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Chapter 6 - How did WW2 affect Singapore?


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  • Please note that this is not the newest syllabus for the Lower Sec Science
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Chapter 6 - How did WW2 affect Singapore?

  1. 2. <ul><li>What were the efforts made by the British to defend Singapore? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the British fail to stop the Japanese? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the people of Singapore react to the Japanese attack? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Japanese occupation change the lives of people in Singapore? </li></ul><ul><li>Did life return to normal after the end of the Japanese occupation? </li></ul>
  2. 3. Background to WW2 <ul><li>Rise of a fascist regime in Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan sees itself as the destined ruler of Asia and wants to liberate Asians from the Westerners. </li></ul><ul><li>The need for raw materials. </li></ul>
  3. 4. In view of the ‘Main Fleet to Singapore’ strategy, a naval base was built in Sembawang To defend the naval base, 15-inch guns were installed facing the sea to counter possible attacks. Military airfields were built in Tengah and Sembawang. Underground bunkers were built in Fort Canning, Labrador, Sembawang etc.
  4. 5. <ul><li>The invasion of China in 1937 resulted in countries like US cutting off their oil supply to Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan set its sights on Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain sends reinforcements to Singapore but was still focused on the war in Europe. </li></ul>
  5. 11. <ul><li>Underestimation of the Japanese and fatal assumptions about their strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Good Japanese preparation and their superiority in battle strategy, armed forces and leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>British putting priority on war in Europe. </li></ul>
  6. 12. <ul><li> “ During that period, the war in Europe seemed to have little or no effect on our lives. Social and club life went on as usual. Food, imported or native-grown, tinned, frozen or fresh, was plentiful and so was clothing. There was no need for black-outs or curfews and no one took Air Raid Precautions (A.R.P.) very seriously, for we knew that Singapore was an impregnable fortress. The Japanese, however they might flourish in China, would certainly crumble the moment they came in contact with a first-class Western Power” </li></ul><ul><li>-Adapted from In the Shadow of the Rising Sun by Mary Thomas </li></ul>
  7. 13. <ul><li>Cruelties of the Kempeitai </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation Sook Ching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Propaganda and the imposition of the Japanese way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled communications </li></ul><ul><li>Food shortages, rationing and black market </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of resistance groups </li></ul>
  8. 14. <ul><li>Kempeitai ( 憲兵隊 &quot; Corps of Law Soldiers&quot;) was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. </li></ul>They were responsible for various cruelties committed against the people in Singapore during the Japanese Occupation.
  9. 15. <ul><li>Systematic massacre of possible anti-Japanese people. </li></ul><ul><li>18 February to 4 March 1942 at various places in the region. </li></ul><ul><li>Males (and sometimes women and children) between the ages of 18 of 50 were screened to determine if they are anti-Japanese. Sometimes, victims were randomly selected. </li></ul>
  10. 16. <ul><li>Singapore was renamed ‘Syonan-to’ </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda campaigns were carried out to influence people to pledge their loyalty to Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese was taught in schools. </li></ul>
  11. 17. <ul><li>Radio stations were controlled by the Japanese so only local broadcasts were allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Tuning in to foreign broadcasts was a crime punishable by death. </li></ul>
  12. 18. Rationing Black markets Inflation Malnutrition and diseases
  13. 19. <ul><li>Purpose: To sabotage the Japanese forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups include: MPAJA (Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army) and Force 136. </li></ul>
  14. 21. <ul><li>Aug 1945: Atomic bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The Japanese surrendered. </li></ul><ul><li>5 Sep 1945: The British troops returned to Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>12 Sep 1945: The Japanese military leaders signed the surrender document. </li></ul>
  15. 22. <ul><li>The British set up a provisional government called the British Military Administration (BMA) which governed Singapore until 1 April 1946. </li></ul>