Introduction• For our Home Economics Project we decided to research the cuisine of the United States of America and to cook some typical dishes from this country.• We choose this country because we felt that America is a country that has a poor reputation for its culture when it comes to food.• When people think of America and food, they instantly they think of McDonalds. From all the press and prejudice about America it is not hard to imagine an obese person sitting down eating a messy hot dog or a greasy cheeseburger.• This culture has even travelled over to Ireland and we now find “American” microwave dinners in our supermarkets and “American” diners on our streets.
Introduction Continued• With all these processed meals it is easy to forget about all the homemade meals that are being cooked across the U.S.A. every day. It is true that we tend to forget that America is an enormous country and the diversity within it means that Americans do not eat McDonalds all day, every day.• Instead America is a country with a variety of ethnic cultures and because of this the food is varied. The food has a sense of place, a flavour of the people of that area and that food needs to be recognized. After reading our project we want people to think of the fajitas from Texas, the Shoofly pie from Pennsylvania, the Pastrami from New York or even the Clam Chowder from Massachusetts when they think of American food.• We want to stress the fact that because America is so diverse and big, it holds an area of land that holds various cuisines that vary from state to state, and even have variations within those borders. With this said, no matter whether you try a New York Style Cheesecake or just some good old Apple Pie you can be assured that the food is nothing if not tasty.
American Cuisine• The cuisine of the United States is a style of food preparation derived from the United States. The cuisine has a history dating back before the colonial period when the Native Americans had a rich and diverse cooking style for an equally diverse amount of ingredients.• With European colonization the style of cookery changed vastly, with numerous ingredients introduced from Europe, as well as cooking styles and modern cookbooks. The style of cookery continued to expand into the 19th and 20th centuries with the influx of immigrants from various nations across the world. This influx has created a rich diversity and a unique regional character throughout the country. In addition to cookery, cheese and wine play an important role in the cuisine.
The History of American Cuisine• Before the European colonists came to America the Native Americans had an established cookery style that varied greatly from group to group. The vast variety of ingredients and cookery styles were never found in the same locality because any one group had a much more limited diet. Nutrition was an issue for most hunting and gathering societies that wandered widely in search of game and who might encounter serious shortages in wintertime.
Common Ingredients of Native Cooking• Plant food such as camas bulb, arrowhead, blue lapine, bitterroot, biscuit root, breadroot, prairie turnip, sedge tubers, and whitestar potatoes• Nuts including pecans, hickory nuts, beechnuts, hazelnuts, chestnuts, chinquapins, black walnuts, and butternuts.• Land Animal such as bison, deer, elk, moose, bighorn sheep, and bear, mountain lion, along with goat and pronghorn• Seafood including blue crab cod, lemon sole, flounder, herring, halibut, sturgeon, smelt
Native American Cooking Methods• Native Americans utilized a number of cooking methods. Grilling meats was common. Spit roasting over a pit fire was common as well.• Vegetables, especially root vegetables were often cooked directly in the ashes of the fire. As early Native Americans lacked the proper pottery that could be used directly over a fire, they developed a technique which has caused many anthropologists to call them "Stone Boilers." The Native Americans would heat rocks directly in a fire and then add the bricks to a pot filled with water until it came to a boil so that it would cook the meat or vegetables in the boiling water.• Another method was to use an empty bison stomach filled with desired ingredients and suspended over a low fire. The fire would have been insufficient to completely cook the food contained in the stomach however; as the flesh would burn so heated rocks would be added to the food as well. Some Native Americans would also use the leather of a bison hide in the same manner.
Colonies and Cooking• In 1775 there were 13 colonies in America. When they first came their initial attempts at survival included planting crops familiar to them from back home in England.• In the same way, they farmed animals for clothing and meat in a similar fashion. Through hardships and eventual establishment of trade with Britain, the West Indiesand other regions, the colonists were able to establish themselves in the American colonies with a cuisine similar to their previous British cuisine.• There were some exceptions to the diet, such as local vegetation and animals, but the colonists attempted to use these items in the same fashion as they had their equivalents or ignore them if they could. The manner of cooking for the American colonists followed along the line of British cookery up until the Revolution. The British sentiment followed in the cookbooks brought to the New World as well.• There was a general disdain for French cookery. One of the cookbooks that proliferated in the colonies was The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy written by Hannah Glasse, wrote of disdain for the French style of cookery. Reinforcing the anti- French sentiment was the French and Indian War from 1754-1764. This created a large anxiety against the French, which influenced the English to either deport many of the French, or as in the case of the Acadians, they migrated to Louisiana. The Acadian French did create a large French influence in the diet of those settled in Louisiana, but had little or no influence outside of Louisiana.
