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Project report on central excise duty


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Project report on central excise duty

  1. 1. A Project Report on Central Excise Duty at VISTEON AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEM INDIA Pvt. Ltd. Submitted to UNIVERSITY OF PUNE In Partial fulfillment of Masters In Business Administration Submitted by Rimon Rakshit VISHWAKARMA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT 2005-07
  2. 2. Date:- 30th September 2006 C E R T I F I C A T E This is to certify that the project report titled Central Excise Duty is a bonafide work carried out by Rimon Rakshit for the Company Visteon Automotive System India Pvt. Ltd . Rimon Rakshit is a student of Vishwakarma Institute of Management & has worked under our direction & guidance. The project is submitted in partial fulfillment of Masters of Business Administration (M.B.A) Course of University of Pune for the Academic year 2005-07. Project Guide Director Prof. Rajesh Vathkar Dr. Sharad L. Joshi .
  3. 3. A C K N OW L E D G E M E N T No significant achievement can be a Solo performance, especially when it comes to preparing a project of this nature. The project has by no means an exception. I believe that if it were not for the support, confidence & encouragement of many people this report would look much different than it does today. I present sincere thank to Yogesh Mahlgi (Finance Department Head) for giving me an opportunity to carry out my project in Visteon Automotive System India Ltd. I would like to covey heart full gratitude to Prasad Tendulkar (Indirect tax consultant) for his continuous support & guidance during the project. The practical & learning inputs, which he provided me during whole program & will always, add a great experience in my career & Personal life. With immense pleasure I would like to express my sincere thanks to Prof Rajesh Vhatkar (project guide) for having given me this privilege of working under him & completing this study. I would be failing in my duty if I do not acknowledge the gratitude to Dr Sharad L. Joshi (Director of VIM) for his keen interest & valuable suggestions that went all the way in successful completion of the work. At the end I take the opportunity to express my deepest gratitude to all those people without whose consistent support co-operation, encouragement & understanding, this project would never have been successfully completed. Rimon Rakshit.
  4. 4. 2 I have done my project with Visteon Automotive System India Pvt. Ltd This Company is established on March 2005. This Company is engaged with manufacturing the automobile parts. Currently company is buying raw parts from its various suppliers. The raw parts which the Suppliers send to the Visteon, these carry forward to its manufacturing unit, here the company makes the final Product for the automobile parts as per their Customer Specification. Currently it has two valuable Customers. They are Tata Motors & Mahindra & Mahindra. I have studied various aspects regarding Central excise Duty. The company is registered under Central Excise Act 1944, which has prescribed vide CBE&C circular No. 662 / 53/ 2002-CX dated 17-09-2002 and notification No. 35-2001- CE(NT). The Government given concessions to SSI (Small Scale Industries) units, whose turnover is less than 3 cores. So Visteon doesn t fall under this category. Under Central excise Act how the Company makes the payment, in which date of every month they have to take the Cenvat Credit; what are the provisions for failing the duty on time; what will be rate of Penalty if any failure in payment in due time. I have concentrated details regarding these aspects in my project. Synopsis
  5. 5. 4 Objective The objective considered in this project can be summed up as under. 1. To Study all related aspects & the law relating to Central Excise. 2. How the Visteon Automotive System makes the entry of their excise related transaction in their books of Account & what are the provisions regarding the payment of duty they need to follow. 3. What are the methods of Valuation of a manufactured Goods under CETA. 4. What will be case if there any failure of paying the duty in due time & how much concession a SSI can benefit under the Central Excise.
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  7. 7. 5 Visteon Automotive System is a global enterprise with nearly a century of automotive design expertise and over 80 years of experience in accomplished integrated systems. They have a global system with more than 170 technical, manufacturing, sales and service facilities in 24 countries. It provides more information about these facilities. Our customers are primarily automotive manufacturers; we also have customers who are interested in our automotive products. Visteon is a fast-paced organization with a globally diverse workforce. Visteon's customer-facing organization requires that every employee pitch in with extra hours when it is necessary to assuring our customers' success. However, Visteon is not a company where people routinely work 60 or more hours a week. We are committed to helping employees balance their personal and professional lives, and we provide resources to help control stress and other barriers to a productive work life. Visteon specializes in providing integrated system solutions to automotive manufacturers worldwide. We can provide a significant percentage of a vehicle's content, in the areas of interior, climate and electronics (including lighting). For more information about our product offering, please refer to our original equipment portfolio. Other business areas include: global aftermarket operations, engine induction, powertrain controls, chassis and powertrain. Its original equipment portfolio provides specifications for a range of products and technologies. One can locate a specific product by searching or browsing by system area. Visteon's original equipment portfolio shows many examples of the technologies we're capable of providing for automotive manufacturers. In addition, because Visteon design and manufacture products to original equipment manufacturers' specifications, Visteon can provide any of their products tailored to an OEM's specific need for functionality, size, weight and materials. Visteon was spun-off from Ford Motor Company in 2000. As an independent company, we regularly do business with all of the world's major automotive manufacturers. Visteon employees are part of an international organization and are often in daily contact
  8. 8. 6 with colleagues and customers all over the globe. The nature of our organization allows employees at all levels to deliver results that affect visteon s business on a daily basis. They expect their employees to succeed and they constantly surpass in employees expectations. Visteon offers competitive salaries, state-of-the industry benefits and an environment that encourages employees to achieve their career goals. Mission Statement To increase shareholder value by delivering systems solutions that help our customers exceed their goals, are safe and environmentally responsible, and distinguish Visteon as the supplier, employer and community citizen of choice. Ethics When Visteon became an independent company it had the unique opportunity to shape its corporate culture, its values and its vision by providing a core set of guiding principles to all of its employees throughout the world. To realize this opportunity, Visteon developed an ethics guide called "A Pledge of Integrity." This code of business conduct and ethics, which has been translated into 9 languages, defines our vision and core values and sets forth Visteon's expectations for all of its directors, officers and employees. Diversity Visteon values diversity and everything it embodies. As a multi-cultural organization, Visteon embraces human differences and harnesses its power to create a competitive edge. The cornerstone to establishing a diverse business is built on the foundation of inclusion, respect, acceptance and learning. These continued actions and experiences have shaped Visteon into a positive and nurturing business environment. Visteon's global mission for diversity is to provide a business environment that:
  9. 9. 7 Maximizes the benefits derived from a diverse workforce Promotes a culture that encourages every individual to contribute to the success of the business Supply Base Diversity Suppliers to Visteon are valued business partners and a critical element to the company's success. Visteon's leadership is committed to maintaining a diverse supply base and developing those relationships into strong partnerships. This proactive business approach offers all suppliers equal access to purchasing opportunities in an effort to build healthy partnerships, while striving for the collaborative success of both organizations. Employment Diversity in the workplace includes embracing all differences that define each of us as unique individuals. These differences include culture, ethnicity, race, gender, age, sexual orientation, disability, nationality, education, experience and beliefs. These are just some of the distinctions that each individual brings to the workplace and contributes to one's own unique individuality. Career Development Employee development is a top priority of our management. Visteon's performance leadership process encourages all employees to set developmental goals on an annual basis. Managers are recognized for their commitment to developing their employees and rewarded for their contributions to developing the organization. Customers are core Ford Motor Company Mahindra & Mahindra(M&M) Hyundai/ Kai PSA/ Peugeot Daimler Chrylser Volkswagen Tata Motors Renault/ Nissan General Motors(GM) BM
  10. 10. 8 Chenn ai Delhi Visteon in India Pune Interior/Ext erior Climate Control Electron ics Tech nical Center/office Po wertrain Lighting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pune 2400+ Emplo yees Plant C ertification s ISO 14001 TS 16949 ( 2002) Ford Q1 for VASI & VPC SI H yund ai 100 PPM for VASI 1) Visteon Automotive System India Pvt. Ltd.(Pune Branch) (Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Maruti, Toyota, Hundai) 2) TACO Visteon Automotive Private Ltd.(Powertrain/Lighting) 3) Visteon Powertrain Control Systems India Ltd.(Chennai Branch) (M& M, GM), Starter Motors, Alternators. 4) Climate System India (Delhi Branch) (Maruti) (Aluminum Radiators & Heater Cores) 5) Visteon Automotive Systems India Ltd (Chennai).(Toyota, Hyundai, Ford, Hindustan Motors ) 6) TACO Visteon Engineering Private Ltd. Visteon Technical & Services Centre (Pune). 7) A/C Stems, Radiators, Instrument Clusters Instrument Panels, Bumpers, Interior and Exterior Plastics, A/C Hoses, Condensers
  11. 11. 9 Interior Exterior Systems- Visteon Automotive System India (VASI) Pune Fast Facts Share Holding Visteon Corp (100%) Plant & Machinery Installed 2005 Location Mann Industrial Area, Pune Employees 265 Shop Floor area 8,000 Sq. Mtrs. Installed Capacity Quality Awards TS16949 Products Manufactured Interior and Exterior Systems Products & Its Supplier: There are currently 21 suppliers of various product defined as a Technical Product & Non-Technical Product. Technical product as the name suggests is related with the Automobile parts & non technical product is related with Stationary Item such as files, Printing Page, Hand gloves, goggles etc. Supplier Name Item Name BPL Auto Rear Bumper reinforcement, Plenum Applique Assembly Supreme Splash Shield RH Euro-II, Splash Shield Assembly-LH (New), Front Applique, Louvere (Front Applique) , Right Hand & Left Hand:- Front Fender Trim Assembly, Front Door Lower Trim Assembly, Rear Door Trim Assembly , Rear Quarter Trim Assembly, Back Door Lower Trim Assembly. Side Mounting Cap, Rear Styled Mud Flaps, Step Cover Assembly. Black & Grey:- Valence Cover, Front Eyebrow, Rear Eyebrow, Valence Cover. Nash Products RH & LH:-Reinforcement BKt
  12. 12. 10 Injecto Plast W Clip Spring India J Clip (Rear Bumper) ShriHari RH & LH:- Red Dog House Side, Red Dog House End, Black Dog House, Dog House (Anti Rattle Pad) Dog House Rear Qtr, Plate Front Bumper Grill. Visteon Automotive System India-I Rivet, Screw M6X20, Screw 4.2X13, Gold seal Head Lamp Seal Exotech M&M Logo NTTF W Clips-(TML) Ramsays Automotive Stud (TML), Front Bumper Reinforcement VASI-I Front Bumper Unpaintable Grade TAFE License Plate Unpaintable Grade& Paintable Grade. VASI-I Front Bumper Paintable Grade, Rear Bumper Paintable Grade, Front Bumper with Russian License Plate. Silicon Wire Mesh Varroc RH& LH:-Air Damper(Paintable & Unpaintable) Lumax Reflector Red (Rear Bumper) Right Tight Flange Nut For Reflector.
