School group learning at environmental site present 22 august 2011 e

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School group learning at environmental site present 22 august 2011 e

  1. 1. SCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR,MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITESuradiah Labintah M510421-1Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Michihiko Shinozaki22 August 2011
  2. 2. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Introduction Escalations of global environmental issues Environmental education 1977 Tbilisi Declaration as tool to disseminate 1987 in Brundtland Report 1980’s World Conservation Strategy environmental knowledge 1990s Caring for the Earth: A Strategy for Sustainable Living Agenda 21 1996 APEID for UNESCO Education in the environment Education about environment Education for the environment Need for Evaluation of the 1996 APEID Effectiveness of Environmental Education Educational tourism Program at Educational as platform to interpret the tourism site environmental educationSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  3. 3. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Problem statement Educational tourism Educational tourism Cultural Natural-area as platform to interpret tourism tourism the environmental education Australia: Secondary Learning Programs at Australian Botanic Adventure Nature-based Wildlife Gardens; Ecotourism tourism tourism tourism South Carolina: State Education and Environment Roundtable (SEER) Education for sustainability Tourism in the environment … about… … for… Scotland: Curriculum for Excellence through Outdoor Learning Wildlife tourism: UNDER RESEARCH Forestell 1993; Singapore: ‘Young Naturalist Duffus and Dearden 1993; Programme’ at Sungei Buloh Wetland Research Gap Davis et al 1997; Reserve Orams 1997; Nature-based tourism: Orams and Hill 1998; Stewart, Hayward and Devlin 1998 Schanzel and McIntosh 2000; Paisley et al 2008 Woods 2000 Malaysia ?: UNDER RESEARCH Packer and Ballantyne 2002; Moscardo 2006; Research Gap (Refer to Table 2.3 page 10) Ecotourism: Weaver and Lawton 2007SCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  4. 4. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Aims of Study Aims: To investigate the relationship of knowledge gained and effectiveness of nature-based educational program in the context of national park in Malaysia – Tourism in the Tanjung Piai National Park environment Research question: UNDER RESEARCH How effective is the educational program at Taman Negara Tanjung Piai? Context : Malaysia Does educational activities that involve direct contact with nature has implications towards environmental education at Taman Negara Tanjung Piai?.SCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  5. 5. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Objectives of Study Objectives of study: • To understand the nature-based educational tourism Chapter 2 and 3: Literature Review through literature search • To understand the relationship of nature setting as Chapter 2: Introduction to independent variable towards effectiveness of nature- Educational Tourism and Environmental Education based educational tourism program • To identify methods to evaluate the effectiveness of Chapter 3: Evaluation of EE nature-based educational tourism • To investigate the effectiveness of nature-based Chapter 4: Research Design educational tourism program at TNTP • To identify ways in which the nature-based educational Chapter 5: Results and Discussion tourism program at TNTP could improveSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  6. 6. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Scope of Study Evaluation of Environmental Education Program at Educational Tourism Site Objectives of Environmental Nature-based educational Segmentation of educational tourism Education Program tourism attractions Awareness Beach resorts Adult and Seniors Educational Tourism Knowledge Campgrounds School’s Educational Tourism Attitudes Parks University and College Student’s Tourism Skills Ski resorts Participation Cruises Ritchie(2006) Golf courses Tbilisi Declaration (1977) Nature reserves : national park Organization camps Bike/hike trails Scenic roads Gunn and Var (2002)SCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  7. 7. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Summary: Evaluation of Environmental Education Interpretation “Evaluation is a process that critically examines a program. It involves collecting and analyzing information about a program’s activities, characteristics, and outcomes. Its purpose is to make judgments about a program, to improve its effectiveness, and/or to inform programming decisions” Patton 1987 Steps of Measurement Benefits of Evaluation Types of Evaluation Planning an Indicators in EE EE Evaluation Cycles Evaluation Methods Evaluation EvaluationSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  8. 8. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Research Design Steps of Measurement Benefits of Evaluation Types of Evaluation Planning an Indicators in EE EE Evaluation Cycles Evaluation Methods Evaluation Evaluation Improvement Stage I: Formative Questionnaires Level 1: Reaction Understand Planning and personal Justify √ Summative: interviews Level 2: Learning Determine Stage II: Data Outcome Measure √ Collection Evaluation Visitor’s Level 3: Behavior Reveal Observation or application Validate Stage III: Data Share information √ Analysis and Reporting Focus group and other interactive Level 4: Results techniques Level 5: Return of investment (ROI) Combined systemsSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  9. 9. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Research Design: Study AreaTaman Negara Tanjung Piai (TNTP) or Tanjung Piai National Park SCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE: A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  10. 10. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Research Design: The 2 Days 1 Night EE Program Day 1: Morning session Registration Introduction session and Pre-trail drawing session on slideshow; ‘What do I know about mangrove?’ Introduction to “Setting up Tent” Lunch break Interpretations - Introduction lectures by - Students divided into smaller groups of the staff minimum 5 students - Watching slideshow - Each group given an A4 paper to draw through audio-visual within 15 minutes before the conduction equipment of mangrove education trail - Introduction lectures by the staff on how to set up tent and watch demonstrationSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  11. 11. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Research Design: The 2 Days 1 Night EE Program Day 1: Afternoon session Mangrove education trail Interpretations - In the mangrove forest (on designated trail with mangrove - Trail ended at location of ‘the boardwalk) Southernmost Tips of Asia’ - Students in previous groups of maximum 5 students - Introduction to the physical layout - Each group lead by one interpreter (staff) of mangrove estuarine and in - Introduction to mangrove forest including naming the flora particular the layout of TNTP and fauna, understanding the role and benefits of mangrove forestSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  12. 12. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Research Design: The 2 Days 1 Night EE Program Day 1: Afternoon session Mangrove clean-up Outdoor local games break Interpretations - In the mudflats along the mangrove boardwalk - At courtyard beside the - Community service by collecting the rubbish within the visitor complex mudflats - Student in similar groups - Competition between groups on the team with most - Compete between groups collected rubbish by weight on typical games including carrying multiple balls, water balloon and local game belon acahSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  13. 13. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Research Design: The 2 Days 1 Night EE Program Day 1: Night session Day 2: Morning Mangrove game Night trail or Morning Post-trail Closing Rest. exercise and (quiz session) Tea break Kembara si buta End of Day 1 Breakfast drawing ceremony Interpretations - In the hall - In the mangrove forest (on - In the hall - In the hall - Students in similar designated trail with - Similar groups of - Closing speech by the groups mangrove boardwalk) minimum 5 students staff - Each group are given - Students in previous groups - Each group given an - Distribution of 20 balloons that of maximum 5 students A4 paper to draw certificate represent 20 quiz - Each group lead by one within 15 minutes answer interpreter (staff) after the mangrove - Balloon is puncture for - Understanding the mangrove education trail each wrong answer forest through multisensory - Comparison of approach before-and-after - Include some challenging drawings approach of ghostly figure - Competition of around the park to build up group’s drawing student’s confidence based on the details of mangrove understandingSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  14. 14. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Research Design: Evaluation Framework Measurement Benefits of EE Steps of Planning Evaluation Cycles Types of Evaluation Evaluation Methods Indicators in EE Evaluation an Evaluation Evaluation Research Barrier What to evaluate? Priorities of the 2D1N Environmental Education Program No formal The effectiveness of To distribute knowledge of mangrove flora and fauna, its role in documentation the 2D1N program to the ecosystem and its utilization. on the design of disseminate mangrove the EE program knowledge and what is To distribute knowledge on the conservation of TNTP mangrove at Tanjung Piai the effective through its natural resources and by the novelty of the physical National Park mechanism layout as Southernmost tips of Mainland Asia To create fun and adventurous learning environment Proposed Logic Model of the 2D1N Environmental Education Program at Tanjung Piai National ParkSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  15. 15. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Research Design: Evaluation Framework What to evaluate? Develop Logic Model of the 2D1N Environmental Education Program The effectiveness of INPUTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES the 2D1N program to 2D1N program Activities Participant Level 1: Reaction disseminate mangrove - satisfaction knowledge and what is - information - introduction lecture - School-group students - enjoyment - encounter with nature - mangrove educational - safety and comfort the effective - physical activities trail with guide - challenging mechanism - cognitive activities - mangrove clean-up Level 2: Learning - interpreter / guide - outdoor games - increase knowledge - multisensory - mangrove quiz on mangrove element Priorities of the 2D1N - service learning - night trail - increased knowledge Environmental Education - physical exercise on the physical layout Program - natural environment of TNTP To distribute knowledge of mangrove flora and fauna, its Evaluation questions: role in the ecosystem and its utilization. Were the program Did the activities Did targeted group Did knowledge effective? efficiently play the role participate? increased? of distributing To distribute knowledge on environmental What is the agreement the conservation of TNTP knowledge? of participant’s mangrove through its natural experience throughout resources and by the novelty Which activities the program? and how benefited the most? does it reflect to of the physical layout as knowledge gained? Southernmost tips of Mainland Asia Measurement Indicators: To create fun and Reaction by students Reaction by students Number of school- Number and percent adventurous learning group participated with increased Knowledge index; environment Reaction by studentsSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  16. 16. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Research Instrument & Procedure : Questionnaire PRE-TRIP QUESTIONNAIRES: POST-TRIP QUESTIONNAIRES QA1-3: Age, gender, school INPUTS: Were the program effectives? B1: No of visitation, Repeating visitor or QA1: Based on your opinion, rate your experience throughout the program? new visitor QA2: Rate the effectiveness of the program according to each benefits; B2: Other previous experience namely: effectiveness of overall program; Increase interest in natural environment; Personality development; Intellectual development; Career B3: Seek information prior to the trip inspiration; Interest towards outdoor recreation; and Interest towards B4: Why do you join this program? community service. Motivations OUTPUTS: Did the activities efficiently play the role of distributing B5: What is your expectation out of this environmental knowledge? Which activities benefited the most? program? enjoy, increase knowledge, QA3: How does the following methods of interpretation helps towards your improve physical capabilities, increase learning in the mangrove forest? Given a list of activities involve in the awareness, increase interest towards natural program. environment, increase social skills, or others. OUTCOMES: Did knowledge increased? What is the agreement of participant’s experience throughout the program? QB1 – B5: Answer to knowledge questions QA4 – A7: Rate your reaction towards satisfaction, enjoyment, safety and comfort, and challenging experience faced throughout the programSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE
  17. 17. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Results and Discussion KNOWLEDGE INDEX 16 % 14 14 Question 1: 12 What is the name of the straits in between Tanjung 56.3No. of students 10 9 Piai National Park and Karimon Island? 8 7 Question 2: 6 What is the name of the inedible mollusk found in 40.6 4 2 mangrove of TNTP? 2 0 Question 3: 0 5 4 3 2 1 What is the uniqueness of the landform associated 84.4 Knowledge Index: No. of correct answer with Tanjung Piai? Question 4: No student with complete score Which one of the following is not flora of mangrove 90.6 wetland Tanjung Piai? 43.8% answering total 3 Question 5: questions correctly Which one of the following is not fauna of mangrove 21.9 wetland Tanjung Piai? 6.3% students answering only one question correctly. Figure 5.2: Knowledge-index questions and percentage of correct answers. Page 44
  18. 18. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Results and DiscussionMOTIVATION FACTORS % % Students motivations Frequency Male73.3% of the students confirmed theirattendance in the program based on LEARNING MOTIVATION General knowledgelearning motivations. I join the program to enrich my general knowledge 19.2% 85.7% Learning on …To enrich general knowledge 19.2% I join for advance learning apart from what I learnt in class 13.3% 85.7% I join to learn on mangroves flora and fauna 6.7% 28.6% I join to learn on the mangroves environmental issues 18.3% 71.4%To learn on mangrove environmental I join to learn on the topography of TNTP as the most southerntip of Asia 7.5% 85.7%issues 18.3% NON-LEARNING MOTIVATIONtrip as an advance learning of what they Escape from… I join to escape from normal routine 0.8% 0.0%have learnt in class 18.3% students I join to fill my free time 4.2% 21.4% Followers..two distinctive characters of motivations, I join because I was told to do so by my parents 0.8% 0.0%either longer-term motivations or I join because the teacher enlisted my name as compulsary participant 0.8% 7.1% Adventureimmediate motivations; in which learning I join the program to experience adventure in magrove forest 13.3% 78.6%is part of longer-term objective by FunPrentice et al (1998) I join the program to have fun with my friends 6.7% 35.7% *Students could select up to as many motivations to describe their reason(s) for joining the program from either learning or non-learning motivations. n=120 Page 44 -46
  19. 19. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Results and Discussion MOTIVATION FACTORS by gender Learning Non-Learning More male students joined Motivations Motivations the program with learning motivations compared to 14 Male female students 12 12 12 Female 12 11 10 10 11 Thus, noting the number of 10 males and females during 8 registration is advisable by 7 6 Gilbertson et al (2006) 5 5 5 5 during the preparation of 4 4 3 3 the program in order to 2 2 conduct the program in a 1 1 1 0 0 0 gender-balanced 0 atmosphere.SCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE Page 44 -46
  20. 20. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Results and Discussion ASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE: SATISFACTION TO PROGRAM 18 Students satisfaction were strong through 16 balance number of student’s expressing the 14 program as one of the best in their life experience (50%) and a good experience 12 (50%) 10 One of the best experience 8 Analysis by gender differs: Good 6 37.5% of the students who regards this experience as their best were female 4 students. Comparatively, more male students 2 regarded this experience as a good one but 0 not the best yet for 31.3% of the students No. of student Male Female One of the best experience GoodSCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITE Page 47
  21. 21. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Results and Discussion ASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE: EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGRAM Percentage of students 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Overall effectiveness of program 6 23 3 0 Very effective Increase interest towards environment 15 16 10 Effective No opinion Personality development 8 20 4 0Benefits of program Less effective Not effective at all Intellectual development 4 21 7 0 Career inspiration 6 12 10 3 Interest towards outdoor recreation 24 7 10 Interest towards community service 13 17 1 1 Summary: 97% agreed the program effectively increase their interest towards environment 97% agreed that this program affects the student’s interest in outdoor recreational activities Only 56% student thought that the program inspired their career path. Page 47-48