Colonies and Cooking• American colonial diet varied depending on the settled region. Local cuisine patterns had established by the mid 18th century. The New England colonies were extremely similar in their dietary habits to those that many of them had brought from England.• A striking difference for the colonists in New England compared to other regions was seasonality.• While in the southern colonies, they could farm almost year round, in the northern colonies, the growing seasons were very restricted. In addition, colonists‟ close proximity to the ocean gave them a bounty of fresh fish to add to their diet, especially in the northern colonies.• Wheat, however, the grain used to bake bread back in England was almost impossible to grow, and imports of wheat were far from cost productive. Substitutes in cases such as this included cornmeal.
Colonies and Cooking• As many of the New Englanders were from England, game hunting was often a pastime from back home that paid off when they immigrated to the New World. Much of the northern colonists depended upon the ability either of themselves to hunt, or for others from which they could purchase game. This was the preferred method for protein consumption.• The more commonly hunted and eaten game included deer, bear, buffalo and wild turkey. The larger muscles of the animals were roasted and served with currant sauce, while the other smaller portions went into soups, stews, sausages, pies and pasties.• In addition to game, mutton was a meat that colonists would enjoy from time to time. The Spanish in Florida originally introduced sheep to the New World, in the north however, the Dutch and English introduced sheep. The keeping of sheep was a result of the English non-practice of animal husbandry. The keeping of sheep was of importance as it not only provided wool, but also after the sheep had reached an age that it was unmanageable for wool production; it became mutton for the English diet.
Colonies and Cooking• A number of fats and oils made from animals served to cook much of the colonial foods.• Many homes had a sack made of deerskin filled with bear oil for cooking, while solidified bear fat resembled shortening. Rendered pork fat made the most popular cooking medium, especially from the cooking of bacon.• Pork fat was used more often in the southern colonies than the northern colonies as the Spanish introduced pigs earlier to the south. The colonists enjoyed butter in cooking as well, but it was rare prior to the American Revolution, as cattle were not yet plentiful.• Regarding Seafood, the American lobster was a staple of the colonial diet. Those living near the New England shore often dined on fish, crustaceans, and other animals that originated in the waters.• Colonists ate large quantities of turtle, and it was an exportable delicacy for Europe. Cod, in both fresh and salted form was enjoyed, with the salted variation created for long storage. Lobsters proliferated in the waters as well, and were extremely common in the New England diet
Colonies and Cooking• Vegetables were also a common part of the diet including turnips, onions, cabbage, carrots, and parsnips, along with a number of beans, pulses and legumes. These vegetables kept well through the colder months in storage. Other vegetables grew which were salted or pickled for preservation, such as cucumbers.• Pumpkins and gourds were other vegetables that grew well in the northern colonies; often used for fodder for animals in addition to human consumption. In addition to the vegetables, a large number of fruits were grown seasonally. Fruits not eaten in season often saw their way into preservation methods like jam, wet sweetmeats, dried or cooked into pies that could freeze during the winter months.• This diet existed during colonialism but variations were also present and most noticeably so in the South.
Southern Variations• In comparison to the northern colonies, the southern colonies were quite diverse in their agricultural diet. Unlike the colonies to the north, the southern colonies did not have a central region of culture. The uplands and the lowlands made up the two main parts of the southern colonies.• The slaves and poor of the south often ate a similar diet, which consisted of many of the indigenous New World crops. Salted or smoked pork often supplement the vegetable diet. Rural poor often ate squirrel, possum, rabbit and other woodland animals. Those on the “rice coast” often ate ample amounts of rice, while the grain for the rest of the southern poor and slaves was cornmeal used in breads and porridges. Wheat was not an option for most of those that lived in the southern colonies.• The diet of the uplands often included cabbage, string beans, white potatoes, while most avoided sweet potatoes and peanuts. Non-poor whites in the uplands avoided crops imported from Africa because of the inferred inferiority of crops of the African slaves. Those who could grow or afford wheat often had biscuits on their table for breakfast, along with healthy portions of pork. Salted pork was a staple of any meal, as it used in the preparations of vegetables for flavour, in addition to its direct consumption as a protein.
