Human resource management


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Human resource management

  2. 2. SYLLABUS Scope, Relationship, Approaches to Human Resource Management Organization of Personnel Functions Manpower Planning Motivating Employees Performance Appraisal Systems Training & Development Organization Development Management of Organizational Change HRD Strategies
  3. 3. BOOKS TO REFER Human Resource Management – P.Subba Rao Personnel Management – C.B. Mammoria Dessler: Human Resource Management(Prentice Hall India) Personnel/Human Resource Management: DeCenzo & Robbins (Prentice Hall India) D. K. Bhattacharya: Human Resource Management (Excel) VSP Rao – Human Resource Management(Excel)Gomez: Managing Human Resource (Prentice Hall India)
  4. 4. MARKING SYSTEM End Term Examination – 60 Marks Internals  Presentations & Assignments – 20 Marks  Class Attendance – 10 Marks  Class Participation – 10 Marks
  5. 5. SCOPE OF HRM
  6. 6. HRM Employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements with a view to contribute to the goals of the organization, individual and the society.
  7. 7. HRM HRM is managing (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) the functions of employing, developing, compensating and utilising human resources, resulting in the creation and development of human and industrial relations which would shape the future policies and practices of human resource management, with a view to contribute proportionately to the organisational, individual and social goals.- P. Subba Rao
  8. 8. Similar Terms Labour management  Employees – commodity  Employment, wages, firing Industrial Relations  Employees, trade unions, employers & government  Disputes, grievances, discipline, collective bargaining and participative management HRD  Training, management development, career planning and development and OD
  9. 9. Functions of HRMManagerial Functions Operative Functions Planning  Employment Organising  Human Resources Directing Development Controlling  Compensation  Human Relations  Industrial Relations  Recent Trends in HRM
  10. 10. Employment Job Analysis HRP Recruitment Selection Placement Induction & Orientation
  11. 11. HRD Performance Appraisal Training Management Development Career Planning & Development Internal Mobility Transfer Promotion Demotion Retention and Retrenchment Management Change & Organisation Development
  12. 12. Compensation Job Evaluation Wage and Salary Administration Incentives Bonus Fringe Benefits Social security measures
  13. 13. Human Relations Motivation Boosting employee morale Developing communication skills Developing leadership skills Redressing employee grievances Handling disciplinary cases Counseling
  14. 14. Industrial Relations Indian labour market Trade unionism Collective bargaining Industrial conflicts Workers participation
  15. 15. Objectives Policies  Plan of action Procedures  Specific manner in which a piece of work is to be done
  16. 16. Organisation design and line andstaff relationships Line relations Staff relations
  17. 17. Role of HR Manager The Conscience role  HR Role The Counsellor  Welfare Role The Mediator  Clerical Role The Spokesman  Fire-fighting Legal Role The Problem-solver The Change Agent
  18. 18.  Determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills, knowledge, abilities and responsibilities required of the worker of a successful performance and which differentiate one job from all others Job Description Job Specification
  19. 19.  An organised, factual statement of the duties and responsibilities of a specific jobJob Specification• A statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly
  20. 20.  Interview Questionnaires Observation Diary/ Logs
  21. 21.  Job Identification Job Summary Relation to other jobs Supervision Machine / equipments used Materials / forms used Conditions of work Hazards
  22. 22.  Education Experience Training Judgement Initiative Physical Effort Physical skills Responsibilities Communication Skills Emotional Characteristics
  23. 23. Class AssignmentO Flexible Job EnvironmentO Employee EmpowermentO De-jobbing
  24. 24. HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING According to E.W. Vetter, HRP is a process by which an organisation should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. Through planning management, strive to have the right number ad right kind of people at the right place at the right time, doing things which result in both the organisation and the individual receviing maximum long-run benefit.
  25. 25. OBJECTIVES OF HRP To recruit and retain the human resources of required quantity and quality Foresee employee turnover & make arrangement for minimising turnover and filling up of consequent vacancies To meet the needs of the programmes of expansion, diversification etc To foresee the impact of technology on work, existing employees and future requirements To improve the standards, skill, knowledge, ability, discipline etc To maintain congenial industrial relations by maintaining optimum level and structure of human resources To minimise imbalances caused due to non availability of human resources of the right kind, right number in right time and right place To estimate cost of human resources To make best use of its human resources
  26. 26. FACTORS AFFECTING HUMAN RESOURCEPLANExternal factors Internal Factors Government Policies  Company strategies Level of Economic  HR Policies Development  Job Analysis Business Environment  Time Horizons IT  Type & Quality of Level of Technology information International factors  Company’s production / operations policy  Trade Unions
  27. 27. HRP MODEL Analysing corporate and unit level strategies Forecasting Demand & Supply Estimating net human resources requirements In case of future surplus – plan for redeployment, retrenchment and layoff In case of future deficit – forecast future supply
  28. 28. Recruitment• Edwin B Flippo – the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation
  29. 29. Sources of RecruitmentInternal External• Present permanent employees • Campus recruitment • Private employment agencies• Present temporary / casual • Public employment exchanges employees • Professional associations• Retrenched / retired • Data banks employees • Casual applicants• Dependants of deceased, • Competitors • Trade Unions retired and disabled and • Walk –in present employees • Head hunting• Employee referrals • Body shopping • M & As • Tele recruitment • Outsourcing
  30. 30. Recruiting Yield Pyramid New Hires (50) Offers made (100) Candidates Interviewed (150) Candidates Invited (200) Leads Generated (1200)
  31. 31. Selection• After identifying the source of human resources, searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organisation, the management has to perform he function of selecting the right employees at the right time.
