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Full Circle 29

  1. 1. full circle ISSUE #29 - September 2009 TOP FIVE PHYSICS GAMES full circle magazine #29 1 contents ^
  2. 2. full circle Program In Python - Pt3 p.07 Ubuntu Games p.23 My Story p.16 MOTU Interview p.20 Read about and anothers ... Command & Conquer p.05 LAMP - Part 2 p.12 Virtual Private Network p.14 Review p.18 Letters p.21 Top 5 p.28 The articles contained in this magazine are released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. This means you can adapt, copy, distribute and transmit the articles but only under the following conditions: You must attribute the work to the original author in some way (at least a name, email or URL) and to this magazine by name ('full circle magazine') and the URL www.fullcirclemagazine.org (but not attribute the article(s) in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you must distribute the resulting work under the same, similar or a compatible license. full circle magazine #29 2 contents ^
  3. 3. EDITORIAL This magazine was created using : Welcome to another issue of Full Circle magazine. O ur articles on LAMP and Python continue this month and are joined by a very informative article on setting up a VPN (Virtual Private Network) which is something that quite a few people have asked for more information on. More important is the announcement of the codename. I couldn't possibly spoil it, but flip over to the news page for more details. Please keep your articles coming in. Don't be disheartened when you don't see Ubuntu is a complete operating your (or ) right away, I keep the articles in a queue and try to system that is perfect for use them in the order I receive them, so if you sent me a several months laptops, desktops and servers. ago, it may be your turn next month, you never know! And we're always looking for Whether at home, school or work new articles, so keep them coming too! Ubuntu contains all the applications you'll ever need including word processor, email Keep the emails coming too, I'm always interested to hear what you think about application and web browser. FCM, it's always in beta, and continually evolving. If there's something you think is Ubuntu is and always will be free missing from FCM feel free to drop me an email, my email address is below. of charge. You do not pay any licensing fees. You can download, use and share Ubuntu Enjoy the issue, and keep in touch! with your friends, family, school or business for absolutely nothing. Once installed, your system is Editor, Full Circle magazine ready to use with a full set of ronnie@fullcirclemagazine.org productivity, internet, drawing and graphics applications, and games. use the new 'contents' link to jump to the contents page full circle magazine #29 from any other page! 3 contents ^
  4. 4. NEWS GNOME 2.28 Released Launchpad 3.0 is here! Ubuntu 10.04 : Lucid Lynx New UI and more. The GNOME Desktop is Speaking via video to UbuCon at The Launchpad team is proud to released every the Atlanta Linuxfest, Mark announce the release of Launchpad six months and Shuttleworth announced that the 3.0! contains many code name for the 10.04 Ubuntu new features, release would be "Lucid Lynx". It • a new clearer web interface with in- improvements, will be an LTS version featuring 3 line editing bug fixes and translations. years support for the desktop • personal translation dashboards: see GNOME 2.28 continues this version and 5 years for the what needs your attention tradition. To learn more about server version. This will be the • automatically updated diffs during code reviews. GNOME and the qualities that third LTS version, proving that distinguish it from other Ubuntu can not only deliver a computer desktop new version every 6 months, but environments (such as also an LTS version every 2nd Visit Launchpad to see our new web usability, accessibility, year, something Mark is very interface. You can now view more information on many pages without internationalisation, and proud of. scrolling, particularly on people and freedom) visit the About project profile pages. GNOME page on our website. Speaking briefly of what we can expect to see in the Lucid Lynx, Mark talks of cloud computing and GNOME. And the web interface is now faster: GNOME 2.28 includes all of the Mentioning our relationship with Debian, Mark hopes to you can update more data, including almost everything on bug report improvements made in GNOME continue expanding that relationship in the hope of pages, without reloading the page. 2.26 and earlier. You can learn bettering both distributions. In closing Mark asks our more about the changes that community to search out those who put in so much work : launchpad.net happened in GNOME 2.26 from delivering a quality Ubuntu product to us, and to give its release notes. them all a big thanks. We think a big thanks is also deserved by Mark for his oversight and tireless work on Apologies to who : our behalf. wrote the article and not the http://library.gnome.org/misc/rel name given in the original PDF, the ease-notes/2.28/ : Ubuntu Weekly News PDF has since been corrected and all new downloads credit Roger. full circle magazine #29 4 contents ^
  5. 5. COMMAND & CONQUER H ave you ever found (XF86AudioMute, required in the tty0 console. To yourself tapping an XF86MonBrightnessDown, a, b, dmesg|tail -5 start, you must create the extra key on your and so forth). If it displays .Xmodmap file. This can be laptop, only to NoSymbol after the keycode, If something like this done by using the touch realize that it isn't bound to there is no keypress bound to appears in the dmesg output - command, or just editing it in anything, and then finding out that keycode yet, and you can gedit and then saving the file. skip to step two. If neither the atkbd.c: Unknown key pressed Entries in the file should be in that the shortcuts program (translated set 2, code 0xf1 doesn't recognize the key? key returns nothing, it is time on isa0060/serio0). this format: Well, I ran into a similar to try showkey. problem when setting up atkbd.c: Use 'setkeycodes keycode <Xkeycode> = e071 <keycode>' to make it keysymbol Openbox on my netbook, and Switch to tty0 (by hitting ctrl known. so I thought I would show you + alt + F1) and log in as your A few examples would be as how to bind keys to functions, user. Once logged in, enter the - you can map the scancode to below: even if it seems that they are command: a keycode. You can do this by not recognized. keycode 153 = showkey either using HAL or XF86MonBrightnessDown setkeycodes (kernel tool), as Step One: Key This program will return shown in the dmesg output. keycode 154 = Recognition keycodes of keys pressed, and The further reading section at XF8MonBrightnessUp automatically quit 10 seconds the end of this article offers a First we need to find out if after the last keypress. Once link to HAL's keymap quirks Step Three: Testing Keycodes the key is recognized by the the command is run, hit the page. I will not go into detail in kernel. Open a terminal and key(s) you want to test, and the article, since it is quite rare run the command: record any keycodes that it (in my experience) that it is First run the command: returns. If neither of these necessary to do this. xev | grep -A2 --line- options returned a keycode, it's xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap buffered '^KeyRelease' | sed -n '/keycode /s/^.*keycode time to see if the key has a Step Two: Binding ([0-9]*).* (.*, scancode. Keycodes Then you should be able to (.*)).*$/1 2/p' add the keys to whatever To do this, press the key you function you need. If not, I will focus on binding This will output the keycode want to test, and then check revise the keycodes and keycodes to keys in Xorg, since followed by the keypress name dmesg with: keysymbol names, just in case most multimedia keys aren't full circle magazine #29 5 contents ^