Southern Variations• The lowlands, which included much of the Acadian French regions of Louisiana and the surrounding area, included a varied diet heavily influenced by Africans and Caribbeans,rather than just the French.• As such, rice played a large part of the diet as it played a large part of the diets of the Africans and Caribbean. In addition, unlike the uplands, the lowlands subsistence of protein came mostly from coastal seafood and game meats.• Much of the diet involved the use of peppers, as it still does today. Interestingly, although the English had an inherent disdain for French foodways, as well as many of the native foodstuff of the colonies, the French had no such disdain for the indigenous foodstuffs. In fact, they had a vast appreciation for the native ingredients and dishes.
American Cuisine in the 21 st Century• One characteristic of American cooking is the fusion of multiple ethnic or regional approaches into completely new cooking styles.• The cuisine of the South, for example, has been heavily influenced by immigrants from Africa, France, and Mexico, among others. Asian cooking has played a particularly large role in American fusion cuisine.• Similarly, while some dishes considered typically American many have their origins in other countries, American cooks and chefs have substantially altered them over the years, to the degree that the dish as now enjoyed the world over are considered to be American.• Hot dogs and hamburgers are both based on traditional German dishes, brought over to America by German immigrants to the United States, but in their modern popular form they can be reasonably considered American dishes, even "All- American", along with the Italian influence of pizza.
American Food Facts• A typical American eats 28 pigs in his/her lifetime.• Americans eat 20.7 pounds of candy per person annually. The Dutch eat three times as much.• Americans spend approximately $25 billion each year on beer.• Americans spent an estimated $267 billion dining out in 1993.• Californias Frank Epperson invented the Popsicle in 1905 when he was 11-years-old.• Cast iron skillets used to be the leading source of iron in the American diet!• Each American eats an average of 51 pounds of chocolate per year.• Fortune cookies were invented in 1916 by George Jung, a Los Angeles noodle maker.• Fried chicken is the most popular meal ordered in sit-down restaurants in the US. The next in popularity are: roast beef, spaghetti, turkey, baked ham, and fried shrimp.• In 1995, KFC sold 11 pieces of chicken for every man, woman and child in the US.• McDonalds and Burger King sugar-coat their fries so they will turn golden-brown.• Nabiscos "Oreos" are the worlds best-selling brand of cookie at a rate of 6 billion sold each year. The first Oreo was sold in 1912.
Dish 1: Southern Sausage Stew• 1. Put a splash of olive oil in a pan and let it get hot.• 2. Add your sausages and let them cook away so they brown nicely on all sides. Once golden and crisp, take them out of the pan and put them on a plate to rest.• 3. Depending on your sausages, there may be a lot of fat left behind in the pan. You only want to keep about 4 tablespoons of it in the pan, so carefully pour any extra away. If you don‟t have enough, just add a splash more olive oil.• 4. Add your onion, peppers and celery to the fat and fry on a medium heat for 10 to 12 minutes, stirring occasionally, until softened.• 5. Stir in your garlic, chilli, thyme and spices and fry for another minute or two. Stir in your flour and vinegar, and after a couple of minutes add your browned sausages, chicken stock and tinned tomatoes, using a wooden spoon to break them up a little. Season with a nice big pinch of salt and pepper, stir, then bring to the boil and let it tick away for 15 minutes or so until you have a thick and delicious gravy.• 6. Serve with a hearty spoonful of rice on the side, and sprinkle over some sliced spring onion, chopped parsley and any reserved celery leaves.
