a system to ensure no employee is burned out or is at a risk of job mediated injuries. All over the world, UN has labour laws in effect. But in India, they are ignored or worse, have not been implemented at all. The implementation of these laws is fairly simple, and should help the industry too. The ergonomically efficient models and consumer products available in the market receive a very lukewarm review and can be much developed upon. Better products will ensure that the vocational injuries and CTDs are minimized.
  85. 85. Thank you