An offering from Product and Interface Design Department
WHY RESEARCH
Though the power of design may not always be easily measured,
there are many steps that practitioners can und...
DESIGN RESEARCH
In the 1990s Sir Christopher Frayling from Royal College of Arts
identifies three key modes of design rese...
BIG CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE + QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
When we talk about research methods, there are two distinct c...
BIG CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 5
A MACRO VIEW
BIG CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 6
A MACRO VIEW
BIG CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 7
A MACRO VIEW
PRIMARY + SECONDARY RESEARCH
Primary an...
BIG CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 8
A MACRO VIEW
FORMATIVE + SUMMATIVE RESEARCH
Formativ...
RESEARCH STRATEGIES + TACTICS
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 9
A MICRO VIEW
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + TACTICS
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 10
A MICRO VIEW
OBSEVATIONAL RESEARCH
WHAT IS I...
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + GUIDELIN
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 11
A MICRO VIEW
THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERV...
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 12
A MICRO VIEW
THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERVING WHAT PEOPLE DO
ETHNOGRAPHIC R...
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 13
A MICRO VIEW
THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERVING WHAT PEOPLE DO
ETHNOGRAPHIC R...
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 14
A MICRO VIEW
THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERVING WHAT PEOPLE DO
ETHNOGRAPHIC R...
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 15
A MICRO VIEW
THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERVING WHAT PEOPLE DO
ETHNOGRAPHIC R...
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 16
A MICRO VIEW
THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERVING WHAT PEOPLE DO
ETHNOGRAPHIC R...
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 17
A MICRO VIEW
DISCOVER MEANING
People have a ...
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 18
A MICRO VIEW
UNDERSTAND NORMS
Cultural norms...
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 19
A MICRO VIEW
MAKE COMMUNICATIONS POWERFUL
Th...
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 20
A MICRO VIEW
BE WORLDLY
Ethnography enables ...
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 21
A MICRO VIEW
OBSERVE REALITY
What people say...
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 22
A MICRO VIEW
IDENTIFY BARRIERS
Behaviours pr...
PRODUCT + USER ETHNOGRAPHY
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 23
A MICRO VIEW
AIM
To get information that is known...
STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 24
A MICRO VIEW
1DEFINE THE PROBLEM
What are the...
STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 25
A MICRO VIEW
2FIND THE PEOPLE
Who are the peo...
STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 26
A MICRO VIEW
3PLAN AN APPROACH
Figure out a g...
STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 27
A MICRO VIEW
4COLLECT DATA
Meaningful insight...
STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 28
A MICRO VIEW
5ANALYZE DATA AND INTERPRET OPPO...
STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 29
A MICRO VIEW
6SHARE INSIGHTS
The insights tha...
queries
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 31
THANK YO
7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 32
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Simple product design 1 introduction to research methods and tools

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Simple product design 1 introduction to research methods and tools

  1. 1. An offering from Product and Interface Design Department
  2. 2. WHY RESEARCH Though the power of design may not always be easily measured, there are many steps that practitioners can undertake to ensure that they are making informed communication choices, rather than producing artifacts rooted solely in aesthetics. Research findings can help the designer in a variety of ways. From supporting great concepts to measuring the effectiveness of the finished projects, a research driven approach can help define the way problems are solved and illustrated the value of those solutions. 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 2
  3. 3. DESIGN RESEARCH In the 1990s Sir Christopher Frayling from Royal College of Arts identifies three key modes of design research: 1. Research into design: It includes the traditional historical and aesthetic studies of art and design 2. Research through design: It is project based, and includes materials research and development 3. Research for design: It is to create objects and systems that display the results of the research and prove its worth 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 3 Research is a central and defining element of the design process, while at the same time innovative design-led approaches to the conduct of research can reveal new insights and understandings. - London College of Communication
  4. 4. BIG CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE + QUALITATIVE RESEARCH When we talk about research methods, there are two distinct categories into which mos data-gathering exercises fall: quantitative and qualitative. 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 4 A MACRO VIEW
  5. 5. BIG CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 5 A MACRO VIEW
  6. 6. BIG CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 6 A MACRO VIEW
  7. 7. BIG CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 7 A MACRO VIEW PRIMARY + SECONDARY RESEARCH Primary and Secondary research refers to proximity and specificity of the source. Prima research is original and conducted by an organization or a person for their own interest
  8. 8. BIG CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 8 A MACRO VIEW FORMATIVE + SUMMATIVE RESEARCH Formative research is done at the beginning of the project to guide the design Summative research is done at the end of the project to determine its success user satisfaction.