  6. 6. COMMAND & CONQUER QUICK REVIEW - PREY In the world of the first person shooter (FPS) video game there is very little innovation. Most of the time a new FPS game will have elements that made older, or previous, games in this genre a success. That is not the case with Prey. Prey is unique. Prey is different from anything you have played before. Recently ported to Linux, this old favourite of mine is now enjoying a new lease on life. You play a Cherokee warrior named Domasi Tawodi (a.k.a Tommy), a man who wants to leave his Cherokee heritage in the past, leave the you made a typo. A full list of An alternative tool to Reservation and move on into the civilized world, but there is one problem: symbols can be found here: xmodmap is xbindkeys, and it his girlfriend Jen wants to stay, because it is her home. All of a sudden, is fairly straightforward. There while they are talking about it in a bar, it gets ripped up by an alien ship /usr/include/X11/keysymdef.h is a GUI available called taking him, Jen and his grandfather onto it so its inhabitants can feed on them. xbindkeys_config, but I'm not And for extra function keys: sure if it's in the Ubuntu Obviously, Tommy would not give up his life so easily, so he tries to rescue repositories. his Grandfather and girlfriend. /usr/include/X11/XKeySymDB One thing that makes this game outstanding (apart from the fact it uses a Once you have ensured that heavily modified Doom 3 engine) is its use of gravity (if you take a look at HAL keymap quirks: some of the screen shots you'll see why) and portals (which makes it very the keys work, continue to step http://people.freedesktop.org/~ possible to shoot yourself if you don't know what you are doing). These four. are used in a number of short and long puzzles, but nothing the average hughsient/quirk/quirk-keymap- part-time gamer can get stuck on. Another aspect of the game I loved was index.html Step Four: Making It the fact after a certain point in the game you cannot die. You read it correctly, 'you cannot die' so you will no longer 'die' then quickly press Permanent your quick-load key then try again with a miniscule amount of health. I don't want to give away too much about this game other than the fact that it is awesome. To make the changes permanent, you have to run has learned all he knows Ten years plus in development and this is what we get: a really slick game. the xmodmap command every from repeatedly breaking his It is one of the few examples of the modern video game that I think will go system, then having no other down in the record books as a definite classic. time you log in. I would option but to discover how to fix recommend adding it to your it. You can email Lucas at: .xprofile. lswest34@gmail.com. full circle magazine #29 6 contents ^
  7. 7. HOW-TO Program In Python - Part 3 those that come with Python, tell Python to #======================================= FCM#27-28 - Python Parts 1-2 or use modules that others do this. # random_example.py have created. Python itself # Module example using the random module comes with hundreds of Line seven #======================================= import random various modules that make sets up a 'for' # print 14 random integers your programming easier. A list loop to print 14 for cntr in range(1,15): of the global modules that random print random.randint(1,10) come with Python can be found numbers. Line at eight uses the http://docs.python.org/modinde randint() function to print a using database modules later Dev Graphics Internet M/media System x.html. Some modules are random integer between 1 and on in this series.) operating system specific, but 10. Notice we must tell Python most are totally cross platform what module the function Once you really get started (can be used the same way in comes from. We do this by in Python programming, you CD/DVD HDD USB Drive Laptop Linux, Mac and Microsoft saying (in this case) will probably make your own Wireless Windows). To be able to use an random.randint. Why even modules so you can use the code you've already written I external module, you must create modules? Well, if every n the last article, we import it into your program. possible function were included over and over again, without learned about lists, literal One of the modules that comes directly into Python, not only having to re-type it. If you need substitution, comments, with Python is called 'random'. would Python become to change something in that equate versus assignment, This module allows you to absolutely huge and slow, but group of code, you can, with if statements and while generate pseudo-random bug fixing would be a very little risk of breaking the statements. I promised you that numbers. We'll use the module nightmare. By using modules, code in your main program. in this part we would learn shown above right in our first we can segment the code into There are limits to this and we about modules and functions. example. groups that are specific to a will delve into this later on. So let's get started. certain need. If, for example, Now, when we used the 'import Let's examine each line of you have no need to use random' statement earlier, we Modules code. The first four lines are database functionality, you were telling Python to give us access to every function within comments. We discussed them don't need to know that there in the last article. Line five tells is a module for SQLite. the random module. If, Modules are a way to extend Python to use the random However, when you need it, it's however, we only needed to your Python programming. You module. We have to explicitly already there. (In fact, we'll be use the randint() function, we can create your own, or use full circle magazine #29 7 contents ^