• Olive oil Ingredients• good-quality sausages (about 2 or 3 per person)• 1 onion, peeled and roughly chopped• 1 red pepper, deseeded and roughly chopped• 1 green pepper, deseeded and roughly chopped• 1 yellow pepper, deseeded and roughly chopped• 2 sticks of celery, trimmed and roughly chopped, yellow leaves reserved• 4 cloves of garlic, peeled and chopped• 1–2 fresh red chillies, deseeded and finely chopped• 10 sprigs of fresh thyme, leaves picked• 1 heaped teaspoon paprika• 1 heaped teaspoon cayenne pepper• 2–3 heaped tablespoons plain flour• 1 tablespoon white wine or cider vinegar• 750ml chicken stock, preferably organic• 1 x 400g tin of chopped tomatoes• sea salt and freshly ground black pepper• cooked long-grain rice, to serve• 3 spring onions, trimmed and finely sliced• a small bunch of fresh curly parsley, roughly chopped
Dish 2: Mac & Cheese Method 1. Get a large pan of salted water on to boil. Melt the butter in a large ovenproof saucepan over alow heat, then add the flour and turn the heat up to medium, stirring all the time, until you get apaste – this is your roux. Add all the sliced garlic – don‟t worry about the amount, because eachslice will caramelize like toffee in the roux.2. Keep cooking and stirring until golden and the garlic is nice and sticky. Add the bay leaves andslowly whisk in the milk a little at a time to ensure you get a nice smooth sauce. Bring the mixtureto the boil, then leave it on a low heat to simmer and tick away, stirring occasionally. Preheat youroven to 220ºC/425ºF/gas 7.3. Add the pasta to the pan of boiling salted water and cook according to the packet instructions.Meanwhile, roughly chop the tomatoes on a board and season them well with salt and pepper.Drain the pasta and add it immediately to the sauce.4. Give it a good stir and take the pan off the heat. Stir in your grated cheeses, chopped tomatoesand thyme leaves. A little Worcestershire sauce added now is nice, and so is a little grating or twoof nutmeg. Now work on the flavour – taste it and season it until it‟s hitting the right spot. You wantit to be slightly too wet because it will thicken up again in the oven, so add a splash of water ifneeded.5. If you‟ve made your sauce in an ovenproof casserole-type pan, leave everything in there; if not,transfer it to a deep earthenware dish. Bake it for 30 minutes in the oven, until golden, bubbling,crispy and delicious.6. While it‟s cooking, put your breadcrumbs and thyme into a pan with a few drizzles of olive oilover a medium heat. Stir and toss the crumbs around until crunchy and golden all over. Removefrom the heat and tip into a nice bowl. Serve your macaroni cheese in the centre of the table, withyour bowl of crispy breadcrumbs for sprinkling over, and a lovely green salad.
Mac & Cheese Ingredients• Sea salt and freshly ground black pepper• 45g butter• 3 heaped tablespoons plain flour• 10 cloves of garlic, peeled and finely sliced• 6 fresh bay leaves• 1 litre semi-skimmed milk• 600g dried macaron• 8 tomatoes• 150g freshly grated Cheddar cheese• 100g freshly grated Parmesan cheese• a few sprigs of fresh thyme, leaves picked• optional: a couple of splashes of Worcestershire sauce• optional: a grating of nutmeg• 3 big handfuls of fresh breadcrumbs• olive oil
Dish 3: Baked Alaska Method1. Pre-heat oven to 200°C/400°C/Gas 6. Lightly grease a 20 - 23cm (8”or 9”) sandwich tin.2. Make sponge base by beating the eggs, sugar and pinch of salt and the 2 egg yolks (left over fromMeringue Topping) until thick and creamy.3. Fold in the flour using a metal spoon.4. Transfer to prepared tin and bake for approx. 10 minutes until well risen and golden brown. Coolon a wire tray.5. When cold, place sponge on ovenproof dish.6. Make meringue by beating egg whites and caster sugar together until thick and shiny.7. Place ice cream on centre of sponge, swirl the meringue topping over the ice cream making sure itis well sealed.8. Shake granulated sugar over the meringue and place in a hot oven for 3 minutes or until meringueis golden brown.9. Serve immediately with fresh fruit.