  9. 9. RESEARCH STRATEGIES + TACTICS 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 9 A MICRO VIEW ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
  10. 10. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + TACTICS 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 10 A MICRO VIEW OBSEVATIONAL RESEARCH WHAT IS IT A systematic process of viewing and recording human behavior and cultural phenomena without questioning, communicating with or interacting with the group being studied. WHAT CAN IT DO Through the resulting behavior, researcher learn a gre deal about attitudes and perspectives without influenc group behavior. This tactic allows for greater observational validity because the group under study unaware of the researcher. The researcher is able to record and analyze what the subjects are actually doi rather than what they say they are doing. HOW IS IT USED The investigator must remain quiet and observant and to understand the behaviors exhibited. It is important remain objective, and therefore not interact with subje In this case, the researcher does not ask questions o solicit opinions-the focus, instead is to watch and clos examine group behavior. Observational research can be conducted in different Researchers can go out into the field and record their observations, or they can record images with camera WHEN IS IT USED Observational research can be used in a formative fashion, before a hypothesis is established. It can also be used to support design decisions, as a form of empirical evidence LEVEL OF COMPLEXITY Investigator’s personal bias can skew the documentation. Individual can behave differently in smaller group. Rarely gives an indication of the true motivation.
  11. 11. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + GUIDELIN 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 11 A MICRO VIEW THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERVING WHAT PEOPLE DO
  12. 12. 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 12 A MICRO VIEW THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERVING WHAT PEOPLE DO ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + GUIDELIN
  13. 13. 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 13 A MICRO VIEW THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERVING WHAT PEOPLE DO ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + GUIDELIN
  14. 14. 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 14 A MICRO VIEW THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERVING WHAT PEOPLE DO ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + GUIDELIN
  15. 15. 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 15 A MICRO VIEW THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERVING WHAT PEOPLE DO ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + GUIDELIN
  16. 16. 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 16 A MICRO VIEW THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN OBSERVING WHAT PEOPLE DO ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + GUIDELIN
  17. 17. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 17 A MICRO VIEW DISCOVER MEANING People have a need for meaning in their lives. Ethnography provides rich insights into how people make sense of their world. For example, people incorporate rituals into their lives— but some rituals are large and public while others are small and private. By examining the artifacts that reflect people’s
  18. 18. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 18 A MICRO VIEW UNDERSTAND NORMS Cultural norms influence design decisions. Ethnography reveals the ways in which cultural norms shape people’s perceptions. For example, some cultures emphasize the shape of the body and seek ways to accentuate it, while others try to minimize it. The role and use of colour can also vary greatly from place to place. By examining how people express themselves through style and ornamentation, we gain insight into how people define themselves within a group or a community. As a result, a company’s brand and products will
  19. 19. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 19 A MICRO VIEW MAKE COMMUNICATIONS POWERFUL Things need to be understood. Ethnography helps us learn how to communicate more effectively with target audiences, in a language and way they really understand. For example, a poorly designed communications piece can create confusion or anxiety. By observing how people process information, we learn what words and design elements evoke desired reactions. We also discover whether people miss information completely.