  8. 8. PROGRAM IN PYTHON - PART 3 can re-work the import add them, then statement like this: multiply them, and #silly example then subtract them, print 'Adding the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (1,2,1+2) from random import randint print 'Multiplying the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (1,2,1*2) displaying the print 'Subtracting the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (1,2,1-2) numbers and results print 'n' Now when we call our each time. To make print 'Adding the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (1,4,1+4) function, we don't have to use matters worse, we print 'Multiplying the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (1,4,1*4) the 'random.' identifier. So, our print 'Subtracting the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (1,4,1-4) have to do that three print 'n' code changes to times with three sets print 'Adding the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (10,5,10+5) of numbers. Our silly print 'Multiplying the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (10,5,10*5) from random import randint print 'Subtracting the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (10,5,10-5) example would then # print 14 random integers print 'n' for cntr in range(1,15): look like the text print randint(1,10) shown right. select for the function, and function, we can do it without Functions Not only is this a lot of then a list of parameters (if causing too many issues to our typing, it lends itself to errors, any) in parentheses. This line is main program. We call our When we imported the either by typing or having to then closed by a colon (:). The function, in this case, by using random module, we used the change something later on. code in the function is the function name and putting randint() function. A function is Instead, we are going to create indented. Our improved silly the parameters after. a block of code that is a function called 'DoTwo' that example (#2) is shown below. designed to be called, usually takes the two numbers and Here is another example of more than once, which makes does the math, printing the As you can see, there's a lot a function. Consider the it easier to maintain, and to output each time. We start by less typing involved — 8 lines following requirements. keep us from typing the same using the 'def' key word (which instead of 12 lines. If we need code over and over and over. says that we are going to to change something in our We want to create a As a very general and gross define statement, any time you have the to write the same code more functi #silly example 2...still silly, but better def DoTwo(num1,num2): than once or twice, that code is on). print 'Adding the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (num1,num2,num1+num2) a good candidate for a After print 'Multiplying the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (num1,num2,num1*num2) 'def' print 'Subtracting the two numbers %d and %d = %d ' % (num1,num2,num1-num2) function. While the following print 'n' two examples are silly, they we make good statements about add DoTwo(1,2) using functions. Let's say we the DoTwo(1,4) wanted to take two numbers, name DoTwo(10,5) we full circle magazine #29 8 contents ^
  9. 9. PROGRAM IN PYTHON - PART 3 program that will print out a characters and use “ '=' * could modify the function we list of purchased items in a (width-2)”. To make things just made to include a Let's call the new function pretty format. It must look even easier, we will use parameter for the character to 'Fmt'. We'll pass it 4 parameter something like the text below. variable substitution to put all use in the middle of the pluses. values as follows: these items on one line. So our Let's do that. We can still call it – the value to print on the The cost of each item and string to print would be coded TopOrBottom. left for the total of all items will be as 's ('+',('=' * width-2)),'+'). – the width of this formatted as dollars and cents. Now we could have the routine def “column” TopOrBottom(character,width): The width of the print out must print this directly, but we will – the value to print on the # width is total width be able to be variable. The use the return keyword to send of returned line right (which should be a values on the left and right the generated string back to # character is the floating value) must be variable as well. We our calling line. We'll call our character to be placed – the width of this between the '+' characters will use 3 functions to do this function 'TopOrBottom' and the “column” return '%s%s%s' % task. One prints the top and code for this function looks like ('+',(character * (width- bottom line, one prints the this. 2)),'+') The first task is to format item detail lines including the the information for the right total line and one prints the def TopOrBottom(width): Now, you can see where side. Since we want to format # width is total width separator line. Luckily, there comments come in handy. the value to represent dollars of returned line are a number of things that return '%s%s%s' % Remember, we are returning and cents, we can use a special Python has that will make this ('+',('=' * (width-2)),'+') the generated string, so we function of variable very simple. If you recall, we have to have something to substitution that says, print the printed a string multiplied by 4, We could leave out the receive it back when we make value as a floating point and it returned four copies of comment, but it's nice to be the call to it. Instead of number with n number of the same string. Well we can able to tell at a glance what assigning it to another string, places to the right of the use that to our benefit. To print the parameter 'width' is. To call we'll just print it. Here's the decimal point. The command our top or bottom line we can it, we would say 'print calling line. would be '%2.f'. We will assign take the desired width, TopOrBottom(40)' or whatever this to a variable called 'part2'. subtract two for the two + width we wish the line to be. print TopOrBottom('=',40) So our code line would be Now we have one 'part2 = '%.2f' % val2'. We also function that takes So now, not only have we can use a set of functions '+===============================+' care of two of the taken care of three of the lines, that's built into Python strings '| Item 1 X.XX |' we've reduced the number of lines. We can make a called ljust and rjust. Ljust will '| Item 2 X.XX |' new function to take routines that we need from 3 left justify the string, padding '|-------------------------------|' '| Total X.XX |' care of the separator down to 2. So we only have the the right side with whatever '+===============================+' line using the same center part of the print out to character you want. Rjust does kind of code...OR we deal with. full circle magazine #29 9 contents ^
  10. 10. PROGRAM IN PYTHON - PART 3 the same thing, except the While we should really do some but we can just +======================================+ padding goes on the left side. error checking, you can use print it. Notice | Item 1 3.00 | Now for the neat bit. Using that as something to play with that we are | Item 2 15.00 | substitutions we throw on your own. So...our Fmt sending 30 for +--------------------------------------+ together a big string and return function is really only two lines the width of the | Total 18.00 | +======================================+ that to the calling code. Here is of code outside of the left bit and 10 our next line. definition line and any for the width of comments. We can call it like the right. That equals the 40 output should look something return 'ss' % ('| this. that we sent to our like the text shown above right. ',val1.ljust(leftbit-2,' TopOrBottom routine earlier. '),part2.rjust(rightbit-2,' '),' |') print Fmt('Item So, fire up your editor and type While this is a very simple 1',30,item1,10) example, it should give you a in the code below. While this looks rather good idea of why and how to Again, we could assign the use functions. Now, let's daunting at first, let's dissect it Save the code as return value to another string, extend this out a bit and learn and see just how easy it is: 'pprint1.py' and run it. Your - We will send back our created string to the #pprint1.py calling code. #Example of semi-useful functions - We are going to stick in def TopOrBottom(character,width): 4 values in the string. Each # width is total width of returned line %s is a place holder. return '%s%s%s' % ('+',(character * (width-2)),'+') - Starts the variable list - Print these literals def Fmt(val1,leftbit,val2,rightbit): # prints two values padded with spaces - # val1 is thing to print on left, val2 is thing to print on right Take the variable val1 that we # leftbit is width of left portion, rightbit is width of right portion were passed, left justify it part2 = '%.2f' % val2 with spaces for (leftbit-2) return '%s%s%s%s' % ('| ',val1.ljust(leftbit-2,' '),part2.rjust(rightbit-2,' '),' |') # Define the prices of each item characters. We subtract 2 to item1 = 3.00 allow the '| ' on the left side. item2 = 15.00 - # Now print everything out... Right justify the formatted print TopOrBottom('=',40) print Fmt('Item 1',30,item1,10) string of the price rightbit-2 print Fmt('Item 2',30,item2,10) spaces. ' |' - finish the string. print TopOrBottom('-',40) print Fmt('Total',30,item1+item2,10) That's all there is to it. print TopOrBottom('=',40) full circle magazine #29 10 contents ^