Italian cuisine One of the most famous and interesting cuisines of the worldGvozdeva Svetlana 8 italiangroup
Some national features Italian cuisine is extremely varied (with culinary influences from Greek, Roman, Gallic, Germanic, Goth, Norman, Lombard, Frank, Turkish, Hebrew, Slavic, Arab and Chinese civilizations) Each area has its own proud specialties, primarily at regional level, but also even at provincial level The high priority placed on the using of fresh and seasonal produce distinguishes the cuisine of Italy from the imitations available in most other countries
20 regions- 20 regional differences Roman cuisine (using a lot of pecorino - sheep milk cheese, and offal) Tuscan (cooking features white beans, meat, and unsalted bread) Piedmont and Lombardy each grow their own different kinds of rice, which are used to make risotto Emilia-Romagna is known for lasagna and tortellini (stuffed pasta), mortadella, prosciutto, and parmigiano The North of Italy is the home of polenta
Northern versus Southern Italian cooking Northen Italy Southern Italy more butter and creams more tomato and olive oil polenta, mascarpone, grana mozzarella, caciocavallo, padano, and parmigiano and pecorino cheeses, olive cheeses, risotto, lasagna and oil, and dried pasta fresh egg pasta
Traditional menu structure antipasto - hot or cold appetizers primo ("first course"), usually consists of a hot dish like pasta, risotto, gnocchi, polenta or soup secondo ("second course") usually fish or meat contorno ("side dish") may consist of a salad or vegetables. A traditional menu features salad after the main course. dolce ("dessert") caffè ("coffee") (espresso) digestivo which is liquors/liqueurs (grappa, amaro, limoncello) sometimes referred to as ammazzacaffè ("Coffee killer")
Pasta (history, types, accompaniments) The legend of Marco Polos importation of pasta from China Pasta comes in many different shapes and sizes Pasta is served with simple tomato sauce and amatriciana and carbonara, pesto and ragù alla bolognese, often paired with fresh vegetables or seafood
Risotto Risotto is a traditional Italian dish made with a suitable variety of rice (arborio, carnaroli) It is one of the most common ways of cooking rice in Italy “Risotto alla Milanese” is made with chicken or beef stock and saffron “Risotto al Barolo” is made with red wine, both with vegetables and meat
Lasagna Lasagna is both a form of pasta in sheets and also a dish, sometimes named Lasagne al forno (meaning "oven-cooked Lasagne") made with alternate layers of pasta, cheese, and sometimes ragù The word "lasagna" is derived from the Greek word "lasanon" meaning chamber pot “Lasagne alla Bolognese” is the classic sort of lasagne with using of parmigiano regiano
Pizza Pizza is the name of an oven-baked, usually round bread covered with tomato sauce and cheese with other toppings left optional Pizza is normally eaten hot (typically at lunch or dinner), but leftovers are often eaten cold for breakfast or as a snack Various toppings Crust for pizza
Types of Italian coffee Espresso is a strong coffee prepared by forcing boiling water through finely ground coffee beans Caffè macchiato is a topped with a bit of steamed milk or foam Cappuccino is mixed or topped with steamed, mostly frothy, milk
Italian wines Italian cuisine cannot be separated from Italian wine. Most Italian wines of great renown are produced in three main Italian regions : Piedmont (Barolo) Veneto (Amarone, Pinot Grigio, etc.) Tuscany (Chianti, Brunello) Puglie (Primitivo)
Indian Cuisine“Indian food is the reflection of the heritage of its people. It represents its historical development, religious beliefs, cultural practices, and above all, its geographical attributes”
• Characterized by its aromatic, captivating fragrances and intriguing flavors• India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, and Sri Lanka were once part of the single nation of India, in Indian Subcontinent.
• North most Part of India (Highland climate), valley of Kashmir with magnificent Persian gardens and terraced lakes, brisk, cool fresh air is lured with fragrance of pine and saffron flowers. Walnuts and fruit orchards, morels and black cumin seeds grow wild, cool climate for sheep, thus lamb forms the basis of many Kashmiri dishes.• Long grain rice known as Basmati grow in the foothills of the mountain
• Northern plans, irrigated by the great rivers of Indus and Gonges, with soil extreme climate variation, fierce heat (120F) to subfreezing cold with dry chilly winds, wheat, corn, millet, barley, and innumerable variety of legumes and vegetable flourish.• Man are tall and hardy and diet rich (Delhi, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh)• Clarified butter used as cooking oil, goat, chicken are common• Bread is primary staple of the people
• On the east, plains of Bengal where Ganges flows into the Bay of Bengal. Climate is hot and human.• Both freshwater and sea fish, shellfish, coconut palms, mustard plants are common• Rice is abundant. Further northeast, cool air and seasonal rains create ideal conditions for cultivating tea (Darjeeling tea)
Great Deccan plateau lined on both sides by a chain of hills known as Ghat. Poor soil, lack of irrigation restrict agriculture. Northwest of Deccan lies Gujarat, rich soil for cotton, millet, barley, legumes, and varieties of vegetablesBread is staple, vegetarian population uses lentil purees and vegetable cooked in sesame oil are common food.