  22. 22. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Results and Discussion ASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE: RELATIONSHIP OF SATISFACTION AND EFFECTIVENESS TO KNOWLEDGE Mean Satisfactio n Effectiveness Enviro nmental P erso nality Intellectual Career Outdo o r Co mmunity Kno wledge 1 Overall satisfaction to experience 4.50 1.000 2 Overall effectiveness of program 4.09 1 .419* 1.000 3 Environmental Interest 4.44 0.000 -0.034 1.000 4 Personality improvement 4.13 0.313 0.162 -0.070 1.000 5 Intellectual development 3.91 .378* .546** 0.225 0.214 1.000 6 Career inspiration 3.53 0.196 0.290 -0.022 .367* .415* 1.000 7 Interest to outdoor recreation 4.72 0.304 0.098 0.103 0.013 0.331 0.151 1.000 8 Community service 4.28 0.195 -0.063 0.215 0.253 0.192 0.043 0.268 1.000 9 Knowledge 2.94 2 0.145 0.290 -0.138 -0.106 0.113 0.002 0.101 0.161 1.000*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Summary: 1. rsatisfaction.effectiveness = 0.419, p<0.05 Students who satisfied over the whole program moderately tend to regards the overall program as effective 2. rsatisfaction.knowledge = 0.145, p<0.05 Weak relationship. This situation coincides with Munn and Drever (2004) description on the limitation of questionnaire, satisfaction results derived from this method tend to skew towards high satisfaction. Results of satisfaction does not describe exact situation found in open-ended question. Page 48
  23. 23. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Results and DiscussionASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE: RELATIONSHIP OF SATISFACTION ANDEFFECTIVENESS TO KNOWLEDGEDissatisfied comments from open ended questions % Summary Dissatisfaction comments on experience:Comfort and safetyNeed more comfort and safe camping ground 7 21.9%Safety precaution: disturbance from monkey 2 6.3% Comfort and safety (n=10)Need more lighting at night 1 3.1% Design of the program (n=25)Design of programNeed more challenging activities # 46.9% Facilities condition and availability (n=11)Need more interesting activities 6 18.8% Interpreters’ communication skills (n=4).Need more information on mangrove forest 1 3.1%Duration: too short 3 9.4%FacilitiesFood quality or quantity 6 18.8% Future research involving evaluation ofNeed comfortable praying area 2 6.3%Allow to bring camera to capture experience 1 3.1% satisfaction may consider including both open-Need more electrical point at camping ground 1 3.1% ended question on satisfaction andNeed more facilities 1 3.1% dissatisfaction level as cross-reference of theInterpreters communication skills findings from the closed question.Too harsh 3 9.4% Munn and Drever (2004) suggested to includeNo empathy 1 3.1% what they described as the catch-all category ‘other’ in a closed-questions.Table 5.3: Content analysis of open-ended question. Page 49
  24. 24. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Results and Discussion ASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE: OTHER SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP Mean Satisfactio n Effectiveness Enviro nmental P erso nality Intellectual Career Outdo o r Co mmunity Kno wledge 1 Overall satisfaction to experience 4.50 1.000 2 Overall effectiveness of program 4.09 .419* 1.000 3 Environmental Interest 4.44 0.000 -0.034 1.000 4 Personality improvement 4.13 0.313 0.162 -0.070 1.000 5 Intellectual development 3.91 .378* 1 .546** 0.225 0.214 1.000 6 Career inspiration 3.53 0.196 0.290 -0.022 2 .367* .415* 1.000 7 Interest to outdoor recreation 4.72 0.304 0.098 0.103 0.013 0.331 0.151 1.000 8 Community service 4.28 0.195 -0.063 0.215 0.253 0.192 0.043 0.268 1.000 9 Knowledge 2.94 0.145 0.290 -0.138 -0.106 0.113 0.002 0.101 0.161 1.000*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Summary: 1. reffective.intellectual = 0.546, p<0.05 Student agreed on overall effectiveness of the program moderately agreed that the program aid to their intellectual development 2. rcareer.personality = 0.367, p<0.05 rcareer.intellectual = 0.415, p<0.05 The student who agreed that the program is career-inspiring also moderately agreed that the program benefitted towards their personality development (r=0.367, p<0.05) and intellectual development (r=0.415, p<0.05). Page 48
  25. 25. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Results and DiscussionASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE: ENJOYMENT Summary: Enjoyment 15 16 Enjoy: 46.9% highly enjoyed Challenge 3 20 53.1% moderately enjoyed Highly agreed Moderately agreed This finding shows positive Comfort 4 18 Less agreed evaluation of the management’s priorities all developing the program, Not agreed at in that is partly “To create fun and Safety 4 22 adventurous learning environment” 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Percentage of students Figure 5.6: Student’s respond on four aspects of experiences in the environmental education program at TNTP Highly agreed Moderately agreed Less agreed Not agreed at all Page 50
