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Temple of sun modhera

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Temple of sun modhera

  1. 1. TEMPLE OF SUN MODHERA
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • THE SUN TEMPLE,MODHERA IS THE MOST SPLENDED EXAMPLE OF SOLANKI STYLE ARCHITECTURE. • IT IS ONE OF THE FINEST EXAMPLE OF INDIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE OF THIS PERIOD. • ACCORDING TO AN INSCRIPTION,FOUND WITHIN ITS BROKEN WALLS,ITS EXACT DATE HAS BEEN REVELED AS 1026-27. • IT WAS BUILT UNDER THE RULE OF BHIMA I OF THE SOLANKI DYNASTY. • IT IS ON A SITE 18 MILES SOUTH-EAST OF MODERN PATNA. • IN SPITE OF ITS RUINED CONDITION LITTILE IMAGINATION IS REQUIRED TO PICTURE THIS BUILDING. • IT WAS DESTROYED BY THE MEHMOOD OF GHAZNI.
  3. 3. • IT IS DEDICATED TO THE SUN-GOD SURYA. • THIS TEMPLE WAS SO DESIGNED THAT THE RAYS OF THE SUN WOULD FALL ON THE IMAGE OF SURYA AT THE TIME OF THE EQUINOXIES. • THE MODHERA STILLRETAINS ENOUGH OF ITS STRUCTURE TO CONVEY THE GRANDEUR OF ITS CONCEPTION. • EVERY INCH OF THE EDIFICE,BOTH INSIDE AND OUTSIDE IS MAGNIFICENTLY CARVED WITH GODS AND GODDESSES,BIRDS AND BEASTS AND FLOWERS. • THE INNER SANCTUM,WHICH HOUSED THE PRESIDING DIETY,FACES EAST.
  4. 4. THE STRUCTURE • THE TEMPLE IS CONFRONTED WITH LARGE SACRED POOL OR THE SURYA KUNDA. • THE TEMPLE IS DIVIDED INTO TWO MAIN SECTIONS - THE PILLARED HALL OR SABHA MANDAPA AND THE MAIN TEMPLE OR GUDHA MANDAPA.
  5. 5. THE SURYA KUNDA •ALSO KNOWN AS RAMA KUNDA. •A MASSIVE RECTANGULAR STEPPED TANK, FOR ABLUTIONS. •COMPRISING A SHEET OF WATER CONTAINED WITHIN A RECTANGULAR ARRANGMENT OF PLATFORMS AND TERRACES INTERSPACED WITH SHRINES OF VARIOUS SIZES AND SHAPES. •ON ITS WESTERN SIDE A WIDE FLIGHT OF STEPS LEADS TO TORANA.
  6. 6. THE MAIN TEMPLE •THIS BUILDING WAS ELEVATAD ON A BROAD TERRACE CONSTRUCTED OF SOLID BRICK FACED STONE WHICH FORMED AN IMPOSING COURTYARD AROUND IT. •THE TEMPLE IS RESOLVED INTO TWO SEPARATE STRUCTURES CONNECTED BY A NARROW PASSAGE. •CONSISTING OF ON ONE HAND OF AN OPEN PILLARED HALL OR “SABHA MANDAPA” AND ON THE OTHER HAND AN ENCLOSED RECTANGULAR BUILDING CONTAINING THE COMPARTMENTS,THE ASSEMBLY HALL OR “GUDHA MANDAPA” AND THE SHRINE OR “GARBHA GRIHA”,THE AXIAL LENGTH OF THE WHOLE BEING 145 feet.
  7. 7. • ALTHOUGH THE TWO STRUCTURES COMPRISING THE TEMPLE DIFFER FROM EACH OTHER IN CHARACTER ,AS THE ONE IS IN THE FORM OF AN OPEN HYPOSTYLE HALL AND THE OTHER IS ENCLOSED WITHIN WALLS, BY THE SKILLFUL ADJUSTMENT OF THEIR MOULDINGS, STRING-COURSES AND HORIZONTAL ELEMENTS GENERALLY, THE COMPOSITION IS SO WELL HARMONISED AS TO PRODUCE THE NECESSARY EFFECT OF WHOLNESS.
  8. 8. •ON THE PLAN SABHA MANDAPA IS BASED ON A SQUARE OF NEARLY 50 feet WIDE, PLACED DIAGONALLY WITH THE AXIAL LINE, ITS SIDES BEING INTERRUPTED AT REGULAR INTERVALS BY RECESSED CHASES. •THE RECTANGULAR PART OF THE TEMPLE IS 80 feet BY 50 feet. •IN ITS DESIGN RECESSED RECESSED ANGLES ARE ALSO A DISTINCTIVE FEATURE OF THE EXTERIOR.