  11. 11. PROGRAM IN PYTHON - PART 3 more about lists. Remember like this now. back in part 2 when we first itms = [['Soda',1.45],['Candy',.75],['Bread',1.95],['Milk',2.59]] discussed lists? Well one thing #item1 = 3.00 #item2 = 15.00 print TopOrBottom('=',40) that I didn't tell you is that a itms = list can contain just about [['Soda',1.45],['Cand total = 0 #NEW LINE anything, including lists. Let's y',.75],['Bread',1.95 for cntr in range(0,4): #NEW LINE ],['Milk',2.59]] print Fmt(itms[cntr][0],30,itms[cntr][1],10) #NEW LINE define a new list in our total += itms[cntr][1] #NEW LINE program called itms and fill it print TopOrBottom('-',40) like this: Next, remove all print Fmt('Total',30,total,10) #CHANGED LINE the lines that call print TopOrBottom('=',40) itms = Fmt(). Next add the [['Soda',1.45],['Candy',.75], following lines (with wild and crazy, you could add a ['Bread',1.95],['Milk',2.59]] #NEW LINE at the end) to line for tax as well. Handle it make your code look like the close to the same way we did If we were to access this as text shown right. the total line, but use (total * a normal list we would use .086) as the cost. print itms[0]. However, what I set up a counter variable we would get back is for loop that cycles through the print ['Soda',1.45], which is not Fmt('Tax:',30,total*.086,10) list for each item there. Notice really what we were looking for that I've also added a variable under normal circumstances. If you would like to, you can called total. We set the total to We want to access each item in add more items to the list and 0 before we go into our for that first list. So we would use see how it works. loop. Then as we print each 'print itms[0][0]' to get 'Soda' item sold, we add the cost to and [0][1] to get the cost or That's it for this time. Next our total. Finally, we print the 1.45. So, now we have 4 items time we'll concentrate on total out right after the that have been purchased and classes. separator line. Save your we want to use that program and information in our pretty print run it. You routine. The only thing we have +======================================+ should see is owner of to change is at the bottom of | Soda 1.45 | ,a something like | Candy 0.75 | the program. Save the last consulting company in Aurora, the text shown | Bread 1.95 | Colorado, and has been program as 'pprint2.py', then | Milk 2.59 | below. programming since 1972. He comment out the two itemx +--------------------------------------+ enjoys cooking, hiking, music, definitions and insert the list | Total 6.74 | and spending time with his If you +======================================+ we had above. It should look family. wanted to get full circle magazine #29 11 contents ^
  12. 12. HOW-TO LAMP - Part 2 FTP Installation as follows: sudo /etc/init.d/vsftpd FCM#28 - LAMP Part 1 restart We're going to use vsftpd. At • Enable local user access (my the CLI type: account) in the vsftpd.conf. Firewall Configuration sudo apt-get install vsftpd • Add the user (me) to the www-data user group (I use This is quite easy through You can source a vsftpd GUI Webmin for this). Webmin. Under the drop-down module for Webmin but I prefer networking tab, open ‘Linux to edit the vsftpd.conf file • Give ownership of /var/www Firewall‘. Dev Graphics Internet M/media System manually. To do so at the to the www-data group (I use command line, type: Webmin for this) and check Select Block All except SSH “Files Inherit Group”. and IDENT on external sudo nano /etc/vsftpd.conf interface. CD/DVD HDD USB Drive Laptop Wireless • Set destination path in the I've read many tutorials ftp client (i.e /var/www). At the next screen we need which seem quite happy to to add rules for FTP, Webmin, W work with anonymous access. Ensure that Sendmail & MySQL Admin e have our nice However, this isn't something new LAMP box, all "umask" is un-commented in access. I'm personally comfortable the vsftpd.conf file and select very well and with, so I always disable it. good, but we'll be your desired setting for Click ‘Add Rule‘ under the Depending on your own system intended uploads. For existing list. needing to put some data on it, policy you may also wish to of course. Not only that, but we Wordpress installations I've chroot selected users to found 0002 to be the most Check ‘Accept‘. don't want other people to also prevent them from straying out be able to put their data on it, agreeable option -- this gives of where they're supposed to 775 permissions. Set Network Protocol Equals or, alternatively, to steal ours. be into somewhere they aren't. Linux server is inherently TCP. secure by default, however it Your needs may be different, Permissions are the thing for but the above works for me. Set Destination TCP or UDP doesn't do any harm to ramp FTP access. As I use only a things up to the next level. Restart vsftpd and test access port Equals 21. single account, and connect with your FTP utility. I use Let's configure FTP and an easy directly into /var/www, my Firewall. Transmit -- it’s great. Click ‘Create‘. expanded method for access is full circle magazine #29 12 contents ^
  13. 13. LAMP - PART 2 Do the same for ports 3306 First we install Sendmail. At (MySQL), port 25 (Sendmail), the CLI type: port 10000 (Webmin), and port 80 (Web & phpMyAdmin). sudo apt-get install sendmail Check ‘Activate at Boot‘ and Next we need to configure click ‘Apply Configuration‘. PHP so it knows where the That’s it. If you can get back SMTP service (sendmail) is. At into Webmin, use PHP Mail the CLI, type the following: scripts and FTP, and latch onto sudo nano the DB with MySQL /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini Administrator. Then you're sorted. Add the following under the mail function section, inputting You may have to re-start your own details as required: MySQL. I use Webmin seeing as how it’s already open. [mail function] ; Setup for Linux systems PHP Mail sendmail_path = /usr/sbin/sendmail -t sendmail_from = You may wish to have the <your_webadmin_mail_account@y ability for visitors to one-click ourdomain.com> mail you from your funky dynamic website. PHP already And save. That's it. Your mail has a mail function built in, but scripts should now quite Richard Redei it needs linking to a transport happily send mail. agent (MTA) for it to relay. In other words, it needs a program or service which will send the mail. Here we can is a use a server option called (can passionate Ubuntu professional you guess?), yes, Sendmail. who offers open source strategies Here's how to install and and services for business IT from the http://toomuchgreen.eu web configure it -- it's very easy. portal. When not working with technology he cycles vigorously. full circle magazine #29 13 contents ^
