OPEN CULTURES -A GLOSSARY FORMMJUBAEla Kagel, Free Culture Incubator & SUPERMARKT, Berlin *email@example.com
OPEN CULTURES -AND ITS TERMS Free Culture * Open Source Creative Resource Commons OpenOpen KnowledgeInnovation Maker Culture Sustainability
THIS IS ALL ABOUTSENSEMAKING*Applying these concepts to this group, creating senseand meaning ot ouf it, applying this meaning to ouractions and goals – thus establishing a guideline andframework for shared endeavours in the future.
THE BIG QUESTION: What do these terms mean to YOU?
OPEN SOURCE ** MEANING: In production and development, open source is aphilosophy, or pragmatic methodology that promotes free redistributionand access to an end products design and implementation details.Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers andproducers used a variety of terms for the concept; open source gainedhold with the rise of the Internet, and the attendant need for massiveretooling of the computing source code. Opening the source codeenabled a self-enhancing diversity of production models,communication paths, and interactive communities.
CREATIVE COMMONS** MEANING: Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organizationheadquartered in Mountain View, California, United States devoted toexpanding the range of creative works available for others to build uponlegally and to share. The organization has released several copyright-licenses known as Creative Commons licenses free of charge to thepublic. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights theyreserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients orother creators. Creative Commons licenses do not replace copyright,but are based upon it. (…) The result is an agile, low overhead and costcopyright management regime, profiting both copyright owners andlicensees.
FREE CULTURE** MEANING: The free culture movement is a social movement thatpromotes the freedom to distribute and modify creative works in theform of free content by using the Internet and other forms of media.The movement objects to overly-restrictive copyright laws. Manymembers of the movement argue that such laws hinder creativity.The free culture movement, with its ethos of free exchange of ideas, isof a whole with the free software movement.Today, the term stands for many other movements, including hackercomputing, the access to knowledge movement and the copyleftmovement. The term “free culture” was originally the title of a 2004 bookby Lawrence Lessig, a founding father of the free culture movement.Contents
OPEN KNOWLEDGE ** MEANING: Open Knowledge is a set of principles andmethodologies related to the production and distribution ofknowledge works in an open manner. Knowledge is interpretedbroadly to include data, content and general information. The OpenKnowledge Definition is that knowledge is open if "one is free to use,reuse, and redistribute it without legal, social or technologicalrestriction."The concept is related to open source and the Open KnowledgeDefinition is directly derived from the Open Source Definition. OpenKnowledge can be seen as being a superset of open data, opencontent and libre open access with the aim of highlighting thecommonalities between these different groups.
OPEN INNOVATION** MEANING:Open innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firmscan and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, andinternal and external paths to market, as the firms look to advancetheir “technology” or "Innovating with partners by sharing risk andsharing reward.".The boundaries between a firm and its environmenthave become more permeable; innovations can easily transfer inwardand outward. The central idea behind open innovation is that in aworld of widely distributed knowledge, companies cannot afford torely entirely on their own research, but should instead buy or licenseprocesses or inventions (i.e. patents) from other companies. Inaddition, internal inventions not being used in a firms businessshould be taken outside the company (e.g. through licensing, jointventures or spin-offs).
RESOURCE** MEANING: A resource is a source or supply from which benefit isproduced. Typically resources are materials or other assets that aretransformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumedor made unavailable. From a human perspective a natural resource isanything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs andwants. The concept of resources has been applied in diverse realms,including with respect to economics, biology, computer science, landmanagement, and human resources, and is linked to the concepts ofcompetition, sustainability, conservation, and stewardship. Inapplication within human society, commercial or non-commercialfactors require resource allocation through resource management.Resources have three main characteristics: utility, limited availability,and potential for depletion or consumption.
MAKER CULTURE** MEANING: The maker subculture is a contemporary subculture,representing a technology-based extension of DIY culture. Typicalinterests enjoyed by the maker subculture include engineering-oriented pursuits such as electronics, robotics, 3-D printing, and theuse of CNC tools, as well as more traditional activities such asmetalworking, woodworking, and traditional arts and crafts. Thesubculture stresses new and unique applications of technologies,and encourages invention and prototyping. There is a strong focuson using and learning practical skills and applying them creatively.
THE GOAL: Let‘s create our own map ofmeaning and resources as a result of this gathering
CREDITS: All Definitions are taken from Wikipedia, where they can be found as long versions with links etc.