  26. 26. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Results and DiscussionRELATIONSHIP of ASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE Mean Experience Effective Safety Comfort Enjoymrnt Adventure Knowledge 1 OverallExperience 4.50 1.000 2 OverallEffectiveness 4.09 .419* 1.000 3 Safety 3.72 0.224 .481** 1.000 4 Comfort 3.50 .589** .367* .528** 1.000 5 Enjoyment 4.41 .430* .529** .423* .517** 1.000 6 Adventure 3.50 0.295 .536** .377* 0.194 0.292 1.000 7 KNOWLEDGE 2.94 0.145 0.290 0.202 -0.102 0.155 .443* 1.000Summary:Enjoyment:renjoy.satisfaction = 0.430, p<0.05significant of association between enjoyment to overall program satisfaction (r=0.430, p<0.05);renjoy.effective = 0.529, p<0.01renjoy.safe = 0.423, p<0.05renjoy.comfort = 0.517, p<0.01renjoy.knowledge = 0.155, p<0.05 weak and insignificant relationship to knowledge Page 49-50
  27. 27. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Results and Discussion ASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE: CHALLENGE Summary: Enjoyment 15 16 Challenge: Dissatisfiedhighly challenging questions 9.4% comments from open ended Dissatisfied comments from open ended questions % % Comfort 62.5% moderately challenging Challenge 3 20 Comfort and safety and safety Need more comfort and safe camping ground ground 7 Need more comfort and safe camping Highly agreed 21.9% 7 21. Safety precaution: question analysis: Open ended Safety precaution:agreed disturbance from monkey Moderately disturbance from monkey 2 6.3% 2 6. Comfort 4 18 Need more agreed lighting at night Need more at night Less lighting 1 3.1% 1 3. Design of program Design of program Not agreed at all Need more challenging activities Need more challenging activities # 46.9% # 46. Need more interesting activities Need more interesting activities 6 18.8% 6 18. Safety 4 22 Need more information on mangrove forest forest Need more information on mangrove 1 3.1% 1 3. Duration: too short short Duration: too 3 9.4% 3 9. Facilities Facilities 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Food quality quality or quantity Food or quantity 6 18.8% 6 18. Percentage of students Need comfortable prayingprayinginterviews with the 6.3% Informal post-trip Need comfortable area area 2 2 6. Allow to students suggested theexperience Allow to bring camera to capture opposites, 1 bring camera to capture experience 3.1% 1 3. Need more electrical point at camping ground ground 1 Need more electrical point at camping Figure 5.6: Student’s respond on four aspects of experiences in the environmental education program at TNTP whereby the level of challenge offered 1 3.1% 3. Need more facilities Need more facilities 1 3.1% 1 3. at TNTP was not at par to the challenge Highly agreed Interpreters their communication skills Interpreters nature rural hometown. Related of communication skills Moderately agreed Too repetition of common activities to the to Too harsh harsh 3 9.4% 3 9. Less agreed No empathy No empathy 1 3.1% 1 3. student’s routine lifestyle, with less Not agreed at all element of surprise described as Mindless interpretation by Woods and Moscardo (2003) Page 50-5190% 100%
  28. 28. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Results and DiscussionRELATIONSHIP of ASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE Mean Experience Effective Safety Comfort Enjoymrnt Adventure Knowledge 1 OverallExperience 4.50 1.000 2 OverallEffectiveness 4.09 .419* 1.000 3 Safety 3.72 0.224 .481** 1.000 4 Comfort 3.50 .589** .367* .528** 1.000 5 Enjoyment 4.41 .430* .529** .423* .517** 1.000 6 Adventure 3.50 0.295 .536** .377* 0.194 0.292 1.000 7 KNOWLEDGE 2.94 0.145 0.290 0.202 -0.102 0.155 .443* 1.000Summary:Challenge: the only significant aspects of experience to knowledge index (r=0.443, p<0.05).Student who moderately agreed on the challenging experience of the program also moderately gainedknowledge from the program.Findings supports Gilbertson et al (2006) theory on Outdoor Education strategies whereby challenge mustbe present for learning to occur. Page 50-51
  29. 29. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Results and DiscussionASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE: COMFORT AND SAFETY Summary: Enjoyment 15 16 Comfort: 12.5% highly comfortable Challenge 3 20 56.3% moderately comfortable 31.2% feel less comfortable Highly agreed throughout the program. Moderately agreed Comfort 4 18 Less agreed Open-ended respond (Table 5.3,p49) Not agreed at all Two of the cause of discomfort: Safety 4 22 21.9% environmental and physical condition at the camping ground; 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 6.3% uncontrolled disturbance from Percentage of students wild monkeys Figure 5.6: Student’s respond on four aspects of experiences in the environmental education program at TNTP Issues for the consideration and improvement by the management Highly agreed team. Moderately agreed Less agreed Not agreed at all Page 50