  13. 13. 11 Major changes and Judgments in the Union Budget 2006-07 In the Union Budget of 2006-07 apart from the rate of duty, there are some new amendments took place on Central Excise Duty. Finance Minister has imposed a Countervailing Duty (CVD) of 4% on all imports with a few exceptions. Full credit of this duty will be allowed to manufactures of excisable goods. There are only 2 items aerated drinks and Cars that still attract the higher rate of 24%. He proposed to correct this substantially by reducing the excise duty on aerated drinks to 16%. On cars, he proposes to reduce the excise duty to 16%, but only for small cars. A small car, for this purpose, will mean a car of length not exceeding 4,000 mm and with an engine capacity not exceeding 1,500 cc for diesel cars and not exceeding 1,200 cc for petrol Cars. In order to protect the domestic vanaspati industry, I propose to increase the customs duty on Vanaspati to 80%, the rate applicable to crude palm oil. Excise Duty has been reduced on:- Condensed milk from 16% to Nil, Ice cream from 16% to Nil, Nil duty for paddy de-husking rice rubber rolls, Drawing Inks, Quebracho and Chestnut extract, Gold concentrate for refining. Excise duty has been reduced from 16% to 12% on specified printing, writing & Packing paper. Excise duty of 8% with CENVAT credit has been imposed on- Goggles, Articles of wood, Registers, account books, order books, receipt books, letter pads, memorandum pads, diaries, binders, folders, file covers(except note books & excise books), Paper labels, Paper pulp moulded trays Article of mica. Excise duty of 16% has been imposed on Umbrellas and sun umbrellas, and their parts, Food preparations intended for free distribution subject to end use certification (Food products, in general are exempted unconditionally), Soap manufactured under a scheme for sale of Janata Soap, Parts and components of motor vehicles transferred to a sister unit for manufacture of polypropylene ropes.
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  15. 15. 13 overnment needs funds for various purposes like maintenance of law & other order, defense, social/ health services etc. Government obtains funds from various sources, out of which one main source is Taxation. Justice Holmes of US Supreme Court has long ago rightly said that Tax is the price, which we pay for a civilized Society. Taxes are conventionally broadly classified as Direct Taxes & Indirect taxes. Direct taxes are those, which the taxpayer pays directly from his Income/Wealth/Estate etc. Indirect taxes that the taxpayer pays indirectly while purchasing goods & commodities, paying for the services etc. In case of indirect taxes one person pays them but he recovers the same from another person. Thus the person who actually bears the tax burden (the ultimate consumer) pays it indirectly through some other person, who practically, merely acts as collecting agent. Broadly speaking, direct taxes are those, which paid after the income reaches in the hands of tax payer. Important Direct taxes are Income Tax, Gift Tax & Wealth Tax. Import Indirect taxes are Central Excise (Duty on manufacture), Customs (Duty on Imports & Exports), Central Sales Tax (CST) & Service Tax. As tax payers does not feel a direct pinch while paying indirect taxes, resistance to indirect taxes is much less compared to resistance of direct taxes. Manufacturers/ Dealer psychology also favors indirect taxes because they feel that they only collect the tax & not pay the tax. Indirect taxes are easier to collect & tax evasion is comparatively less in Indirect taxes. The manufacturer/ trader who collects the taxes in his invoice and pays it to the govt., has a psychological feeling that he is only collecting the taxes and is not paying out of his own pocket (though this feeling may not be always correct). It has been observed that top management takes very keen interest in direct tax matters, while matters relating to Indirect taxes are usually handled by lower management, though revenue implications are much higher in Indirect Taxes. Great care G
  16. 16. 14 is taken in making any payment and sanctioning any expenditure, while decision in respect of debits & Credits in Cenvat Credit Account. Government can judiciously use the Indirect taxes to support development in desirable areas, while discouraging it in others e.g. reducing tax on goods manufactured in tiny or small scale units, lowering taxes in backward areas etc. In the basic scheme of taxation in India, it is envisaged that a) Central Government will get tax revenue from Income Tax (except on Agricultural Income), Excise (except on alcoholic drinks) & Customs. b) State Government will get tax revenue from sales tax excise on liquor & tax on Agricultural Income. c) Municipalities will get tax revenue from Octroi & House Property Tax. Income Tax, Central Excise & Customs are administered by Central Government. As regards Sales Tax, Central Sales Tax is levied by Central Government while State Sales Tax is levied by Individual State Governments. Though Central Government levied the central Sales Tax, it is administered by State Governments & tax collected in each state is retained by that state Government itself. Collection cost of Indirect Taxes was 1.25% of tax collected, while collection cost of direct taxes was 1.02% of the tax collected in 2003-04. Corresponding budgeted figures for 2005-06 is 2.25% for Indirect taxes & 2.35% for direct tax. Here in this subject of Indirect Tax, I have learned, what is CETA, Cenvat Credit, Vat, How the goods is valued in Excise, What is Transaction Value, What is the valuation rules & procedure for calculating the retail price of the manufactured product, What is the rules & procedure of payment the Central Excise duty. What if duty cannot be levied within the given period of time. Lastly I concentrate on the Excise Audit & Powers of Excise Officer so that one can know the broader aspect of this term.
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  18. 18. 16 Initially, Separate Act used to be introduced for each commodity. Thus by 1944, there were 16 such enactments. All these were consolidated & a consolidating Act was passed in 1944 (which is still in force). The consolidated Act included various items called Tariff Items (TI) like Sugar (TI-1), Coffee (TI-2), and Tea (TI-3) etc. More & more items were added each year, usually at the time of Budget. Finally a residual item called TI68 (Not elsewhere specified) was introduced w.e.f 1-3-1975. Thus effectively, all items were covered. Duty on TI-68 was 1% in the beginning, which was raised in stages to 12%. Law relating to Central Excise- Central Excise Act, 1944 (CEA)- This is the basic Act providing for charging of duty, valuation, powers of officers, provisions of arrests, penalty etc. It has been amended from time to time. The name of Act was Central Excise & Salt Act, 1944 . The word Salt was dropped in 1996. Central Excise Rules- As per usual scheme of any Act, Section 37 of the Central Excise Act grants power to Govt. to frame rules for prescribing procedures, forms etc. Accordingly, Central Excise Rules have been notified by Central Govt.(and amended from time to time). These rules provide for various procedures, Cenvat provisions, refund procedures have to be followed. In case of Central Excise, the rules are more important because excise is a procedure oriented Act. Many time substantive benefits are lost or penalties are imposed merely because proper procedures were not followed. Moreover, rules often provide for granting concessions & relief s & hence they must be studied thoroughly. The main rules are- (a) Central Excise Rules-2002, (b) Cenvat Credit Rules-2004, (c) Central Excise (Appeal) Rules- 2001, (d) Central Excise (settlement of Cases) Rules, 2001. Central Excise Tariff Act, 1985(CETA) - Since it is essential to prescribe different duties for different types of productions, it is necessary to classify the items under various heads. Central Excise Tariff Act, 1985 classifies all the goods under 96 chapters & specific code is assigned to each item. This classification forms basis for classifying the
  19. 19. 17 Unless all of these conditions are satisfied, Central Excise Duty cannot be levied. Goods manufactured in SEZ are Excluded Excisable Goods- As per section 3(1) of CE Act goods manufactured or produced in SEZ are excisable goods, but no duty is chargeable. They are termed as excluded excisable goods. goods under particular chapter head & subhead to prescribe duty to be charged on that particular product. Nature of Excise Duty Indian Constitution has given powers to Central Govt. and State Govt. to levy various taxes & duties. Powers of Central & State Govt. are enlisted in 7th Schedule to our constitution. Entry No. 84 o list I of 7th Schedule to the Constitution read as follows: Duties of excise on tobacco & other goods manufactured or produced in India, except alcoholic liquors for human consumption, opium, narcotics, but including medical & toilet preparations containing alcohol, opium or narcotics . Basis Conditions of Excise Liability:- Section3 of Central Excise Act (often called the Charging Section ) states that There shall be levied and collected in such manner as may be prescribed duties on all excisable goods (excluding goods produced or manufactured in Special Economic Zones), which are produced or manufactured in India. The word goods, which are manufactured or produced in India, are same as those used in Entry No 84 to list I. Thus, the power to levy Central Excise duty is derived from the constitution. The definition of charging section i.e. section 3 of Central Excise is vital, because it clearly signifies that there are four basic conditions for levy of Central Excise duty. 1. The duty is on Goods. 2. The goods must be excisable. 3. The goods must be manufactured or produced. 4. Such manufacture or production must be in India.