  14. 14. HOW-TO Virtual Private Network In Ubuntu from your local machine or LAN Simple enough. In the Network Connections firewall, you will need to allow window, you will need to click N/A this port to pass. Most of the on the VPN tab. time this port will be allowed out bound, unless you are an extreme security freak and you have things on lock down. You will need to locate the Network Manager icon in your Dev Graphics Internet M/media System Notification Area (yours might look different). This will aid you in getting to the settings of For you CLI people out Next click on Add and then your network and starting VPN there, type this at the CLI and Create. CD/DVD HDD USB Drive Laptop Wireless connections. it will install the needed packages: Lets get the PPTP module A installed so that we can start sudo aptitude install letter from Ken, in network-manager-pptp creating VPN connections. FCM#27, wanted Guess what? You no longer some information on Now that you have the PPTP need to use the command line VPNs. As my article in module installed for your interface (CLI) for this. PPTP FCM#02 was about using VPNs, Network Manager, let's get a has been put into Add/Remove I thought that it would be good connection setup. Right click Programs. This will make it Edit the name of the to write an update to that, as on Network Manager in the easier for those that who not connection. You can put things have changed. Notification Area and a context like the CLI. Open your whatever you would like, but if menu pops up. On the context Add/Remove Programs and do you plan on making more than First off, you set up VPNs menu, click on Edit a search for VPN. If you sort by one connection, or have through the Network Manager. Connections. Note: you can most popular first, it should be trouble remembering what you Most VPNs that you set up will also left click the icon, go to at the top. Check the box, set up 6 months down the use the PPTP protocol. PPTP VPN Connections, then Apply Changes, put in your road, it is a good idea to put runs on TCP port 1723. If you Configure VPN. password, and click close. the name of the place that you are blocking ports out bound full circle magazine #29 14 contents ^
  15. 15. VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK IN UBUNTU are connecting to. connected. Most VPNs are going to require an encrypted connection. Click OK. QUICKIE My wife's HP desktop was getting long in the tooth. Because I had rebuilt computers in the past, many options existed for its replacement. Her Acer One notebook had demonstrated the quality and speed of Intel's Atom 270 processor. I became aware of people using the Atom-equipped mother boards for desktop projects. Going online, I located a bare-bones computer using the latest Atom 330 processor, a true dual-core version. The case is slightly larger than a sheet of paper and only 2 ½ inches high. I ordered a 1 Tb SATA hard drive, a DVD-CD drive, and 2GB of RAM. When the boxes arrived, the fun began. The manual, complete with pictures, was easy to follow. I removed the screws for the top and slid it off, revealing the mother board and a metal box for the drives. After removing the black plastic bezel and two screws, the drive tray slid off and out of the case. I installed the hard drive and the DVD drive in their respective openings with the supplied The IP v4 settings tab is for screws, returned the tray to its place, and plugged in the SATA cords. In the Gateway settings, put Advanced Users. This is where The RAM memory snapped into place and the computer was back the IP or FQDN (fully qualified you can change DNS servers together. I then realized that I needed a USB keyboard and mouse, as domain name) that you are for your VPN, set up different there are no receptacles for the conventional cables. After a quick trip to connecting to. Personally I just network routes based on a computer store, it was time to turn on the computer and load the put in the IP. Then fill out the subnet, and assign a static IP. operating system. I had previously burned a CD of Ubuntu 9.04. The speed at which Ubuntu was loaded onto the hard drive was a revelation. Username. I do not normally Things should work without I reused the old LCD 17” monitor and the powered speakers. put in a password -- just a good messing with the IP v4 setting habit in my opinion. If want to tab. The bare-bones computer is made by MSI and is called a Wind PC. There put in a password, it is really is a small fan that cools the entire computer box and it is very quiet. The power requirements are satisfied by an external power supply, similar to up to you. The password should a laptop unit, of only 65 watts. The case comes with a plastic bracket to bind to your Keyring if you hold it on its side, instead of horizontal. After reading reviews from other want it to. buyers, I chose to lay it flat, for optimum cooling. A wireless keyboard and mouse makes it possible to place the computer box quite a distance from your work area, the limiting factor being the length of the monitor You might need to go into cable. the Advanced section to select encryption. You might need to check the Use Point-to-Point Encryption (MPEE) to get full circle magazine #29 15 contents ^
  16. 16. MY STORY One Man's Journey M y computer again was your 9.04. Ubuntu has brought me experience began good. But desktop is from the Dark Side to Freedom. with a Kaypro IV soon an even an even (right) running better bigger-and- I still have trouble believing CP/M, a simple machine using operating better, new- that this wonderful system is two 5.25 inch floppy drives and system came and- free, both in the ability to add, a nine-inch green monitor along. Of improved change, and modify it as you screen. The operating system course the operating wish, but also free of monetary was read into memory from the fact that I system cost. first floppy drive, and then one had paid called swapped out the floppy and good money Windows 7. I consider myself a noob, replaced it with another floppy for DOS and because not everything in holding the software being Windows, plus Being Ubuntu is easily used, while your data was needing to buy new software, thrifty, I decided while running comprehensible. But this is OK stored on the second floppy was of no import. You must buy Windows 2000 that I was tired with me, when I recall working drive. These floppies were 360 the new and improved (does of throwing good money after with Windows for almost two KB in size. This setup with a this sound like a laundry soap bad to buy something I didn't decades without being able to daisy-wheel printer and all commercial?) operating system like, but then I had to buy more do everything with it. Today I needed software cost about called Windows 95. This was software to secure my have a great system enhanced $3000 US dollars in the early the be-all end-all of operating computer from outside attacks by a lot of help from both 1980s. At the time it didn't