  30. 30. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Results and DiscussionASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE: COMFORT AND SAFETY Summary: Enjoyment 15 16 Safety: 12.5% of students felt highly safe; 69.0% students felt moderately safe; Challenge 3 20 18.5% students felt less safe Highly agreed Relationship of agreement on Moderately agreed Comfort 4 18 comfort and safety, moderate Less agreed (r=0.528, p<0.01) Not agreed at all Principles of outdoor learning outlined Safety 4 22 physical safety and psychological safety, which lead towards comfort (Gilbertson et 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% al, 2006). Percentage of students Deliberation of the safety precautions and Figure 5.6: Student’s respond on four aspects of experiences in the environmental education program at TNTP explaining the cause of the heat occur within mangrove forest may be the Highly agreed solutions to these notions. Students should understand the physical risks of the Moderately agreed environment and be comfortable enough to Less agreed engage in learning during the introductory Not agreed at all session as suggested by Gilbertson et al (2006). Page 51
  31. 31. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Results and DiscussionRELATIONSHIP of ASPECTS OF EXPERIENCE Mean Experience Effective Safety Comfort Enjoymrnt Adventure Knowledge 1 OverallExperience 4.50 1.000 2 OverallEffectiveness 4.09 .419* 1.000 3 Safety 3.72 0.224 .481** 1.000 4 Comfort 3.50 .589** .367* .528** 1.000 5 Enjoyment 4.41 .430* .529** .423* .517** 1.000 6 Adventure 3.50 0.295 .536** .377* 0.194 0.292 1.000 7 KNOWLEDGE 2.94 0.145 0.290 0.202 -0.102 0.155 .443* 1.000Summary:Comfort to safety: moderate relationship (r=0.528, p<0.01).Comfort to overall satisfaction of experience: High relationship (r=0.589, p<0.01).Comfort to effectiveness of the program: (r=0.367, p<0.05).Safety to effectiveness of the program: (r=0.481, p<0.01). Page 50-51
  32. 32. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Results and Discussion ASPECTS OF MECHANISM Visit to the Southern-tips (Globe) 22 10 0 Night trail 22 9 0 Guided walk 20 9 2 Lecture 17 7 7 Slideshow 15 14 1 Camping-on-deck 15 12 5 Outdoor local games 13 12 6 Info panels 11 14 4 3 Rubbish collection 10 15 5Pre and post guided-walk drawing 8 13 9 Pre-visit information 6 10 10 3 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Percentage of students (n=32) Highly effective Moderately effective No opinion Somehow effective Available in the program but not effective Figure 5.7: Student’s respond on the effectiveness of particular activities in disseminating knowledge Summary: 1. Environmental Qualities Dependent 2. Interactive Methods: Personal interactions or technologically interactive 3. Limitation of Passive Written Interpretation Page 52-54
  33. 33. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Results and DiscussionASPECTS OF MECHANISM: RELATIONSHIP TO KNOWLEDGE Mean Globe visit Night trail Guide walk Lecture Slideshow Camping Local games Panel Rubbish Drawing Brochure Pre-info KnowledgeVisit to the Globe at Southern-most-tips 4.69 1.000Night trail 4.59 0.252 1.000Guided walk 4.50 0.180 -0.186 1.000Lecture 4.25 0.262 0.232 0.277 1.000Slideshow 4.31 0.344 0.003 .361* .665** 1.000Camping on deck 4.31 .383* 0.278 0.172 .454** 0.313 1.000Outdoor local games 4.16 -0.035 0.001 0.125 0.239 0.206 .384* 1.000Information panel 4.00 0.337 -0.080 .500** 0.347 .503** 0.313 0.263 1.000Rubbish collection 4.03 0.184 .395* 0.025 0.194 0.168 .441* 0.126 0.148 1.000Pre and post guide walk drawing 3.78 -0.144 0.045 -0.143 0.195 0.158 0.260 0.223 -0.122 0.152 1.000Pre-visit brochure 3.53 .465** -0.116 0.216 0.090 .354* -0.013 -0.059 .590** 0.051 -0.095 1.000Pre-visit information 3.41 0.119 0.112 0.160 0.171 .362* -0.002 -0.033 .455** 0.145 -0.292 .431* 1.000KNOWLEDGE 2.94 -0.049 0.239 0.048 -0.100 -0.241 -0.019 -0.030 -0.036 0.173 0.126 0.105 -0.161 1.000*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Table 5.4: Benefits from different activities to knowledge.**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).Summary:1. Slight relationships of all methods to knowledge2. Environmental dependent activities still has higher association to knowledge rnight trail.knowledge = 0.239, p<0.05 rrubbish collection.knowledge = 0.173, p<0.05 Page 52-54