  20. 20. 18 Meaning of word levy - Section 3 uses the words levy and collection . Article 265 of Constitution also uses the same words. Levy means imposition of tax. Once a tax or duty is imposed, it has to be quantified (assessed) and then collected . Once a duty is levied it has to be collected. [Otherwise, what is the point in imposing the duty, if it is not to be collected ]. It cannot be collected unless the duty is quantified (assessed). Hence, normally, levy should cover imposition , collection & assessment . However, constitution specially uses the words levy and collection . Hence, it has been held that the term levy includes both impositions of tax as well as assessment. However, it does not include collection as Article 265 of Constitution makes a distinction between levy and collection . Thus, duty is levied as soon as taxable event occurs, but collection can take place any time- before, at the time or even after the taxable event. Assessee and Assessment Assessment means determining the tax liability. Duty is paid by the manufacturer on his own while clearing goods from the factory/warehouse, on self assessment . The assessee himself has to determine classification and valuation of goods and pay duty accordingly. Who is assessee - Rule 2 (C) of Central Excise is basically an invoice based self- assessment, except in case of cigarettes. Rule 6 of Central Excise Rules [earlier rule 173F] states that The assessee shall himself assess the duty payable on excisable goods, provided that in case of cigarettes, the superintendent or Inspector of Central Excise shall assess the duty payable before removal of goods. The assessee has to submit monthly return in ER-1/ER-2/ER-3 form. The return has to be along with Self Assessment Memorandum , where Assessee declares that a) the particulars in ER-1/ ER-2/ ER-3 return are correctly stated. b) Duty has been assessed as per provisions of section 4 or section 4A of CEA (c) TR-6 challan by which duty has been paid are genuine. Taxable Event for Excise Duty:- It was observed that Excise duty is not directly on the goods but manufacture thereof Though both excise duty and Sales Tax are levied with
  21. 21. 19 reference to goods, the two are very different imposts. In one case, the imposition is on the act of manufacture or production, while in the other it is on act of Sale. Person liable to pay excise duty:- Once duty liability is fixed, the duty can be collected from a person at the time and place found administratively most convenient for collection. In was held that duty can be collected from those who are neither producers nor manufacture but can be collected at later stage. Duty Liability in case of Manufactured Goods Rules 4(1) of Central Excise Rules makes it clear that excise duty is payable by the manufacture or producer of excisable goods. In case where goods are allowed to be stores the goods. Rule 4(1) makes it clear that duty is payable by person who produces or manufactures excisable goods. Duty liability in case of Goods stored in Warehouse Rule 20 of CE Rules permit warehousing of certain goods in warehouses without payment of duty. In such cases, the duty liability is on the person who stores the goods. Duty liability even when goods not sold or free replacement given during warranty period. Duty is payable even when (a) Goods are used within the factory (b) Goods are captively consumed within factory for further manufacture. (c) Goods are given as free replacement. Duty payable when an assessee is liable to pay sales tax and the question whether he has collected it from consumer or not is of no consequence. His liability is by virtue of being an assessee under the act. Excise duty should be considered as a manufacturing expense and should be considered as an element of cost for inventory valuation, like other manufacturing expenses. Excise duty cannot be treated as a period Cost. Types of Excise Duty Basic Excise Duty to be termed as Cenvat Basic excise duty (also termed as Cenvat as per section 2A of CEA added w.e.f 12-5-2000) is levied at the rates specified in 1st Schedule to Central Excise Tariff Act. Special Duty of Excise Some commodities like pan masala, cars etc. are leviable with special duty[section 3(1)(b) of CEA]. These items are covered in Schedule II to Central
  22. 22. 20 Excise Tariff. Initially the special excise duty rates were 8%, 16% and 24%. The rate was made uniform @ 16% from 1-3-2001. Education Cess A new levy education Cess has been imposed w.e.f 9-7-2004 on all goods on which excise duty is payable. National Calamity Contingent Duty (NCCD) A duty has been imposed vide section 136 of finance Act, 2001. This duty is imposed on Pan masala, chewing tobacco and cigarettes. It varies from 10% to 45%, NCCD of 1% was imposed on Polyester Filament Yarn, motor cars multi utility vehicles and two wheelers and NCCD of Rs 50 per ton was imposed on domestic crude oil, vide section 169 of Finance Act,2003 w.e.f 1-3-2003. Education Cess The National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) adopted by congress led UPA (United Progressive Alliance) Government after its formation, had mandated imposition of Education Cess to finance universalized quality basic education. Accordingly, Education Cess of 2% has been imposed which is payable on central excise, customs, service tax & income tax. In case of excise duty, calculation of Cess is easy. If excise duty rate is 16% Education Cess will be 0.32%. If excise duty is 24% Cess will be 0.48%. Section 93 of finance (No.2) Act,2004 states that Education Cess is duty of excise to be calculated on aggregate of all duties of excise including special excise duty or any other duty of excise, but excluding Education Cess on excisable goods. Treatment of Education Cess in Excise Duty:- Cenvat Credit Rules states that credit of education Cess paid on input can be utilized only for payment of education Cess on final product and /or output services. The credit cannot be used for payment of basic duty. It is necessary to show education Cess separately in Invoice & separate accounting is necessary. Since account head is different, its separate indication in TR 6 challan is also necessary. It is not necessary to pay Education Cess on Pre-budget stocks. If assessee has already paid Education Cess, he can get refund only if he proves that he has not recovered the same from his customer.
  23. 23. 21 Goods The word goods has not been defined under the Central Excise Act. Article 366 (12) of the Constitution defines goods as goods includes all materials, commodities and articles. As per judicial interpretation, for purpose of levy of Excise Duty, an article must satisfy two requirements to be goods i.e. Goods must be movable Goods must be Marketable. What are Goods some examples will clarify the legal position Gases, Stream are goods as it is a tangible property. It is marketable. Under the Excise Act, Stream is goods as it can be weighted, measured & marketed. In case of Electrical energy, generation or production coincides almost instantaneously with its consumption. Sale, Supply and consumption takes place without any hiatus. Electricity is movable property though it is not tangible. Drawing, Designs etc are Goods Drawing & designs relating to machinery or technology are goods even if payment is made for technical advice or information technology, which is intangible asset. Information transferred by e-mail is not goods as no movement of movable property is involved. Intermediate Goods will be goods if these are marketable, even if they are consumed within the factory of manufacture. Machinery will be goods if it is in marketable condition at the time of removal from factory of manufacture, even if subsequently, it is to be fastened to earth. Excisable Goods Goods excisable even if exempt from Duty Excisable goods do not become non-excisable goods merely because they are exempt from duty by an exemption notification. Dutiable & NON-Dutiable Goods Excisable goods are all those goods specified in the Central Excise Tariff Act, 1985. Excisable goods may be dutiable or non-dutiable.
