Malcolm Knowles Presentation

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A presentation on the philosopher Malcolm Knowles.

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  • Welcome to the Philosopher Presentation.
  • In this presentations our objectives are the following:
    Acquire knowledge of philosopher Malcolm Knowles
    Acquire knowledge of the Andragogical Model
    Understand self-directed learning in the work place
    Understand the meaning of “facilitator”
    Understand a facilitator’s purpose
    Acquire knowledge of learning contracts
  • Malcolm Knowles was born in 1913 in Montana. As a young boy, he was an avid participant in boy scout. At the age of 12, Knowles’ family moved to West Palm Beach, Florida. After graduating from West Palm Beach High School, Knowles attended and graduated from Harvard College with a Bachelors of Arts degree. In 1940, Knowles became the Director of Adult Education at the Boston YMCA. In 1943, the United States Navy drafted Knowles. After serving in the military, Knowles enrolled in the adult education program at the University of Chicago and became Director of Adult Education for the Chicago YMCA. In 1951- 1959 Knowles served as Executive Director of the Adult Education Association of the USA.
  • Knowles field research from his “practice” as an adult educator helped him advance the field of andragogy by creating the Andragogical Model and the Andragogical Process Model.
  • In 1960, while developing a graduate program in adult education Knowles began experimenting with adult-oriented strategies with the expectations that this would lead to theoretical insights (Knowles 1989). From these experiences, Knowles formulated the Andragogical Model. This model provided six assumptions about adult learning.
    Learners need to know the why, what, and how of what they are learning. The self-concept of the learner focuses on allowing the learner to take initiative for their learning. Prior experience consists of helping the learner see where they have done this previously or what will work to help them understand the subject better.
  • Andragogical Model (Malcolm, Knowles 2011)

    Readiness to Learn focuses on how the information/subject relates to life. Orientation to learning focuses the learner on problems and asking the question why. Motivation to learn seeks the personal benefits for the learner and the individual value of what the learner is learning and how it benefits the learner.
  • I would like to discuss how adult learning principles apply to the work place. The adult learning principle that I will discuss is self-directed learning.
  • These points came from Hatcher 1997.

    The roles of trainers in the work place are the following:
    Trainers adopts the role of facilitator,
    Trainer should be a part of the trainee’s learning experience
    Trainers and trainees should understand the structure of their work environments
  • These points came from Hatcher 1997.
    It is important for trainers and trainees to know if their work environment supports self-directed learning.

    Trainers should be proactive in creating an environment that gives trainees time to learn.

    Trainers should create an environment that gives trainees the ability to make mistakes.
  • In an adult learning environment it is important for the teacher to take on the role of facilitator to ensure effective and efficient learning. (Knowles, 2010)

    A facilitator is one who focuses on what the learner is doing and less on what they are doing.
    A facilitator is also a process designer and manager. They are not necessarily doing the work of the learner, but directing the learners in their study.
  • Now we will discuss a facilitator’s purpose and what the facilitator must know.

    Facilitator’s purpose to empower learners to access learning opportunities (Smith 2011).
    Facilitators purpose is to empower learners to realize individual goals (Smith 2011).
    Facilitator must know how adults acquire knowledge (Hatcher 1997).
    Facilitator must know how adults use skills (Hatcher 1997).
  • Facilitator must know how to apply different learning styles (Hatcher 1997).
    Facilitator must know how to help adults set personal and work-related goals (Hatcher 1997).
    Facilitator must know how to develop creative learning environments (Hatcher 1997).
    Facilitator must build relationship with adult learners (Knowles, 2011).
  • Learning contracts give the learners freedom to explore the subject matter according to the learners learning style, and make learners accountable for their learning. They are a way to engage learners to take charge of their learning, provide learners freedom to explore the subject matter according to the learners learning style, and allow the learners to possess control of their learning.
  • Today, we discussed Knowles’ early years and academic and professional career, Knowles’ major contribution of the Andragogical Model, self-directed learning in the work place, the role and purpose of a facilitator, and the importance of learning contracts.
  • Ladies and gentlemen,

    Are there any questions? I have some questions for you to answer they are the following:
    How has self-directed learning impacted your academic or personal career?
    Is self-directed learning becoming more prevalent in the work place?
    Is self-directed learning beoming more prevalent in higher education?
  • Malcolm Knowles Presentation