  34. 34. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Results and DiscussionASPECTS OF MECHANISM Mean Globe visit Night trail Guide walk Lecture Slideshow Camping Local games Panel Rubbish Drawing Brochure Pre-info KnowledgeVisit to the Globe at Southern-most-tips 4.69 1.000Night trail 4.59 0.252 1.000Guided walk 4.50 0.180 -0.186 1.000Lecture 4.25 0.262 0.232 0.277 1.000Slideshow 4.31 0.344 0.003 .361* .665** 1.000Camping on deck 4.31 .383* 0.278 0.172 .454** 0.313 1.000Outdoor local games 4.16 -0.035 0.001 0.125 0.239 0.206 .384* 1.000Information panel 4.00 0.337 -0.080 .500** 0.347 .503** 0.313 0.263 1.000Rubbish collection 4.03 0.184 .395* 0.025 0.194 0.168 .441* 0.126 0.148 1.000Pre and post guide walk drawing 3.78 -0.144 0.045 -0.143 0.195 0.158 0.260 0.223 -0.122 0.152 1.000Pre-visit brochure 3.53 .465** -0.116 0.216 0.090 .354* -0.013 -0.059 .590** 0.051 -0.095 1.000Pre-visit information 3.41 0.119 0.112 0.160 0.171 .362* -0.002 -0.033 .455** 0.145 -0.292 .431* 1.000KNOWLEDGE 2.94 -0.049 0.239 0.048 -0.100 -0.241 -0.019 -0.030 -0.036 0.173 0.126 0.105 -0.161 1.000*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Table 5.4: Benefits from different activities to knowledge.**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).Summary:3. Significant tendency of student who preferred one interactive method as to have similar preference of the other interactive method guided walk activities to quiz session (r=0.364, p<0.01); camping on the deck to rubbish collection activities (r=0.441, p<0.05); camping to outdoor local cultural games (r=0.384, p<0.05); camping to visit to the southern-most-tips (r=0.383, p<0.05).Thus, it can be summarized that regular application of interactive method in an environmentaldesign program may positively benefit the learning process, and thus increase environmentalknowledge. Page 52-54
  35. 35. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Results and DiscussionSUMMARYIt can be concluded that the 2 Days 1 Night Environmental Education package or namely ‘TheWorld of Contrasts’ package is generally concluded as beneficial and effectively distribute theparticipants knowledge.Among the highly efficient interpretation methods are those that include:- encounter within or in nature- interpretation with support of media and technology; and- interpretation with interactions between interpreter and the students.The findings concurred to the role of TNTP environmental education program as the means todistribute sustainability knowledge, through fun and adventurous learning environment. Page 52-54
  36. 36. Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6CONCLUSIONLIMITATION OF RESEARCH- Single utilization of research method, the questionnaire, allows for only quantitative analysis of the data collected.- Availability of limited sample due to the research timeline factor and logistics factor, remained as the main obstacle ofthis research. The available sample does not represent the whole population although information gathered is considered asuseful for the improvement of the program.RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCHA longitudinal survey- To receive larger number of sample with diverse demographic and motivational backgrounds. Larger sample will providebetter situational analysis of the EE program and thus a generalization of data can be applied for the use of the biggerpopulation.A proper evaluation planning- Including the evaluation duration, the evaluation method and the evaluation data analysis is in need to conduct an effectiveevaluation.Combination or triangulation of method- Provide further and deeper dimension of data collection.- Combine qualititative method and quantitative method.- Combination of data from surveys that include other component of stakeholdersPilot testing of the survey form is also vital to understand the nature of the respondentsPre-trip and post-trip drawing method- New method employed by the TNTP on the assessment of student understanding on mangrove through pre-trip and post-tripdrawing of the subject matter has the potential to be another technique of assessing knowledge increment of joining EEprogram, with proper documentation and assessment methods such as a rubric sheets or observation checklist to ensure theproper conduction of the program. Page 55
  37. 37. Domo arigato gozaimasu for the attention and cooperation. Terima kasih.SCHOOL-GROUP LEARNING AT ENVIRONMENTAL SITE:A CASE STUDY OF TANJUNG PIAI NATIONAL PARK IN JOHOR, MALAYSIA AS ANENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SITESuradiah Labintah M510421-1Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Michihiko Shinozaki22 August 2011

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