  24. 24. 22 Dutiable goods are those goods which attract duty as per the Tariff. Non-dutiable goods are excisable goods on which no duty is payable, either because of Nil rate of duty because of exemption. Thus all dutiable goods are excisable goods but all excisable goods need not be dutiable goods. Even where goods are non-dutiable, excise provisions are applicable, even if no duty is payable. Goods not included in CETA are non-excisable goods some goods like wheat, rice, flowers, horses, Soya beans etc are not mentioned in Central Excise Tariff at all and hence they are non excisable goods. Similarly waste and scrap will be excisable goods only if specifically mentioned in CETA. Meaning of goods on which appropriate duty has been paid If an exemption notification uses the words on which appropriate duty has already been paid, it means that on which excise duty has, as a matter of fact been paid and has been paid at appropriate correct rate. Thus it cannot cover goods on which in fact, no duty has been paid. Goods manufactured in SEZ are excluded excisable goods As per section3 (1) of CE Act, duty is leviable on all excisable goods (except goods manufactured or produced in Special Economic Zone) Goods are duty paid even if Cenvat availed on those goods It has been held that inputs do not cease to be duty paid even if Cenvat Credit is taken on such inputs, i.e. the inputs do not become non-duty paid, even if Cenvat Credit is taken. Manufacture Section2 (h) Manufacture includes any process (I)Incidental or ancillary to the completion of manufactured product or (ii) which is specified in relation to any goods in the Section or Chapter notes of the 1st schedule to the Central Excise Tariff Act, 1985 as amounting to manufacture or (iii) Which in relation to goods specified in 3rd schedule to the CEA, involves packing or repacking of such goods in a unit container or labeling or re-labeling of containers or declaration or alteration of retail sale price or any other treatment to render the product marketable to consumer, and the word manufacture shall be understood accordingly and shall include not only a person who employs hired
  25. 25. 23 labour in the production or manufacture of excisable goods but also any person who engages in their production or manufacture on his own account. Identity of Original Article should be lost commonly, manufacture is end result of one or more processes and when the change occurs to a point where commercially it can be identified as a new separate article, manufacture is said to have taken place. Assembly can be manufacture Assembly of various parts and components may amount to manufacture if new product emerges, which is movable and marketable. Visteon Automotive System falls in this category, who buys those products {mentioned early) from supplier assemble it & sale it to its final Customer i.e. Mahindra & Mahindra & TATA Motors. Assembly of computers from duty paid bought out parts amounts to manufacture. Assembly of components of air conditioner in car does not amount to manufacture as the parts are fitted at various places and at no point of time a car air conditioner as a separate and distinct commodity comes into existence. Similarly, fitting of air-conditioner kit in a car does not amount to manufacture. What is not a Manufacture? Affixing sticker of manufacturer etc on imported goods is not manufacture .[ However now if the product is covered u/s 4A, it may be deemed manufacture as defined in section 2(f)(iii) and excise duty may be payable. In case of imported goods, corresponding CVD may become payable. Changing color of an article is not manufacture. Changing and repairs of old Ornaments is not manufacture. Conversion into different variety is not manufacture. Conversion of round bar to bright bar is not manufacture. Cutting and polishing of granite Stones amount to manufacture. Cutting and polishing of raw & Uncut diamond which yield polished diamond is not manufacture as polished diamond is not a new article or thing. New model from old machine is not manufacture. Powdering is not manufacture.
  26. 26. 24 Repairing, reconditioning, re-making or re-processing will not amount to manufacture if no new product emerges even if some parts are inter-changed. Testing, inspection and packing of items manufactured by others is not. Upgradation / modification and Purification are not manufacture. Diesel bus to CNG bus conversion is not manufacture. Dilution of duty paid product by adding water is not manufacture, even if different item having different concentration is given different name. Printing of color & logo done on glass bottle does not amount to manufacture. Processing and Manufacture Processing can amount to manufacture if a new & identifiable product known in the market emerges. The expression in the manufacture of goods should normally encompass the entire process carried out by the dealer of converting raw materials into finished goods should normally encompass the entire process carried out by the dealer of converting raw materials into finished goods. Where any particular process is so integrally connected with the ultimate production of goods that but for that process, manufacture or processing of goods would be commercially inexpedient, goods required in that process would in our judgment, fall within the expression in the manufacture of goods. In the Central Excise Tariff Act, operations like labeling, sorting, packing and repacking from large pack to small pack etc. have been termed as Process. Supplying two or more items together is dutiable sometimes two types of goods are supplied together in different packing. These are to be mixed at the user s end before use. Normally this procedure is adopted when the item has limited shelf life after mixing the two items. Manufacturer The liability to pay duty is on Manufacture r or Producer . Duty cannot be recovered form his purchaser. Hence, Excise demands, if any are always raised on manufacturer and recovered from manufacturer. Hence, it is essential to decide who is to be termed as manufacturer.
  27. 27. 25 Who is the manufacturer -Manufacturer is a person who actually manufactures or produces excisable goods, i.e. one who actually brings into existence new & identifiable product. Raw material supplier or brand name owner is not manufacturer. Under this definition Visteon Automotive System follows in this category. It assembles the automobile parts which bought from the Supplier & makes some changes or addition to the parts & sale it to its final Customer i.e. TATA Motors & Mahindra & Mahindra who buy the parts from Visteon & Use it to their final Product. Raw material Supplier is not the manufacturer-It is common in Industry to supply raw material to a Job Worker or Processor and get the goods manufactured from him in his factory. E.g. Automobile manufacturer s like Bajaj, Maruti, Premier Automobiles or Hindustan Motor very often get many parts manufactured from outside on job work basis. In such cases, they will not be treated as Manufacturer even if the Raw material is supplied by them & right of rejection is retained by them. Brand Owner is not the Manufacturer- Some large units get their goods manufactured from others under their Brand Name, instead of manufacturing it themselves. They usually control quality & may even supply the design e.g Bajaj Electrical get many electrical goods manufactured from small scale units under their brand names. In these cases it will not be treated as Manufacturer even if they exercise quality control or allow using their Brand Name. Manufacture must be in India Under Section 3 of Central Excise Act is that excisable goods must be manufactured or produced in India. Thus, excise levy cannot be imposed on imported goods or goods manufactured in Foreign Countries. This is also true if goods are imported in Semi knocked Down or Completely Knocked Down condition and they are only assembled in India, as no new product is emerges. However if goods are classified as per rules of classification as complete machine as per legal fiction but actually components or sub- assemblies are imported, its assembly in India will amount to manufacture and excise duty will be payable.
  28. 28. 26
  29. 29. 27 Cenvat (Central Value Added Tax) has its origin in the system of VAT (Value Added Tax), which is common in West European Countries. Concept of VAT was developed to avoid cascading effect of taxes. VAT was found to be a very good and transparent tax collection system, which reduces tax evasion, ensures better tax compliance and increases tax revenue Cenvat Credit is a scheme where the manufacturers or the output service providers are allowed a set off of the taxes paid on the inputs or the input services that are used while manufacturing the final products or providing the output service. Application In the manufacture of product A, if raw material X & Y are used, the manufacturer is allowed to take credit of the Central Excise Duty paid on the raw materials X & Y used in the manufacture of the final product A. He is allowed to use this credit while paying duty on the final product A If a manufacturer produced both exempted & dutiable products, the assessee has two options. First one, he needs to maintain separate accounts for the receipt, consumption & inventory of the inputs used in the dutiable goods. Under the second option, if separate accounts are not maintained, the assessee can take full credit on all the inputs, but has to pay 10% on the price of the exempted goods to neutralize the credit component of the inputs used in the exempted goods. There are certain exceptions to this rule which can be seen in Rule 6 of the Cenvat Credit Rules 2004. Cenvat credit can be availed on Capital Goods, but the credit should be taken in installments, 50% can be taken in April as they fall under two financial Years. Eligibility for Capital Goods has been provided in the Cenvat Credit Rules 2004 (for e.g, goods falling Under Chapter Headings 82, 84, 85 & 90 etc of the schedule to the Central Excise Tariff Act.) If these capital goods are used in the factory of the manufacturer, the credit can be availed. All goods except light diesel oil, high speed diesel oil & motor spirit (Petrol) which are used in or in relation to the manufacture of final products are eligible for credit.
  30. 30. 28 It is not mandatory always that the goods should be directly purchased from the manufacturer. The goods can also be procured from the dealers who are registered with the Central Excise Department as first stage or second stage dealers. Relation with Service Tax From 10th September, 2004 Cenvat Credit has been extended across goods & Services. This means a manufacturer of final products can avail the credit of excise duty paid on the inputs, and he can also avail the Service Tax paid on various services like insurance, telephone etc. for payment of central excise duty on final products. Similarly, a service provider can also avail the credit of central excise duty paid on the inputs/ capital goods/ Input Services used for providing the out put service. Input credit be taken on the final products / Service is not exempted. Only Credit is not allowed, if the final Products are exempted or the output service is exempted. Applicable Rate:- Same ratio will be applicable to Service Provider if he is engaged in providing both taxable & non taxable (or exempted ) services, he can maintain separate accounts & take credit only on those inputs / input services which are used in taxable Services, or alternatively if separate accounts are not maintained, he is allowed to use only 20% of the credit for payment of Service tax on taxable Service. In Other words, if the tax liability is Rs100, only Rs20 can be paid from the Cenvat Credit account and the remaining Rs80 has to be paid in Cash. Concept of VAT Generally any tax is related to selling price of product. In modern production technology, raw material passes through various stages & processes till it reaches the ultimate stage. E.g. steel ingots are made in a steel mill. These are rolled into plates by a re-rolling unit, while third manufacturer makes furniture from these plates. Thus, output of the first manufacturer becomes input for second manufacturer, who carries out further processing & supply it to third manufacturer. This process continues till a final product emerges. This product then goes to distributor/ wholesale, who sells it to retailer & then it reaches the Ultimate consumer.