  32. 32. Selection Process• Job Analysis• Recruitment• Application Form• Written Exam• Preliminary Interview• Business Games• Test• Final Interview• Medical Exam• Reference Checks• Line Manager’s decision• Job Offer• Employment
  33. 33. Outcomes of the Selection DecisionSuccess False True Negative Positive Error Hit True FalseFailure Negative Positive (Low Hit) Error Predicted Failure Predicted Success
  34. 34. Induction / Orientation• Systematic and planned introduction of employees to their jobs, their co-workers and the organisation.• About the company• About the department• About the superiors, sub-ordinates
  35. 35. Organisational• History of employer • Product line / services• Organisation of provided employer • Overview of production• Names and titles of key process executives • Company policies and• Employee’s title and rules department • Disciplinary regulations• Layout of physical • Employee handbook facilities • Safety procedure and• Probationary Period enforcement
  36. 36. Employee Benefits• Pay Scale and Pay • Insurance Benefits Days • Retirement Programs• Vacations and holidays • Rehabilitation• Rest Breaks programmes• Training and Education benefit• Counselling• Employer provided services to employees
  37. 37. Introduction & Job Duties• To Supervisor • Job objectives• To Trainers • Relationship to other• To co-workers jobs• To employee counsellor• Job location• Job tasks• Job saftey requirements• Overview of job
  38. 38. Class Assignment• Job Description and Job Specification of any Professional
  39. 39. Types of Motivation Positive Motivation  Pull Mechanism Approach Negative Motivation  Push Mechanism Approach
  40. 40.  Method of evaluating the behaviour of employees in the work spot, normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance
  41. 41. TRADITIONAL METHODS MODERN METHODS Graphic Rating Scales  Behaviourally Anchored Ranking Method Rating Scale Paired Comparison method  Assessment Centre Forced Distribution  HRA  MBO Method  Behaviour Observation Checklist method Scales Essay or free form  Psychological Appraisal Appraisal  Results Method Group Appraisal  Productivity measures Confidential reports  Balanced scorecard
  42. 42.  Halo effect Error of central tendency Leniency & strictness Personal prejudice Recency effect
  43. 43. Class AssignmentO MBOO Balanced ScorecardO Potential AppraisalO Employee Motivation Techniques
  44. 44. Training & Development Short term educational process and utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose.
  45. 45. Area Training• Content  Technical skills and Development knowledge  Managerial and behavioural skills and knowledge• Purpose  Specific job related  Conceptual and  Short term general knowledge• Duration  Long-term• For whom  Mostly technical & non managerial  Mostly for personnel managerial personnel
  46. 46. Needs for Training To match the employees specifications with the Job Requirements and Organisational Needs Organisational Viability and the Transformation Process Technological Advances Organisational Complexity Human Relations Change in the Job Assignment
  47. 47. Training Need Analysis Task Analysis Performance Analysis  Cant do / wont do
  48. 48. Training MethodsOn the Job Methods Off the Job Methods Job Rotation  Vestibule Training Coaching  Role Playing Job Instruction  Lecture Methods Training through step  Conference / by step Discussion Internships  Programmed Instruction
  49. 49. Advantages of Training Increases Productivity Heightened Morale Reduced Supervision Reduced Accidents Increased Organisational Stability
  50. 50. Level Questions being Asked MeasuresResult Is the organisation or unit better Accidents / Quality / because of the training? Productivity / Turnover / Morale / Costs / ProfitsBehaviour Are trainees behaving differently Performance appraisal on the job after training? Are they by superior, peer, client, using the skills and knowledge subordinate they learned in training?Learning To what extent do the trainees Written test, have greater knowledge or skill Performance Tests, after the training program than Graded Simulations they did before?Reaction Did the trainees like the program, Questionnaires the trainers, the facilities? Do they think the course was useful? What improvements can they suggest?
  51. 51. Management Development Management Development is a systematic process of growth and development by which the managers develop their abilities to manage
  52. 52. Suitability of Techniques Job Rotation  Development of diversified skills and broader outlook Understudy  Making available a subordinate who is equal to his superior Multiple Management  Knowledge in different functional areas Case Study  Analytical and decision making skills
  53. 53. Suitability of Techniques Incident Method  Intellectual ability, practical judgment & Social awareness Role Playing  Understanding people In Basket  Situational judgment & social sensitivity Business Games  Quickness of thinking and leadership
  54. 54. Suitability of Techniques Sensitivity Training  Know more oneself and impact of our behaviour on others Simulation  Problem solving, decision making Managerial Grid  Leadership skills Conferences  Ability to modify attitudes Lectures  Give knowledge to many in short period of time
  55. 55. Organizational Change Strategy Culture Structure Technologies Attitude / skills of employees
  56. 56. Kurt Lewin’s Change Model Unfreezing Moving Refreezing
  57. 57. Organisation Development Involves action research which means collecting data about a group Feeding information back to employees so they can analyse it Applies behavioural science knowledge to improve organisation’s effectiveness Changes the organisation in a particular direction
  58. 58. Categories of ODApplications Human Process Technostructural Human Resource Management Strategic
  59. 59. Human Process Improving human relations skills Solve interpersonal and intergroup problems Sensitivity training / t- group training
  60. 60. Technostructural Changing firm’s structures, methods and job designs For eg. In a formal structural change program, the employees collect data on the company’s existing organisational structure; they then jointly redesign and implement a new one.
  61. 61. Human Resource Management To enable employees to analyse and change HR practices Performance appraisal and reward systems as well as installing diversity programs
  62. 62. Strategic Achieving fit among a firm’s strategy, structure, culture and external environment Managers and employees analyse current strategy and organisational design Choose a desired strategy and organisational design Design a strategic change plan- an action plan for moving the organisation from its current strategy and design to the desired one The team oversees implementing the strategic change plan and review results to ensure that they are proceeding as planned