    1. 1. PHILOSOPHER PRESENTATION BY Christinia Scott Adult Education 6412 Dr. Han
    2. 2. Acquire knowledge of philosopher Malcolm Knowles Acquire knowledge of Andragogical Model Understand self-directed learning in the work place Understand the meaning of “facilitator” Understand a facilitator’s purpose Acquire knowledge of learning contracts OBJECTIVES
    3. 3. Early Life •Born in 1913 in Montana •Avid boy scout •Grew up in West Palm Beach, Florida Academic Career •1934 B.A. from Harvard College •1949 M.A. from Univ. of Chicago •1960 PH.D. from Univ. of Chicago Professional Career •1940 Director of Adult Education at the Boston YMCA •1946 Dir. of Adult Education for the Chicago YMCA •1951-59 served as Executive Dir. of the Adult Education Association of the USA Malcolm Knowles
    4. 4. PHILOSOPHER MALCOLM KNOWLES Advanced the field of Andragogy Created Andragogical Model Created Andragogical Process Model
    5. 5. 1. Learners Need to Know •Why •What •How 2. Self-Concept of the Learner •Autonomous •Self-directing 3. Prior Experience •Resources •Mental Models ANDRAGOGICAL MODEL
    6. 6. 4. Readiness to Learn •Life related •Developmental Task 5. Orientation to Learning •Problem Centered •Contextual 6. Motivation to Learn •Intrinsic Value •Personal Payoff ANDRAGOGICAL MODEL (CONTINUED)
    7. 7. Self-directed learning as “…. a process in which trainees take responsibility for their own learning, including diagnosing needs, developing objectives, designing learning experiences, finding resources, and evaluating learning outcomes.” (Hatcher, 36) SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING IN THE WORK PLACE
    8. 8. Trainers adopts the role of facilitator Trainer should be a part of the trainee’s learning experience Trainers and trainees should understand the structure of their work environments SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING IN THE WORK PLACE (CONTINUED)
    9. 9. Trainers and trainees should understand the culture of their work environments Trainers should create an environment that gives trainees time to learn Trainers should create an environment that gives trainees the ability to make mistakes SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING IN THE WORK PLACE (CONTINUED)
    10. 10. One who focuses on what the learner is doing and less on what they are doing (Malcolm Knowles, 2010) Facilitator is a process designer and manager (Malcolm Knowles, 2011) WHAT IS A FACILITATOR?
    11. 11. Facilitator ‘s purpose is to empower learners to access learning opportunities (Smith 2011) Facilitator’s purpose is to empower learners to realize individual goals (Smith 2011) Facilitator must know how adults acquire knowledge (Hatcher 1997) Facilitator must know how adults use skills (Hatcher 1997) FACILITATING IN A SELF-DIRECTED ENVIRONMENT
    12. 12. Facilitator must know how to apply different learning styles (Hatcher 1997) Facilitator must know how to help adults set personal and work-related goals (Hatcher 1997) Facilitator must know how to develop creative learning environments (Hatcher 1997) Facilitator must build relationship with adult learners (Knowles, 2011) FACILITATING IN A SELF-DIRECTED ENVIRONMENT (CONTINUED)
    13. 13. A way to engage learners to take charge of their learning (Malcolm Knowles, 2011) Provide learners freedom to explore the subject matter according to the learners learning style Allow the learners to possess control of their learning LEARNING CONTRACTS
    14. 14. Knowles early years and academic and professional career Knowles major contribution of the Andragogical Model Self-directed learning in the work place The role and purpose of a “facilitator” The importance of learning contracts SUMMARY
    15. 15. How has self- directed learning impacted your academic or personal career? Is self-directed learning becoming more prevalent in the work place? Is self-directed learning becoming more prevalent in higher education? ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS?
    16. 16.  Hatcher, T. G. (1997). The ins and outs of self-directed learning. Training and Development, 35-39.  Malcolm Knowles, E. F. (2011). The Adult Learner. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.  S, K., & Malcolm. (1989). The Making of an Adult Educator. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.  Smith, R. L. (2011). Front-Line Facilitating: Negotiating Adventurous Learning within Workplace Programs. Adult Learning , 18-22. REFERENCES

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