  31. 31. 29 If a tax is based on selling price of a product, the tax burden goes on increasing as raw material and final product passes from one stage to other. For example, assume that tax on a product is 10% of selling price. Manufacturer A supplies his output to B at Rs 100. Thus B gets the material at Rs 110, inclusive of tax @ 10%. He carries out further processing & sells his output to C at Rs 150. While calculating his cost, B has considered his purchase cost of materials as Rs.110 & added Rs 40 as his conversion charges. While selling product to C, B will charge tax again @ 10%. Thus C will get the item at Rs.165 (150+10% tax). As stages of production and or sales continue, each subsequent purchaser has to pay tax again and again on the material which has already suffered tax. This is called cascading effect. Cascading Effect of conventional system of taxes - A tax purely based on selling price of a product has cascading effect, which has the following disadvantages. A) Computation of exact tax content difficult. B) Varying Tax Burden as tax Burden depends on number of stages through which a product passes. C) Discourages ancillarisation. D) Increases cost of production E) Concessions on basis of use is not possible. F) Exports cannot be made tax free. VAT to avoid the Cascading Effect-Vat was developed to avoid cascading effect of taxes. In the aforesaid example, value added by B is only Rs 40 (150-110), tax on which would have been only Rs 4, while the tax paid was Rs15. In VAT, the idea is that B will pay tax on only Rs 40 i.e. value added by him. Then it makes difference whether a product passes through 5 or 10 stages or even 100 stages, as every person will pay tax only on value added by him to the product and not on total selling price. Advantage of VAT Advantage of VAT are as follows-a) Exports can be freed from domestic trade taxes. B) It provides an instrument of taxing consumption of goods and services. C) Interference in market forces is minimal. D) Aids tax enforcement by providing audit trail through different stages of production and trade. Thus it acts as a self-policing mechanism. E) Neutrality i.e. with minimum distortion in tax structure-as there are few variations in tax rates and exemption from taxation are few. The disadvantage is that paper work required increases considerably and it is not as simple as a single point sales tax.
  32. 32. 30 Valuation under Central Excise Excise duty is payable one of the following basis: Specific duty, based on some measure like weight, volume, length etc. Duty as % of Tariff value fixed under Section 3(2). Duty based on Maximum Retail Price printed on carton after allowing deductions- section 4A of CEA (added w.e.f 14/05/1997.) Compounded Levy Scheme. Duty as % based on assessable Value fixed under Section 4(ad valorem duty Specific Duty- It is the duty payable on the basis of certain unit like weight, length, volume, thickness etc. For example, duty on Cigarette is payable on the basis of length of the Cigarette, duty on sugar is based on per Kg basis etc. In such cases, calculation of duty payable is comparatively easy. In view of the simplicity, many goods were earlier covered under Specific Duty . However the disadvantage is that even if selling price of the product increases, revenue earned by Government does not increase correspondingly. Frequent revisions of rates have to be done, which is a slow & time consuming process. Tariff Value-In some cases, tariff value is fixed by Government from time to time. This is a Notional Value for purpose of calculating the duty payable. Once tariff value for a commodity is fixed, duty is payable as percentage of this tariff value and not the Assessable Value fixed u/s 4. This is fixed u/s 3(2) of Central Excise Act. Government can fix different tariff value and not the Assessable value fixed u/s 4. When tariff value is prescribed under the law, that value will from the basis for assessment (and not any other value). Government cannot fix any tariff value at its whim & caprice. The tariff value can be fixed on the basis of wholesale price or average price of various manufacturers as the Government may consider appropriate. Value based on Retail Sale Price Section 4A of CEA empowers Central Government to specify goods on which duty will be payable based on Retail Sale Price . As per Weights & Measures Act, retail sale price indicated on the retail package should be inclusive of all taxes. However in case of Drugs, the retail price to be indicated is required to be exclusive of taxes but according to new amendment by Finance Minister that from October 8, 2006 the Retail Sale Price of drugs will come inclusive of all taxes.
  33. 33. 31 The Provisions for valuation on MRP basis are as follows- The goods should be covered under provisions of Standards of weights & Measures Act or Rules [Section 4A(1)] Central Government has to issue a notification in Official Gazette specifying the commodities to which the provision is applicable & the abatements permissible. Central Government can permit reasonable abatement (deductions) from the Retail Sale Price [Section 4A(3)] The retail Sale price should be the maximum price at which excisable goods in packaged forms are sold to ultimate consumer. It includes all taxes, freight, transport charges, commission payable to dealers & all charges towards advertisement, delivery, packing, forwarding charges etc. If under certain law, MRP is required to be without taxes & duties that price can be the retail Sale price. If more than one retail sale price is printed on the same packing, the maximum of such retail sale price will be considered. MRP provisions are overriding provisions-Section 4A(2) uses the words notwithstanding section 4, hence when section 4A is applicable, provisions of section 4 for determination of assessable value are not applicable. Increase in retail Price after clearance from Factory-If retail price declared on the package at the time of removal is subsequently altered to increase the price; such increased retail price will be retail price for purpose of Section 4A. It may be noted that the provision applies only when retail price is Increased after Clearance . However as per section 2(f)(ii) putting label of altered price will be deemed manufacture and hence excise duty will become payable. Cost of returnable container not to be added-some times, goods are sold in returnable containers against refundable deposits (e.g. soft drinks, mineral water etc.). The cash deposit is for safe return of the container. In such case, the cost of container having repeated use is amortized over the expected durability of the container. The security deposit is not an additional consideration for sale of the particular product. Hence, in case of goods covered under MRP provisions, cost of such durable containers is not required to be added for valuation, unless audit of accounts reveals that cost of reusable containers has not been amortized & has not been included in the value of product.
  34. 34. 32 Transaction Value Fixing specific duty or tariff value is possible only for few selected items like Sugar, pan-masala , consumer goods, Cigarette etc. Generally, it is not practicable to fix specific duty or tariff value for numerous products produced. Similarly, paying duty on the basis of MRP is possible only in respect of a few selected commodities. In other cases , Central Excise is payable on the basis of value. This is called ad valorem duty . The assessable value is arrived at on the basis of Section 4 of the Central Excise Act & duty is payable on the basis of such value. Assessable Value Assessable value is the Value on which duty is payable as a percentage. Generally, by Value , we understand the Price as mentioned in Bill or Invoice. However for excise purposes, it is not possible to fully rely on such price as a) Duty is payable even if goods are not sold. b) It is desirable to have uniform policy in fixing the AV. c) Chances of manipulation in such price should be minimum. As per new section 4 w.e.f 1st July,2000, excise duty is payable on basis of transaction value . If the requirements given below are not satisfied, valuation will be done as per Valuation Rules,-section 4(1)(b) The goods should be sold at the time & place of removal. Buyer and assessee should not be related. Price should be the sole consideration for the sale. Each removal will be treated as a separate transaction & value for each removal will be separately fixed. Time and Place of removal Section 4(1)(a) states that transaction value shall be assessable value when goods are sold be assessee, for delivery at the time ,in case of sale from depot/ place of consignment agent, time of removal shall be deemed to the time at which the goods are cleared from factory. Place of removal- Place of removal has been defined in section 4(3c). Since this concept is related to outward freight .
  35. 35. 33 Goods must be sold at the time & Place of removal Transaction Value is relevant for valuation only when goods are sold at the time & place of removal. As per Section 2(h) of CE Act, Sale & Purchase within their grammatical variations & cognate expressions, means any transfer of goods by one person to another in the ordinary course of trade or business for cash or deferred payment or other valuable consideration. It is noted that consideration can be paid by or to third party also. What is Not Sale at the time of removal- In view of aforesaid requirement, following are not sale of goods at factory gate for purpose of Central Excise. a) Transfer to depot/branch as there is no sale at the time & place of removal. b) Job work or processing-as here there is no sale of goods. Moreover, the job charges receive cannot be treated as consideration. Thus though there is transfer of possession it cannot be said it is for valuable consideration. Assessee & Buyer should not be related-Excise is payable only at the manufacturing stage & once the goods enter the trade no exercise is payable for further sales in wholesale or retail. Thus to reduce excise burden an unscrupulous manufacturer may sell goods at lower price to some person related to him & then subsequently the goods will be sold at a higher price. Price must be Sole consideration Price should be sole consideration of sale. Price is the consideration given for purchase of a thing. Consideration in layman s terms means in return consideration is the inducement to the contract. It is the reason or material cause of a contract. Transaction Value as Assessable Value New section 4(3) defines transaction value as the price actually paid or payable for the goods, when sold & includes in addition to the amount charged as price any amount that the buyer is liable to pay to or on behalf of the assessee by reason of or in connection with the sale, whether payable at the time of sale or at any other time, including but not limited to any amount charged for or to make provisions for advertising or publicity, marketing & selling organization expenses storage, outward handling, servicing, warranty, commission or any other matter but does not include the amount of duty of excise, sales tax & other taxes, if any actually paid or actually payable on such goods.
