Pedagogy is derived from the Greek word "paid," meaning child plus "agogos," meaning leading. Thus, pedagogy has been defined as the art and science of teaching children. In the pedagogical model, the teacher has full responsibility for making decisions about what will be learned, how it will be learned, when it will be learned, and if the material has been learned.
The term 'andragogy' was first authored by Alexander Kapp (1833), a German high school teacher, but it lay fallow for many decades.In the 1920s, another German, Rosenstock-Huessy (1925) resurrected the term as he developed a method for teaching the German people, dispirited and degenerated in 1918 after World War I, to regenerate themselves and their country.
Malcolm Knowles is known as the “Father of Andragogy.”Cyril Houle was a professor of education at the University of Chicago and an innovator in Adult Education.John Henschke is the Chair of the Andragogy Doctoral Emphasis Specialty at Lindenwood University in St. Charles, Missouri.James Maslow famous psychologist who discovered “Maslow Theory.”Allen Tough has been recognized as a pioneering scholar in adult learning and self-directed learning. He is Professor of Emeritus at the University of Toronto.Paulo Friere was a Brazilian educator and influential theorist of critical pedagogy.
We will discuss these more in depth in the next couple of slides.
Adults need to know the reason for learning something (Need to Know)Experience (including error) provides the basis for learning activities (Foundation).Adults need to be responsible for their decisions on education; involvement in the planning and evaluation of their instruction (Self-concept).Adults are most interested in learning subjects having immediate relevance to their work and/or personal lives (Readiness).Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented (Orientation).Adults respond better to internal versus external motivators (Motivation).
An organization’s should have in its policy the intentions of encouraging the adult learner. The adult learner should know what is expected from them, and what help is available to them.In order for Andragogy to be effective within an organization, participation and cooperation must exist between faculty, administration, and students.Diagnosing the learners needs would consist of questioning the adult learner, industrial personnel, and by observing the learner as they perform their tasks.After the needs are established, this leads to creating the learning objectives. The learning objectives are used to develop instructional strategies to achieve desired behavior.Designing the learning activities must involve the adult learner and draw from their interest, maturity, and experience.The implementation of learning activities is most effective when students are actively involved in the process. This could involve a learning contract.
According to Knowles (1980) evaluating is the process of recognizing a gap between desired behavior and present performance. If a criticism is made it should be constructive, with the intent of assisting to improve the learner’s skills.
A way to engage learners to take charge of their learning (Malcolm Knowles, 2011)learning contract means that all participants know the specific learning outcomes - for example, design and group skills - that students are expected to acquire. If everyone focuses on a common set of skills, students are more likely to learn them.
Students in a general biology class used a learning contract where they selected chapter-relevant activities they could complete through severalformats: oral, written, or artistic. The majority of students felt they learned a lot with this method, the process was motivating, and that it should be used in future semesters.Paul Goodman compared two highly ranked engineering schools, one with a strong organizational learning contract and one without an organizational learning contract. The students with the organizational learning contract were highly motivated and showed strong graduation rates.Mohammed analyzed his learning process, and discovered that he was a self-directed learner, ready to take initiative for my ownlearning, to formulate my own questions as guidance to acquire new knowledge.
ANDRAGOGY POWER By: Christinia Scott
OBJECTIVES Explore the definition of Andragogy Review the history of Andragogy Identify major proponents of Andragogy Discuss Malcolm Knowles’ contribution to AndragogyIdentify the type of educators who would benefit the most from Andragogy
ANDRAGOGY’S DEFINITIONAndragogy the art and science ofhelping adults learn (Knowles, 2011).
ANDRAGOGY’S HISTORY The term Lindeman (1926) andragogy was In the 1920s, introduced the first authored by another German, term andragogy Malcolm Knowles Alexander Kapp Rosenstock- twice, and acquired the term(1833), a German Huessy (1925) explained it as a in 1966 from high school resurrected the key method for Dusan Savicevic teacher, but it lay term (Henschke, teaching adults (Henschke, 2011) fallow for many 2011) (Henschke, decades 2011).(Henschke, 2011)
MAJOR PROPONENTS OF ANDRAGOGY Malcolm John James Cyril Houle Henschke Maslow Knowles Allen Tough Paulo Friere
MALCOLM KNOWLES CONTRIBUTIONS Six Assumptions Learning Contracts Andragogical Process Model
KNOWLES’ SIX ASSUMPTION Need to Know Learner’s Motivation Self- to Learn concept Orientation Learner’s to Learning Experience Readiness to Learn (Malcolm, 2011)
ANDRAGOGICAL PROCESS MODEL FOR LEARNING Establishing Creating a Formulate Preparing a climate mechanism appropriate the learner conducive for mutual learning to learning planning objectives (Malcolm, 2011)
ANDRAGOGICAL PROCESS MODEL FOR LEARNING(CONT.) Conduct Evaluate Design a learning and pattern of experiences rediagnosis learning with suitable learning experiences techniques needs (Malcolm, 2011)
LEARNING CONTRACTS A way to engage learners to take charge of their learning (Malcolm Knowles, 2011) Provide learners freedom to explore the subject matter according to the learners learning style Allow the learners to possess control of their learning All participants know the specific learning outcomes (Goodman & S, 2012)
BENEFITS OF A LEARNING CONTRACT Students learned a lot “A learning contract with the learning pays off in Learner discovers Learners analyze contract and, the enthusiasm and how they learn best their learning process process was graduation rates” (Mohammed, 2010) (Mohammed, 2010) motivating (Litchfield, (Goodman & S, 2012) Mata, & Gray, 2007)
EDUCATORS WHO CAN BENEFIT FROM ANDRAGOGY Human Resource Development Specialist ( Knowles, 1985) Vocational Instructors/Trainers Spiritual Educators (Sipe, 2001) Line Supevisors and Managers (Knowles, 1985) College Professors
REFRENCES Bell, C., R, & Friends, a. (1989). Malcolm. Training and Development, 38-43. Goodman, P., & S. (2012, Jan). Shared Expectations. ASEE Prism, pp. 56-56. Henschke, J. A. (2011). Considerations Regarding the Future of Andragogy. Adult Learning, 34-37. Knowles, M. (1985). Shifting to an HRD Systems Approach. Training and Development Journal, 24-25. Litchfield, B., Mata, J., & Gray, L. (2007). Engaging General Biology Students with Learning Contracts. Journal of College Science Teaching, 34-39. Mohammed, M. R. (2010). Dont Give Me a Fish; Teach Me How to Fish. Adult Learning, 15-18. Sipe, E. (2001). Adult education in the congregation: an andragogical approach. Lutheran Education, pp. 87-94.