To the northwest is Maharashtra, Goa and Malabar, tropical climate and monsoon rains, wet and humid. Rice is staple, dish (white non-oily fish called Pomfret and a small transparent fish called Bombil Sabudana: made is sun-dried and sold as from latex of the wafers), variety of shellfish sego palm (prawn, shrimp, crab, lobster, clams, and mussels), banana, palm (coconut, dates)Common food: coconut and rice cooked with fish and seafood
Summary of Climate:Four seasons: dry, cool winter (Dec-Feb)Dry, hot summer (Mar-May)Southwest monsoon (June-Sept)Retreating monsoon (Oct-Nov)Cultural: Hindu 81.3%; Islam 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikhism 1.9%; others: Buddihist, Jainism, and parsis 2.5% totalReligion‟s influence on people‟s food and eating habits is profoundOriginated from India: Hinduism (no beef), Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism (no beef). Moslem (no pork) was brought to India 900 years ago, second largest population there in the world.Invasion of new cultural is most influential in north. Natural barriers and long distance made migration to the south slow and infrequent.Certain Hindus (Brahmins and Jains) are strict vegetarians. Meat forbidden are red meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, and their productsCertain strict vegetarians won‟t eat food that resembles meat, such as tomatoes, red beets, and watermelon because of their flesh like color. Neither do they use seasonings that are strong and generally associated with the cooking of meat, such as garlic and onion
Cooking styleNorth India has the most popular and refined style of cooking. Originated from Moghuls in sixteenth century. There are Turk-Mongols by origin and Moslem by religion. They admire most culture is Persian since they are influence by it on their way to India.Moghul food: lovers of nature and food life, keen sense of beauty, and a passion for elegance. Good for meat preparations and rice pilafs, delicate flavorings and superb silk sauces (often mistaken for Persian dish).Yogurt, cream, fruit and nut betters are incorporated into the food to mellow and velvetize the saucesMild but fragrant spices: cinnamon, cardamom, mace, nutmeg and clove; saffron (especially in Tandoori oven rice pilafs)
The foundation of Indian cooking rests on the flavorings of spices and herbs,not on special techniques or expensive ingredientsIt is an art than a science, highly personalized, reflecting individual tastes.Knowledge of how to use spices and herbs is the key that will unlock the secrets of the Indian cookingSome herbs and spices for aromatics, some lend coloring, others as souring agents, some give a hot taste, others thicken or tenderize a dishThe role of spices and herbs goes far beyond pleasing the palate and soothing the senses. They are medicinal properties known to ancient Indian (preventive and curative powers)Example: North Indian appetizer is always sprinkled with black salt and lemon juice, both of which are known for stimulating the appetite and increasing blood circulation.
Spices“warm” spices: generate internal body heat (recommended for cold weather). Examples: bay leaf, black cardamom, cinnamon, ginger powder, mace, nutmeg, red pepper (used often in cool climate of Kashmir). Tea is flavored by cinnamon and cardamom in cool climate.“cool” spices: take heat away from one‟s system. All other spices range from very cool to moderate warm and suitable at all times in all climatesIn Plain region, „cool‟ spices added to beverages “cool punch‟ milk, almond milk, sunflower and cantaloupe seeds, fennel, cloves, and green cardamomSpices induce perspiration: hot weather Indians drink hot spice-laced tea; some spices have several properties:Saffron: orange-yellow color and a hypnotizing aroma to a dishCoriander: thicken a sauce and imparts a nutty fragranceOnions: thicken and perfume Moghul grainsTomatoes: tenderizing and souring agentsSpices all have to be cooked before use, mixed well-balance, no once dominates.