  36. 36. 34 Sale to a Related Person Transaction value can be accepted as Assessable Value when buyer is not related to buyer. As per section 4(3)(b) persons shall be deemed to be related if (I) They are inter-connected undertakings. (II) They are relatives. (III) Amongst them, buyer is a relative & a distributor of assessee or a sub-distributor of such distributor, OR (IV) They are so associated that they have interest, directly or indirectly in the business of each other. The definition of related person includes inter connected undertakings . Only25% control is enough to make to buyer & assessee as inter connected undertakings. This would have affected many assessees. However, the provisions in respect of interconnected undertaking have been made almost ineffective in valuation rules. Now the inter connected undertakings will be treated as related person only if they are holding and subsidiary or they are related person under any other clause. If they are not treated as related person, price charged by assessee to buyer will be accepted as Transaction Value . Interconnected Undertaking Section 2(g) of MRTP Act gives definition of interconnected undertaking. It is possible to have inter-connected between two Companies, two firms, a company & a firm, a Company & a trust etc. If any of the following connection exists, the two undertakings would be deemed to be interconnected undertaking. (I) If one owns or controls another. (II) If both are owned by partnership firms there is one or more common partners (III) If both are owned by companies & a) If one company manages another of ,b) If one company is subsidiary of another, or c) If both body corporate are under the same management or d) If one body corporate controls another in any other manner. Valuation when sale is through related Person-If sale is made through related person price relevant for valuation will be normal transaction value at which the related buyer sales to unrelated buyer.
  37. 37. 35 Price charged by buyer to an unrelated person will be considered only if a) the buyer is a holding or subsidiary of assessee or b) if it is related as per sub-clause (ii), (iii) or (iv). In such cases price will be normal transaction value of buyer to unrelated person as per provisions of rule 9. Valuation in case of Captive Consumption In case of Captive Consumption, valuation shall be done on basis of cost of production plus 10% [It was 15% up to 5-8-2003]. Captive Consumption means goods are not sold but consumed within the same factory or another factory of same manufacturer. The rule may also be helpful if goods are to be transferred to job worker for job work & then brought back for further processing inputs on payment of duty to job worker. The job worker can avail Cenvat Credit of duty paid on inputs & there is hardly any incentive to avoid any payment of duty. Thus the formula for determining value is simple. If the Cost of production based upon general principles of costing of a commodity is Rs 10,000 per unit, the assessable value of the goods shall be Rs 11,000 per Unit. Part Sale & part Consumption- CBE&C, vide its circular No.643/34/2002-CX dated 1-7-2002, has clarified that if same goods are partly sold by assessee & partly consumed captive, goods sold have to be assessed on basis of transaction value & goods captive consumed should be assessed on basis of rule8. Captive Consumption by related Person In case goods are supplied to a related person but consumed by the related person & not sold, valuation will be done on the basis of cost of production plus 10% Valuation of Samples CBE&C has clarified that in case of samples distributed free, valuation should be done on basis of rule 11 along with rule 8, i.e. Cost of Production plus 10%. Principles of Cost Analysis Institute of Cost & Works Accountants of India has issued Cost Accounting Standard titled Cost of Production for Captive Consumption . The standard deals with determination of cost of production for captive consumption.
  38. 38. 36 Formula of Cost Cost of Production will include various cost components as defined in Cost Accounting Standard-1.The cost is classified as follows. Analysis of Overheads for Cost of Production- Overheads shall be analyzed into variable & Fixed Overheads. The variable production overheads shall be absorbed in production cost based on actual capacity utilization. Valuation of WIP Stock of work-in-progress shall be valued at cost on the basis of stages of completion as per the cost accounting principles. Similarly, stock of finished goods shall be valued at cost. In case the cost for a shorter Period is to be determined, where the figures of opening & closing stock are not readily available, the adjustment of figures of opening & closing stock may be ignored. Joint Products, Scrap and Waste- A production process may result in more than one product being produced simultaneously. In case joint produced, joint costs are allocated between the products on a rational & consistent basis. In case of by-products, the net realizable value of scrap or waste is treated as a by-product. Abnormal Costs to be excluded- Abnormal & non-recurring costs are those arising due to unusual unexpected occurrence of events, such as heavy break down of plants, accident, market conditions restricting below normal level. Depreciation to be added This standard as well as classification of cost and classification of overheads make it clear that it is required to be treated as Overheads . Direct Material Cost + Direct Labor Cost + Direct Expenses = Prime Cost. Prime Cost + Production Overheads + Administration Overheads + R&D Cost (Apportioned) = Cost of Production Cost of Production + Selling Cost + Distribution Cost = Cost of Sales.
  39. 39. 37 Input, Input Services & Capital Goods Inputs which are goods are eligible for Cenvat Credit by both manufacturer as well as service provider. Rule 2(k) defines Input means all goods except light diesel oil, high speed diesel oil and motor spirit, commonly known as petrol, used in or in relation to the manufacturer of final product or not and includes lubricating oils greases, cutting oils, coolants, accessories of the final products cleared along with the final product, goods used as paint or as packing material or as fuel or for generation of electricity or steam used in or in relation to manufacture of final products or for any other purpose within the factory of production. Definition of Input covers fuel used in factory in or in relation to manufacture of final products or for any other purpose. Thus fuel will be eligible for Cenvat Credit even if electricity/Stream generated is utilized/sold outside the factory. As explained above, the words used are for any other purpose. Cenvat is available on Packaging Material-Cenvat is available on packing material as per definition of input contained in Rule 2(k)(i) of Cenvat Credit Rules. Earlier rule 57B (!)(v) specified packing materials and materials from which such packing material are made, provided the cost of such packing materials is included in value of final products as input. Input Service-Input service means any service, (I) Used by a provider of taxable service. (II) Used by the manufacturer, whether directly or indirectly, in or in relation to the manufacture of final products and clearance of final products from the place of removal. Capital Goods for Cenvat Cenvat Credit is available on inputs as well as capital goods. Some provisions are common while there are some specific provisions in respect of Cenvat on Capital Goods. General Provisions applicable to both inputs & capital goods. Following are the Capital goods, (I) Machinery, Tools, hand tools, knives etc. falling under chapter 82. (II) Pollution Control Equipment. (III) Components, spares and accessories of the goods. (IV) Moulds and dies.
  40. 40. 38 (V) Refractories and refractory material (VI) Tubes, pipes and fittings thereof used in the factory. (VII) Storage tank. Capital goods should be used in the factory purpose immaterial- In case of manufacturer; the only requirement is that the eligible capital goods should be used in the factory for manufacture of eligible final products. Purpose for which these capital goods are used is not relevant. Credit on capital goods is not available if it is used in another factory. Capital goods manufactured within the factory-As per explanation 2 to rule 2(k) of Cenvat Credit Rules, input includes goods used in manufacture of capital goods which are further used in the factory of manufacturer. Thus if a manufacturer manufactures some capital goods within the factory, goods used to manufacture such capital goods will be eligible as inputs.[i.e. 100% Cenvat Credit will be available in the same financial year]. It may be noted that capital goods manufactured within the factory and used within the factory are exempt from excise duty vide notification No.67/95-CE dated 16-03-1995. Conditions for availing Credit on Capital Goods-The conditions are Duty paying documents eligible are same for Cenvat on inputs. Depreciation under section 32 of Income Tax Act should not be claimed on the excise portion of the Capital Goods. Otherwise the manufacturer will get double deduction for Income Tax Act Utilization of Cenvat Credit Central Credit can be utilized for payment of any excise duty on: Any duty on any final product manufactured by manufacturer [Rule 3(4)] Payment of amount if inputs are removed as such or after partial processing. Payment of amount on capital goods if they are removed as such. Payment of amount, if goods are cleared after repairs under rule 16(2) of Central Excise Rules. Payment under Cenvat Credit Rule 6 of 10% amount on exempted goods or reversal of credit on inputs when common inputs or common input services are used for exempted as well as dutiable final products.