  9. 9. • THE SOLE ENTRANCE IS THROUGH A PILLARED PORTICO ON THE EAST, WHERE IT CONNECTS WITH THE WESTERN OR REAR DOORWAY OF THE “SABHA MANDAPA”. • AT THE INTERVALS IN THE SIDES ARE WINDOW OPENINGS, FIVE IN NUMBER EACH A WELL PROPORTIONED APERTURE AND WITH ITS SIDE PILLARS RELIEVING THE WALL IN AN INTERESTING MANNER. • THE ELEVATION IS COMPOSED OF THE THREE MAIN DIVISIONS ALREADY REFERRED TO WITH THE BASEMENT OR “PITHA” CONSISTING OF THE CONVENTIONAL RANGE OF CARVED MOULDINGS, ABOVE WHICH IS THE SPACIOUS “MANDOVARA”, OR PANELLED WALL-FACE, RICHLY EMBELLISHED WITH FIGURE SCULPTURE, EACH IMAGE ENSHRINED IN A NICHE. • THE SUPER STRUCTURE OF THIS BUILDING HAS COMPLETELY DISAPPEARED, BUT IT COMPRISED OF THE TRADITIONAL ARRANGMENT OF A LOW PYRAMIDAL ROOF OVER THE FRONT PORTION, AND A TALL TURRETED SIKHARA OVER THE SHRINE.
  10. 10. • THE INTERIOR OF THIS ENCLOSED PORTION IS DIVIDED EQUALLY INTO TWO COMPARTMENTS, EACH CONSISTING OF A SQUARE OF 25 feet SIDE. • THE FRONT OR THE EASTERN BEING THE “GUDHA MANDAPA”, OR ASSEMBLY HALL, CONTAINING 8 COLUMNS AROUND A CENTRAL OCTAGONAL NAVE, ABOVE WHICH IS HIGHLY ORNAMENTAL CEILING. • LEADING OUT OF THIS COMPARTMENT, THROUGH A SHALLOW FOUR PILLARED VESTIBULE, IS A SHRINE CHAMBER-A SQUARE CELL WITH A PROCESSIONAL PASSAGE AROUND IT. • THE AESTHETIC SENSE OF MODHERA TEMPLE RESPONS TO THE ELEGANCE OF ITS TREATMENT AND ITS PROPOTIONAL AS A WHOLE. • CARVED DECORATION IS HERE SPARSELY DISTRIBUTED, MOST OF IT BEING CONCENTRATED ON THE ENTRANCE TO THE CELLA.
  11. 11. SABHA MANDAPA • PLANNED IN USUAL GUJARATI STYLE AROUND AN OCTAGONAL PILLARED SPACES. • SLOPING SEATS AND DWARF COLUMNS ARE SET IN RECTANGULAR OFFSETS AROUND ITS PERIPHERI. • THE SHAFTS OF EACH OF ITS COLUMNS ARE EXQUISITELY EMBROIDED WITH SCROLLS OF ORNAMENTATION, INTERSPAC ED WITH SCULPTURES OF GODS AND GODESSES.
  12. 12. • THE PILLARS ARE ON THE PERIPHERI OF THE CENTRAL OCTAGONAL SPACES ARE LOCKED TOGETHER BY DELICATELY CARVED INTERLINKED SINUOUS BRACKETS APTLY REFERRED TO AS “FLYING TORANAS”. • ON PLAN “SABHA MANADAPA” IS PLACED ON A SQUARE OF 50 feet WIDE PLACED DIAGONALLY WITH AXIAL LINE ITS SIDES BEING INTERUPTED AT REGULAR INTERVALS BY RECESSED CHASES. • THERE ARE PILLARED ENTRANCES WITH CUSPED ARCHWAYS AT EACH OF THE FOUR CORNERS AND A SMALLER PIILLAR WITHIN EACH RECESSED ANGLE.
  13. 13. • THE INTERIOR OF HALL IS COMPOSED OF TWO ASILES OF PILLARS ARRANGED ALONG THE DIAGONALS OF ITS SQUARE PLANS, THUS PRODUCING A CRUCIFORM EFFECT. • BY OMITTING THE CENTRAL PILLARS AT THE JUNCTION OF THESE CROSS AISLES, THE OCTAGONAL SPACE OF THE NAVE OPENS OUT IN THE MIDDILE OF THE HALL AND ABOVE THIS RISES THE DOMED CEILING, ELEVATED HIGHER THAN THE ASILES BY THE MEANS OF AN ATTIC STOREY. • AS TO DIMENSIONS THE PILLARS ARE 13 feet HIGH, RIM OF THE DOME IS 17 feet WITH ITS CENTRE 23 feet FROM THE FLOOR LEVEL.
  14. 14. SUBMITTED BY: TAAPSI NAYYAR SURBHI MODI SAHIL KUMAR ARORA

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