  20. 20. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 20 A MICRO VIEW BE WORLDLY Ethnography enables us to create for the global marketplace. Ethnography helps us learn how products, technologies, and communications flow in the global world. Branding, experience design and point of purchase elements all tell a story. Compare how experiences work around the world, even for the same products and services. By examining local tastes, we see opportunities that are new and exciting. As
  21. 21. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 21 A MICRO VIEW OBSERVE REALITY What people say is not what they do. Ethnography highlights differences between what people perceive they do and what they actually do. For example, while people say they eat in a healthy way, they sometimes make less-than healthy food choices. By observing what people do (rather than taking them at their word), we learn more about the choices they make and how they perceive and filter their own actions. As a result, we can create environments or messages that connect with people’s real emotions and intentions.
  22. 22. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH + DISCERN 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 22 A MICRO VIEW IDENTIFY BARRIERS Behaviours provide clues to where problems exist. Ethnography vividly identifies people’s “pain points” and guides the way towards solutions. For example, the obvious solution to improve the morning commute is a cup holder. But an experienced ethnographer goes beyond the obvious and sees how to make the experience even better—such as putting the cup holder on the left (where it’s easier to reach while driving) rather than in the center console (where it can be distracting). Seeing these nuances means that the
  23. 23. PRODUCT + USER ETHNOGRAPHY 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 23 A MICRO VIEW AIM To get information that is known only to the users of the product or system. STEPS TO FOLLOW 1. Identify user situations that are relevant to the design situation that is being explored 2. Seek the agreement of all the persons within the user situation who could be affected by interviewer's presence or by new design. 3. Encourage users to describe and to demonstrate any aspects of their activity that are important to them 4. Carryout a man-machine systems analysis to define tasks, user abilities, and the design requirements of interfaces parts of the design that affect users) 5. Direct the conversation towards aspects of the user’s activity which seem relevant to the situation that being explored 6. Record both circumstantial and critical findings during the interview of within short time of it. 7. When appropriate, obtain user’s comment on the conclusions drawn from
  24. 24. STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 24 A MICRO VIEW 1DEFINE THE PROBLEM What are the issues? The team may have very specific questions or just a general sense that more information is needed about a topic. They put the problem into words to give it structure and to nail down the objective. This serves as the “creative brief” in the quest for insights.
  25. 25. STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 25 A MICRO VIEW 2FIND THE PEOPLE Who are the people who can most likely shed light on the questions? Is it somebody who uses certain products or acts a certain way? Is it somebody who changes or impacts how others act? Are they people who live in a certain environment, culture or geographic location?
  26. 26. STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 26 A MICRO VIEW 3PLAN AN APPROACH Figure out a game plan for observations and interactions with respondents. Create a set of questions to ask consistently. Include opportunities for people to show what they own, what they value and how they do things.
  27. 27. STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 27 A MICRO VIEW 4COLLECT DATA Meaningful insights don’t come quickly. The process involves slowing down, taking everything in, using all five senses and being curious. Attitudes, mannerisms, vocabulary and group dynamics are all important. Of particular interest is how what you observe supports or contradicts what people say. Take photographs, video, audio, handwritten notes and sketches.
  28. 28. STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 28 A MICRO VIEW 5ANALYZE DATA AND INTERPRET OPPORTUNITIES This is the most challenging part of any research. A trained ethnographer brings deep contextual and cultural understanding to analysis, and gets beyond the obvious insights derived from casual observation. Analysis is time-consuming, but links findings to a concrete direction. The outcome of the analysis may include design principles, models, personas, user scenarios and/or experience frameworks. Once the data have been analyzed, the team should be able to tell that story to multiple audiences, and should have a clear set of “aha’s!” and next steps.
  29. 29. STEPS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 29 A MICRO VIEW 6SHARE INSIGHTS The insights that are generated through ethnographic research are useful to the whole team and to the client’s whole organization. Storytelling and information design can be used to communicate the value of the work and the possibilities it holds for creating something wonderful. Information that is presented in a visually compelling way is more likely to intrigue, inspire and engage. The ethnographer and the designer together have the ability to make others see and believe.
  30. 30. queries 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 31
  31. 31. THANK YO 7/29/2013 SIMPLE PRODUCT DESIGN & BLUE SKY 32

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