  41. 41. 39 Time Limit for taking the Credit Rule 4(1) of Cenvat Credit Rules states that Cenvat Credit can be taken immediately on receipt of inputs in the factory or the premises of service provider. Department has clarified that immediately means at the earliest opportunity when the inputs are received. However, this does not mean that if manufacturer/Service provider does not take credit as soon as inputs are received in the factory /premises of service provider, he would be denied benefit of Cenvat Credit. Such an interpretation is not tenable.. Immediately does not mean within 24 hours. It is not necessary to take credit as soon as inputs are received in the factory. However manufacturer / Service provider should take credit at the earliest opportunity. Duty / tax paying documents-As soon as a manufacturer/service provider receives an input, he can avail Cenvat Credit of the duty paid on the inputs. However, in case of input service, he is entitled to service tax credit only when he makes payment to service tax provider. Documentary evidence is required regarding payment of duty on inputs/ tax on input services. Rule 9(1) of Cenvat Credit Rules prescribes that credit can be taken on the basis of Invoice of manufacturer from factory. Invoice of manufacturer from his depot or premises of consignment agent. Invoice issued by registered importer. Invoice issued by importer from his premises or consignment registered with Central Excise Supplementary Invoice. Bill of Entry Invoice, Bill or Challan issued by input service provider under rule 4A of Service Tax Rules. No Cenvat Credit if final products/ Service exempt-As per basic principle of VAT, credit of duty or tax can be availed only for payment of duty on final product or output services. As a natural corollary, if no duty is payable on final product or output services, credit of duty/tax paid on inputs or input services cannot be availed. Maintain Separate Inventory-Maintain separate inventory and accounts of receipt and use of inputs (expect fuel) and input services used for exempted final products /
  42. 42. 40 exempted output services. In such cases, he should not avail Cenvat Credit of the inputs and input services which are used in exempted final services at all 6(2) of Cenvat Credit Rules. Payment of credit means Cenvat Credit not availed-Sometimes; assessee may take Cenvat Credit by mistake. This does not mean that he cannot rectify his mistake and must pay 10% amount. He can rectify the mistake by reversing Cenvat Credit. Some services eligible even if partly used for manufacture of exempted goods/ Output services- As per rule 6(1), proportionate Cenvat is disallowed if input/ input service is used partly in manufacture of exempted final product or provision of exempted output services. The services are Consulting Engineer, Architect, Interior Decorator, Management Consultant, Real Estate Agent, Security Agency Services, Scientific or technical consultancy, Banking and Financial Services, Insurance Auxiliary Services concerning life insurance business, Commissioning and Installation, Maintenance or repair. Exempted goods do not mean non-excisable goods-Goods which are not mentioned in Tariff are not exempted goods as they are neither goods chargeable to Nil rate of duty. Payment of amount on exempted final products- If assessee opts not to maintain separate accounts in respect of inputs & input services utilized for exempted output services, he has to pay amount of 10% of total price of exempted final product. When to pay the amount-The rules does not state when the amount should be paid. It is established principle that if statute does not provide any time limit, the thing should be done in reasonable time. What to do if goods are not sold- As per rule 6(3)(b) the amount is payable on total price, excluding sales tax and other taxes, if any paid on such goods, of the exempted final product charged by the manufacturer for sale of such goods at the time of their clearance from factory (Note that the term if any applies to taxes & not the price ). If the goods are not sold, there is no price . In such case, correct view is that it is not necessary to debit any amount . However, department has not accepted this view. It has clarified that if there is no sale assessee has no option but
  43. 43. 41 to keep separate records of inputs & not to take credit in respect of inputs which have been used in or in relation to manufacture of exempted final product. The amount should not be recovered as duty, but may be recovered as amount- The amount paid on exempted final product/exempted final product /exempted output services should be shown as amount and can be recovered by the manufacturer/ service provider from buyer. Returns-A manufacture has to be submit returns to Range Superintendent of Central Excise in the prescribed forms ER-1 to ER-6 in respect of Cenvat availed, Principal Inputs, Utilization of Principal inputs etc. Others have to submit returns as follows- Quarterly return by first stage/ second stage dealer within 15 days from close of quarter [rule 9(8)] Half yearly return within one month from close of half year, by provider of output services [rule 9(9)] Half yearly return within one month from close of half year, by Input Service Distributor [rule 9(10)] No Cash Refund-In some cases; it may happen that duty paid on inputs may be more than duty payable on final products. In such cases, though the Cenvat Credit will be available to the manufacturer/ Service provider, he cannot use the same and the same will lapse. There is no provision for refund of the excess Cenvat Credit. However, the only exception is in case of exports where duty paid on inputs used for exported goods is refundable. Storage of inputs outside the factory-Inputs should be stored within the factory. If manufacturer is unable to store the inputs inside the factory for want of space, hazardous nature of goods etc., he can store the inputs outside the premises. The storage point will be treated as extension of the factory. Permission from Assistant/ Deputy Commissioner is necessary.
  44. 44. 42 Accounting Treatment of Inputs in Cenvat-It needs following consideration- Since credit is available of excise duty /service tax paid while obtaining inputs / input services, duty/service tax paid on inputs while purchase is not an expense but an asset. Un-availed Cenvat is not available as refund (expect when it is a case of exports). This may happen when duty/ service tax paid on inputs is more than duty payable on final product. Cenvat is available instantly on receipt of inputs/ payment of input service & Cenvat Credit may be utilized even before inputs/ input services on which Cenvat is availed are actually used in production. Rule 4(4) of Cenvat Credit Rules provides that depreciation should not be claimed on Cenvat Credit availed. Credit on Inputs and Capital goods can be taken as soon as goods are received in the factory. In case of service tax, credit can be taken as soon goods are received in the factory, only after payment of Bill is made to the person who had provided input service. Credit of Education Cess and NCCD can be utilized for payment of education cess and NCCD only. Valuation of stock of Inputs, WIP and finished goods also needs consideration. Accounting Entry for when Input is purchased- Assessment The assessment under Central Excise is basically an invoice based self assessment, except in case of Cigarettes. Rule 6 of Central Excise Rules states that The assessee shall himself assess the duty payable on excisable goods, provided that in case of Purchase A/C (Net Purchase Price) Dr. xx Cenvat Credit Receivables A/C (Excise on Input) Dr. xx To Supplier s A/C (Purchase price plus Excise) xxx
  45. 45. 43 cigarettes, the Superintendent or Inspector of Central Excise shall assess the duty payable before removal of goods. The assessee has to submit monthly return in ER-1/ ER-2/ ER-3 form. The return has to be along with Self Assessment Memorandum , where Assessee declares that a) the particulars in ER-1/ ER-2 / ER-3 return are correctly stated. b) Duty has been assessed as per provisions of section 4 or 4A of CEA. C) TR-6 challan by which duty has been paid are genuine. Scrutiny of Return-The departmental officers will scrutinize the retur. Scrutiny means close examination or examination of details. They will check the returns and figures etc. for discrepancy if any. They may carry out surprise checks, apart from critical audit of private and will not determine duty payable on the basis of return submitted by assessee. Assessment order is not issued. Provisional Assessment-Rule 7 of Central Excise rules make provisions in respect of provisional assessment. Provisional assessment can be requested by the assessee. Department can not order provisional assessment. If Central Excise Officer finds that self assessment is not in order, he can ask assessee to produce additional documents, records and other information and then issue a demand notice. Payment of Duty Method, Manner and Mode Visteon Automotive System is liable to pay the duty leviable on excisable goods in the manner provided in Rule 8 or under any other law and no excisable goods, on which any duty is payable shall be removed without payment of duty from any place, whether they are produced or manufactured or from a warehouse unless otherwise provided. Provided that the goods falling under Chapter 62 of the 1st schedule of CETA, 1985 produced or manufactured by a job worker may be removed without payment of duty leviable thereon and the duty of excise leviable on such goods shall be paid by the person referred to in sub-rule (3) as if such goods have been produced or manufactured. Duty is payable on fortnightly basis by large units and on monthly basis by SSI, who are availing concession of duty based on turnover. The duty on the goods removed from the factory or the warehouse, during the first fortnight of the month shall be paid by the 20th of that month and the duty on the goods removed from the factory or
  46. 46. 44 the warehouse during the second fortnight of the month shall be paid by the 5th of the following month. It is again clarified that the duty liability shall be deemed to have been discharged only if the amount payable is credited to the account of the Central Government by the specified date. Thus, mere depositing cheque in collecting bank is not sufficient. The cheque must be cleared by due date. The duty is payable by making payment of duty in Government Account in Bank under a TR-6 Challan. TR-6 Challan The prescribed challan form TR-6 should be filed and should contain following: (a) Name and address of manufacturer. (b) Electronic Control Code Number of manufacturer (10 digit code no.), Code No. of Excise Commissionerate/ Division / Range. (c) PLA Number. (d) Account head of duty, Commodity Name and Code (6 digit code i.e tariff Item No). (e) Bank Branch Code No. Amount deposited in Cash/ Cheque /demand draft. (f) Amount under TR-6 Challan for taking credit in PLA can be paid in bank with Signature of Assessee or Authorized Officer of the Assessee, Counter signature of Excise Officer is not necessary. (g) Manufacturer of matches are issued match excise band rolls on payment of appropriate duty and then affix the excise stamp on each match box cleared. Four copies are submitted to authorize bank. These should be marked as original duplicate, triplicate & extra. Two copies of challan are returned by bank duly stamped after amount is paid and two copies are retained by bank. One copy is to be submitted to excise authorities along with return (out of two copies retained by bank, one copy is sent to excise authorities directly for their accounting and cross verification of the credit entries made by assessee). If cash is deposited, receipted challan is given immediately by bank. However, if payment is made by cheque, challan given duly receipted only after cheque is realized. Credit of amount deposited in bank can be taken only after the bank issues receipted challan.