get systems, so of course you must because of security flaws. The books and forums, and it lets better than this; I was living buy it. But it was followed by Macintosh sticker shock turned me do what I want to do with the good life. Windows 98, Windows 98 SE, me off as soon as I was fully my computer. Windows ME, Windows 2000, inside the Apple Store, so I Alas, the good life soon went and Windows XP, with more beat a hasty retreat. I would be remiss if I didn't into a downward spiral, as versions than I can count using say a great big thank you to all CP/M was crushed by a new all of my fingers and toes, it I had brief affairs with the people who contribute their operating system called DOS. I seems. But wait, there's more. several GNU/Linux distros, but talent and time to give to all of used DOS for a while, and then Windows XP was soon eclipsed none of them grabbed me and us a truly world-class operating came another operating by Windows Vista, also with said "I am the one” until I system. system, with color graphics numerous versions for your found Ubuntu. I first used (GUI), called Windows. Life perusal. And soon coming to Ubuntu 6.06 and now am using full circle magazine #29 16 contents ^
  17. 17. MY STORY My Walk With Ubuntu Ubuntu, like fine wine, gets the operating system on the to do reports for school, and and crossed my fingers hoping better with age. The more time CD and continued using Ubuntu was open source, not and waiting for it to connect to wine is given to mature, the Windows XP on my computer recognizing Microsoft Windows the Internet. Happily, it did richer and more delicious it until it became too boring for or any Windows programs. connect. Thus my mind was tastes. The same thing can be me. I didn't like its excessive Although it had thousands of made up. I quickly backed up said about Ubuntu: the more automatic operations and its beautiful software programs at my stuff, deleted Windows, and time it is given to mature, the lack of easy inexpensive its disposal, it lacked the one I installed Ubuntu. Everything richer it becomes, the more customization. I needed needed. So about a month worked perfectly, from the content you see and the more something to spice up my afterwards, I uninstalled graphic card to the sound card. compatibility you get. computer. So I started looking Ubuntu. I was sad to see it go. I have had no major problems. into different types of However, I made a promise to I started using Ubuntu back operating systems and again come back to it as it got better. However, I still do need in 2005, when I got my first came upon Ubuntu. Microsoft Office. Doing some laptop. I knew nothing about When Ubuntu 9.04 came out research, I found two open-source programs or about When I visited the Ubuntu in April, I decided to give companies who do advance other operating systems. I was Web site I was amazed by Ubuntu a chance again. I development into Wine heading off to college and the everything that Ubuntu was ordered a CD and had to wait Microsoft Windows only operating systems I knew promoting and standing for. I six weeks again for it to arrive. Compatibility Layer, thus about were Windows and Mac. ordered two versions and When it did, I first gave it a test allowing Microsoft Office to Windows looked boring and a waited six weeks for the CDs to run to see that everything was work through their programs. Mac was too expensive. The reach Trinidad. As soon I got working proberly. The reason I Now I can have Ubuntu and guy whom I bought the laptop them, I backed up everything gave up on 8.10 was that it Microsoft Office without having from gave me an open-source on my laptop and installed was not connecting with my to dual boot or run it in a live bootable CD containing Ubuntu. Everything installed mobile PC card. However, a virtual machine. programs and an image of perfectly. I loved having a different tune can be sung for Ubuntu. All of the open-source different operating system Ubuntu 9.04. So, the Ubuntu operating programs worked like magic on from everyone else, and I was system is just like fine wine my new laptop. The only soon able to customize it and As soon as the test screen (the drink, not the program) in problem was that nothing make it my own. came on, it indicated that I had that it improves with age. It is booted up. a mobile PC card, and it asked now a great operating system However, good things do not me to input information for with access to loads of For a while I forgot all about last. I needed Microsoft Office running the card. I did just that beautiful software. full circle magazine #29 17 contents ^
  18. 18. REVIEW Kompozer was going to do. I could have Authoring System. from HTML, but because I can gone back to doing it the old change the HTML and see the fashioned way, editing the The whole description is as results before I even publish page locally and then follows: the page. uploading it to the server, which wasn't that bad. I have a customer that I do obituaries for and it takes me Nvu is still supported on about 5 minutes to do one Windows, so I went to page, because I have a http://www.net2.com/nvu/downl template online that I make I have been using oad.html and downloaded a changes to and then publish it Ubuntu since the Windows version. I used my under a new webpage name. I release of Breezy Badger Windows machine until I then make a quick change to 5.10. This means I missed discovered KompoZer. It's a an index page and add a link to Warty Warthog and Hoary KDE program, but it works the new obituary page and I Hedgehog. The reason I am great in Gnome. am done. bringing this up is because I started using Nvu to create If I had been paying Once I installed KompoZer I web pages, back with Breezy attention to what was said on had to set up the servers I Badger, while it was still the Nvu website, I would have wanted to work with. The way supported. If I am not mistaken seen that they recommended the program works is, you open it was still supported up until downloading the KompoZer the page, make changes and Gutsy Gibbon. I know I couldn't version of Nvu. They even had I am not going to include then re-publish it. All the time get it to work with Intrepid Ibex a link: any screen shots of Nvu but if you are working live on-line. I 8.10, and, of course, it would http://kompozer.net/download.p you are interested in find this a very fast way of not work with Jaunty Jackalope. hp, but the one in the Synaptic comparing it to KompoZer just doing things. I really liked the program; I package manager was a newer go to: used it for publishing web version. Whenever possible I http://www.net2.com/nvu/scree From the main menu: Edit > pages for customers for my always use the one in the nshots.html Publishing Site Settings is web business. I was beside package manager. The version where you set up your servers. myself when it was no longer at the time of this writing is At this point I am going to The Publishing Site Settings supported. I wasn't sure what I and is focus on KompoZer. I use it, not dialog box (see figure Four) has described as a Complete Web because I want to get away some fields that need to be full circle magazine #29 18 contents ^