  47. 47. 45 Excise Concessions to SSI All industries irrespective of their investment or number of employees are eligible for concession. In fact, even a large industry will be eligible for the concession if its annual turnover is less than Rs 3crores. The SSI unit need not be registered with any authority. Exemption available only if turnover in previous year was less than Rs 3 cores - A unit is entitled for exemption only if its turnover in previous year was less than Rs 3 cores. Units whose turnover was over Rs 3 cores in 2002-03 are not eligible to any SSI concession in 2003-04. They have to pay full normal duty from 1st April,2003. Choice of various of exemption to SSI-SSI units have been given 3 types of exemptions- a) SSI units can avail full exemption up to Rs 100 lakhs and pay normal duty thereafter. Such units can avail Cenvat Credit on inputs only after reaching turnover Rs 100 lakhs in the financial year. b) SSI units intending to avail Cenvat Credit on inputs on all its turnover. They have to pay 60% duty for first 100 lakhs & 100% duty for subsequent clearance. c) SSI Unit can also pay full 100% duty and avail Cenvat Credit. When 2nd & 3rd Option suitable- Option of payment of duty may be suitable in following a) When buyer intends to claim Cenvat Credit. In such cases, the effective cost will be lower as SSI unit can claim Cenvat on inputs. b) When SSI unit intends to export the products & has huge balance in Cenvat Credit account. In such cases, he can pay duty and claim rebate after export of goods. Otherwise, the balance may remain unutilized. There is provision to get refund of balance lying in credit in Cenvat Credit account. However, such refund can be only of Cenvat on inputs and not of capital goods.
  48. 48. 46 SSI and goods with other s brand name- Some large units get their goods manufactured from small unit under their brand name or trade name. Example- TATA Motors & Mahindra & Mahindra buys various automobile parts from their suppliers who are small in nature. Similarly Visteon also ask about the raw material parts from their SSI supplier. Brand name should not belong to other-SSI exemption is not available only if the brand name or trade of another person. Thus if the brand name or trade name does not belong to any another person, SSI exemption will be available to the manufacturer. It is not requirement that the brand name must belong to the SSI exemption will be available to the manufacturer. It is not requirement that the brand name must belong to the SSI manufacturer. The only requirement is that it should not be of another person. Penalties and Confiscation Penalty for violation of statutory provisions involved a penalty of money and confiscation of goods. This is a civil penalty and can be adjudged in department adjudication. This penalty can be imposed by excise authorities like Commissioner, Dy. Commissioner, and Assistant Commissioner Etc. within the powers granted to them. Article 20(2) of our Constitution provides that no person can be punished twice for the same offence. Penalties Excise authorities are empowered to impose penalties like fines, confiscation of goods, etc, which are provided in Central Excise Rules. Some rules themselves provide penalty for violating rules, while some are general penalties. Excise Officers can impose a) Penalty for violation of law b) Confiscate the goods, c) Give option to pay fine in lieu of confiscation i.e. redemption fine. Under rule 25(1) of Central Excise Rules [earlier rule 173Q or 209], following are offences: Removing excisable goods in contravention of Excise Rules or notifications issued under the rules. Not accounting for excisable goods manufactured, produced or stored.
  49. 49. 47 Engaging in manufacture, production or storage of excisable goods without applying for registration certificate u/s 6 of CE Act. Contravening any provisions of Central Excise Rules or notifications issued under these rules with intent to evade payment of duty. Mandatory penalty in case of fraud, suppression of facts etc- A mandatory penalty equal to the duty short paid or not paid or erroneously refunded is payable if such non payment or short payment or erroneous refund was due to fraud, collusion, willful misstatement or suppression of facts etc. Personal Penalty - Normally, penalty is imposed on the company/firm who has committed an offence. The penalty under rule 25(1) is on the company or firm. Personal Penalty if person individually involved in offense- Though Company is an independent legal person, it works through Managing Directors, Director and Employees. In case of firms, it works through partners and employees. Hence, in addition to penalty that may be imposed on the person who was actually involved in committing the offence. Any person who acquires possession of or is in any way concerned in transporting, removing, depositing, keeping, concealing, selling or purchasing or in any other manner deals with any excisable goods which he knows or has reason to believe are liable to confiscation, shall be liable to a penalty upto the duty payable on such goods or Rs 10,000 whichever is greater Rule 26 of Central Excise Rules. Goods that can be confiscated under rule 25 of CE, following goods are liable to confiscation- Goods removed in contravention of Central Excise rules, Goods not accounted for, Goods on which Cenvat Credit is wrongfully taken, Goods manufactured without registration of the factory .
  50. 50. 48 Excise Audit/ Checks Most of the factories are under Self Removal Procedure and there is no physical control over production and clearance of goods. Assessment is mainly based on returns submitted by assessee. Department has evolved various checks and counter- checks to ensure that excise duty is not evaded. Visit of Officer - Every factory comes under jurisdiction of Range Superintendent. The Superintendent and Excise Inspectors working under him do occasionally visit factories. However, they are expected to have day to day checks. Stock Taking New Central Excise Rules make no provision for Store Room or Stock taking . However it does not mean that stock taking by excise authorities is prohibited. Road Checks Surprise road checks are carried out to see that all goods moving are accompanied by duty paying documents. Information from Informants Like all tax departments, department can and does collect information from secret informants. Preventive Section Each Commissionerate has preventive section to have surprise checks and raids when evasion is suspected. Departmental Excise Audit Audit means scrutiny and verification of documents, events and processes in order to verify facts and draw conclusions regarding correctness of recording the facts and the efficiency of a system under study. For Central Excise purposes, Audit means scrutiny of the records of the assessee and the verification of the actual process of receipt, storage, production and clearance of goods with a view to check whether the assessee is paying the Central Excise duty correctly. Audit manual Audit manual is a document prepared for use of auditors. It gives detailed guidelines, formats and check list for audit. Frequency of Audit CBE&C has specified of audit and time limit during which audit should be completed. The schedule should be All EOU units mandatory audit every year. Unit playing duty through PLA, over Rs 1 crore per annum, 10 working days to be audited at least once in two years. Unit paying duty less than Rs 10 lakhs through PLA per annum 5 working days to be audited at least once in five years. Duration of audit is
  51. 51. 49 the entire period spent on audit of a particular assessee from desk review to preparation on audit of a particular assessee from desk review to preparation of audit results. Valuation Audit-Special Audit Valuation is one of the most vital and important aspect of assessment of excise duty payable. In order to ensure that duty is being paid correct Assessable value a provision has been made to order a Special Audit in some specified cases, vide section 14A of CEA. Self Audit (Internal Audit) Each company should conduct self audit of their excise operations for various purposes a) Ensure that all excise rules and procedures are being scrupulously followed to avoid any penal consequences, b) to ensure that duty is not paid in excess and classification & valuation is correct. All allowable deductions are claimed. C) Cenvat is claimed on all inputs & inputs are procured from such sources that Cenvat Credit on all inputs is available. D) Train people in excise law. Such audit can be conducted by expert employees or outside experts. Such audits will be highly beneficial to industries. Powers of Central Excise Officers Excise officers have been given powers of visit and inspection. As per rule 22(1) of Central Excise Rules, an officer empowered by Commissioner shall have access to any premises registered under CE Rules for purpose of carrying out any scrutiny, verification and checks as may be necessary to safeguard the interest of revenue. All officers in the rank of Inspector and above are authorized for this purpose. Visit Book of Excise Officers Each factory is required to maintain a visit book in prescribed form. Inspector and Superintendent visiting the factory are required to fill in the book. The visit book should contain name and address of the factory, excisable items manufactured. Restricted visits to SSI Units Excise officers and departmental audit parties can visit small scale industries for specific purposes only and on specified written permission. The visiting officer parties of Comptroller and Auditor General of India. This audit called CERA audit (Central Revenue Audit).
  52. 52. 50 Conclusions & Suggestions: The Words are used quite often during my summer project that is Tax Planning. Tax Planning means a) taking advantage of the legitimate concessions and exemptions provided in the tax law and thus reducing the tax liability. B) arranging business operations such that tax liability is reduced i.e when two methods is possible to achieve an objective, select one which results in lower tax liability. An assessee should take following precautions while deciding any tax planning idea. (a) Disclose All Material Facts- Normally a demand of duty can be raised for a period of six months prior to show cause notice. However, this period can be increased to five years in case of fraud, collusion, suppression of facts or willful misstatement. Thus, all relevant facts must be disclosed. An unexpected huge demand for past five-year period may be disastrous for the assessee. (b) Discuss with Excise Authorities & Experts- A plan of assessee can be discussed with excise authorities and experts and he need not be over confident in these matters. (c) Study Product & Pricing Policies An assessee need to study the product and pricing policies thoroughly and ensure that these are so designed that unnecessarily heavy duty is not paid. (d) Interest on Late Payment Interest is payable for late payments. Thus, if payment is delayed by filing appeal etc. and so designed that unnecessarily heavy duty is not paid. (e) Heavy Penalty for Tax Avoidance An assessee should remember that wrongful availing Cenvat or contravening any provision of excise rules with intent to evade duty is offence and penalty can be very heavy. Hence, in case of doubt, it may be advisable to make payment of duty under protest and claim refund. However in such cases, it must be ensured that only lower duty is charged to buyers. The extra duty should not be recovered from customers. Otherwise, even if refund claim is sanctioned later, one will not get the amount.
  53. 53. 51 Bibliography Books Preferred: Indirect Taxes Law & Practice Sanjeev Kumar Indirect Taxes Law & Practice Yogendra Bangar & Vandana Bangar Indirect Taxes Law & Practice V.S. Datey.
  54. 54. This document was created with Win2PDF available at The unregistered version of Win2PDF is for evaluation or non-commercial use only.