  19. 19. REVIEW: KOMPOZER filled in. I am giving you a thought it's about time I get on screen shot of one of my the ball and write another one. server settings as an example. Just for the record I am writing this on my old laptop, and if you want to read about my old laptop you will have to look back in FCM#16, page 24. Normal view gives you a I find this a very handy fast As you can see, they are WYSIWYG view. In this view way to make quick changes very simple and straight- you can make changes to your and, by using templates, to forward. web page, and it will show your create new pages. changes when you publish it. Once you have your servers The next view is the HTML Tag. If you add any graphics to a set up, you are ready to edit a This allows you to view what page, you must upload them page or add a new one, and do HTML tags are being used and first or you will get error all your publishing from one where. Next is the view that I messages saying that the program. It's fast and clean. use to make changes to the graphic file cannot be found. I webpage: the Source Code find it easier to upload all my To open a page, all you do is view. After I make changes I graphics before I ever start find it on your server in the left can go to the next view and working with KompoZer. I use column and double click on it. see how my changes will look the plugin for FireFox called It will open your page in the when it is published. FireFTP. It is fast and very easy right window where you will to upload all my graphics that find four tabs at the bottom of Once you have made all way beforehand. the window. The next four your changes or created a new screen shots are the same page, you can go to the top This is the third article I index page from Abbott's menu: File> Publish or Publish have written for FCM ‒ not Funeral Home but with the four as, and publish your finished counting my letters. When FCM different tabs (right). work. used almost every article ever sent (over the past two years) I full circle magazine #29 19 contents ^
  20. 20. MOTU INTERVIEW behindmotu.wordpress.com Iulian Udrea I started to look at some bugs that I’m part of this team. involved with any local in Launchpad and tried to fix Linux/Ubuntu groups. some of them. My first patch Any advice for people wanting uploaded to Ubuntu was in to help out MOTU? What are you going to focus on March 2008. Just dive in. You do not need to in Jaunty? know any programming I’m going to focus on What helped you learn languages by helping out merging/syncing as many packaging and how Ubuntu MOTU, but sometimes in may packages as I can and fix nasty : 17 teams work? help you when fixing a non- bugs. I started to get involved : Romania I learnt packaging by reading packaging bug. There are with the Kernel team as well so : iulian the Debian policy, Packaging many excellent documents other than merging and Guide from our wiki page and from which you can learn syncing with Debian I focus on How long have you used Linux some other excellent packaging. In my opinion, making patches for the kernel and what was your first distro? documents from the web. packaging is not so difficult as team. I have been using GNU/Linux Frankly, I cannot remember it looks. It doesn’t take so since four years ago. My first from where I learnt how Ubuntu much time to learn it. Once you What do you do in your other distribution was Debian 3.1 teams work. I believe I learnt learn the basics, it will be a spare time? Sarge. by reading their wiki pages and piece of cake. You will just need Reading. I am a fanatic reader, talking about them on IRC. to understand it. Like I said in I read a lot, especially How long have you been using the previous interview when I Computer and Science Fiction Ubuntu? What’s your favorite part of wasn’t a MOTU, the hardest books. I am also a skater. So if Since 6.06 Dapper Drake. working with the MOTU? step is to get in, once you are I’m not at home, reading, you Oh, that is a very interesting in, you will never want to get can find me in the park, When did you get involved with question. My favourite part of out, unless you are barmy. :-) skating and jumping like a the MOTU team and how? working with the MOTU is, Nobody knows everything so barmy boy. I got involved with the MOTU obviously, the people. I really do not hesitate to ask team during the Hardy like how they interact with questions in the channel or in development cycle. I joined the each other and sharing ideas. the mailing list. #ubuntu-{motu,devel} All I can say is that all of them channels on Freenode in are really helpful, friendly and Are you involved with any local December 2007, IIRC. After it’s just a great feeling working Linux/Ubuntu groups? some time of idling and not with them. I am really proud Unfortunately, I am not saying a word in both channels, full circle magazine #29 20 contents ^
  21. 21. LETTERS letters@fullcirclemagazine.org PLEASE NOTE: some letters may be edited for space reasons. Seeing Stars Please keep giving us updates, LETTER OF THE MONTH that fix the problems. Then you Folks, I have been with Ubuntu can come out with a new release with everything working and a lot On a recent holiday to France I My grasp of French is not since 6.04 and have enjoyed the of cool new stuff too! was surprised to see a computer great, so I was limited in what I experience. I used to hate time keyboard and mouse on a window could do on the PC. However, I with Windows, but with 9.04 I am sill, with the screen behind the saw several other people use the coming to the conclusion the Thanks for letting me vent, I window. The sign said that use of computer on further visits to the same out of control software is hope that things can begin to the computer was free in the town, so it is obviously getting change in a positive direction. mornings, and also gave a small some use. Offering a service like starting to impede Ubuntu. For menu of refreshments available. this has some potential example, my DVD/CD drives used This is unusual in most places, downsides, though; once I passed to work in 8.10. I upgraded to but in a sleepy market town in the computer to see a selection of France it looked positively alien. “adult” websites on the screen. 9.04, in June of 2009. It boots up GUI Python Killing all browser windows left the within a minute, but I've lost my The desktop was in French PC ready for the next user. DVD and CD drives. You knew (unsurprisingly) but I was about the problem in March. First, I want to congratulate surprised to see the PC had Perhaps this public offering of free Ubuntu installed. The default web PC use and internet access is you for your great Python browser was Firefox, and all other commonplace, but it certainly I think the problem is, you articles, but I have a question. usual applications were available. surprised me – especially as they guys are seeing stars with each There are a lot of places where Obviously, the people offering were using Ubuntu. new release, and you are not we can get information about this PC for public use felt that the price, security and language fixing the problems that these how to program in python, but support of Ubuntu were new releases have. Let us slow there aren't any where we can preferable to other commercial down the releases, maybe one get information on how to operating systems! each year, or one every two program in Python with a GUI. years. Use the time to make a Will your articles include GUI bullet-proof system. Do more stuff? testing so that everything works, or is caught in a very short time. I can't recommend 9.04 to my mother! She would be in tears Greg replies: when things no longer work. They used to work, but not now. full circle magazine #29 21 contents ^
  22. 22. LETTERS VirtualBox - Compiz know how to set up a home devices such as laptops or network using Ubuntu. mobiles. In a previous issue's Q&A I Hardware manufacturers are found an answer that could be now releasing products with expanded: the question about wireless networking VirtualBox appearing capabilities. I would love to see Ed: transparent. The proposed a series on how to have a solution is to deactivate server housing the data in a Compiz altogether. While this home and the users accessing . solution works, there is it from anywhere in the house, : another, less restrictive or even the world, using their articles@fullcirclemagazine.org Baseball Coach workaround : • Launch CompizConfig I was reading your questions • Select the "Window Rules" column, and read your answer plugin in the "Window to the Baseball Coach's Management" tab. question. Quite by accident, • For the "No ARGB" rule, add I've found an application which the line: is an unbelievably good fit for the coach's needs. Get him to This will turn off the try (shown below) transparency for VirtualBox http://www.getdeb.net/app/Long only, but keep all the other oMatch. It's at GetDeb so it Compiz settings working. I looks like it should work in found this on the French Jaunty. Ubuntu forum (ubuntu.fr) when I encountered the same problem. Home Networking FCM#28 dealt with LAMP and networking Ubuntu PCs with SSHFS. I would like to full circle magazine #29 22 contents ^
  23. 23. UBUNTU GAMES day game features. The key GAME NEWS unique feature Quake Live brings is the ability to play the - game within your web browser. Finally, Quake Live is now All you need is an account and out for Linux. Go to download of the plugin to start www.quakelive.com, to playing. The best thing is that start fragging. it's free to download and play! all be familiar to you. All the are saved on your profile and If you have played any of Quake games were famous for can be seen by the community. - the Quake games in the past, their excellent range of The stats in the game are Latest version brings New there is nothing new to tell you. weaponry. All the standard displaying the amount of modes, maps, textures and It is the same great fast-paced weapons are here, but with games you have played, the weapons. shooter it has always been. some awesome additions. number of kills and deaths, Like any FPS, the aim is to Plasma rifles and rocket your favourite weapons, your move yourself around the map, launchers are fan favourites success-rate with certain kill as many people as possible and are still very effective. weapons, etc. There is a lot of and try not to die. However, information about you, which Quake stands out from the rest Apart from bringing an old can be compared with other of the pack with its amazing game to 2009, id Software has players. Both these features array of weapons, sci-fi maps, updated and added many new offer an excellent way to make and excellent community. features. In the past few years, you want to play the game T Quake Live is no different. The thanks to Xbox 360, stats and more, and you can get a great he biggest game for game comes with 25 maps, achievements have brought a sense of achievement from Linux in 2009 is finally most of which are based on competitive wave between them. Friends list has been out! Quake Live is an Quake 3 maps. These maps gamers. id Software has seen slowly added into many online FPS, which is consist of a sci-fi look and feel this rise in popularity and have multiplayer PC games, and entirely based on Quake 3. id and a great layout to suit all 5 finally brought it to Quake. The Quake Live has followed suit. Software wanted to bring one game modes: Duel, achievements are based on You can add friends from work of the most popular online FPS Deathmatch, Team getting so-many kills, winning and school as well as friends to 2009, by updating the Deathmatch, Capture the Flag, so-many matches or doing a you have met in-game. The list graphics and adding modern- and Clan Arena. These should certain trick. The achievements allows you to chat and create full circle magazine #29 23 contents ^
  24. 24. UBUNTU GAMES matches with your friends. One suggest matches at your level. every game has its problems. major and much needed In my experience, this system Quake Live does too, due to feature which has been finally works very well. I was in annoying bugs and glitches. added to Quake is Clan matches where I was able to There are a few frame-per- Support! Quake has always get plenty of kills, but the second dips and textures been about joining clans and competitors were also ripping slightly, but the major having clan matches and challenging enough to prevent issues have been with sound. tournaments. You can now boredom. The accessibility of Sound can be poor quality: setup clans and allow clans to the game works very well for crackling, out of sync, and create matches and setup both hardcore fans and new shutting down. However, tournments. This is a welcome players, thus allowing them to Quake Live is still under beta, feature for the hardcore Quake face competition at their own so bugs are expected. fans. level. Overall, Quake Live is an The Quake series has always Graphics are generally good, excellent game. Thanks to the been a hard game to do well but are now out-dated by 10 matchmaking, the Score: 9/10 at, due to its fast-paced nature years. However, id Software achievements, and the stats, and the high skill level of most wanted to keep the graphics Quake Live is the most : players. Being a casual game the same as in Quake 3, so one accessible and enjoyable game Match-making due to the ease and speed of can't complain too much. But it in the series. With a large Excellent community downloading and joining a would be nice to have some community there is always a Stats and Achievements match, id Software has added updated graphics. The game is match to join with people you Its Free! some new features to help new very scable. You will be able to can beat. My only concern for and less-experienced players run it on very old hardware, the game is attracting hardcore : play Quake Live. From the and you can go into great Quake players to play. With all Bugs with graphics and sound start, players are forced to try detail adjusting the graphic's the accessibility, the hardcore Out dated graphics out a tutorial which tests your settings. The game sounds fans may not enjoy the more May not attract hardcore fans skill level. It is an excellent way great too. Hearing the casual approach to the game. to learn the ropes, but it plays explosions, the whistling of It's more likely they will go a more vital role in match rockets flying around, and the back to Quake 3 (which is still making. In past Quake games, blasts of the plasma rifle are the most played Quake game). Ed Hewitt you joined a match and were thrilling! So, it seems that Quake Live is likely to face tough for the players who want to competition. However, this So far, I have talked about play Quake, but not at the time around the game will how great this game is. Trust same level as the hardcore judge your skill level and me, it's brilliant. However, fans. full circle magazine #29 24 contents ^