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Onvit Iraq

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Onvit Iraq

  1. 1. DIAGNOSING THE AFFECTS OF INFRASTRUCTURE ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE Onvit Jan 26/2009
  2. 2. Country/Region Information <ul><li>Country: Republic of Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Baghdad </li></ul><ul><li>Global Location : </li></ul><ul><li>GDP : total $102.3 billion (2007 estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>Population : 29,267,000 (2007 estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Government : parliamentary republic </li></ul><ul><li>Currency : Iraqi dinar (IQD) </li></ul><ul><li>Calling Code : 964 </li></ul>
  3. 3. STATE OF THE AREA’S INFRASTRUCTURE <ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul>
  4. 4. Transportation <ul><li>Railways (total: 2,032km) </li></ul><ul><li>Highways (total: 45,550km) </li></ul><ul><li>Waterways (total: 1,015km) </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant marine (total: 32 ships) </li></ul><ul><li>ships by type: cargo ship(14), passenger ship(1), passenger/cargo(1), petroleum tanker(13), refrigerated cargo(1), roll-on/roll-off ship(2) (1999 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Airports (total: 113 airports) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Communication <ul><li>Telephone system </li></ul><ul><li>Main telephone lines in use (833,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Number of mobile cellular phones </li></ul><ul><li>(9,000,000, service is in place since 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast stations </li></ul><ul><li>80 radio broadcast stations (4.85 million radios), 21 television broadcast stations (1.75 million televisions) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul>
  6. 6. Government <ul><li>Legislative branch </li></ul><ul><li>council of representatives </li></ul><ul><li>federation council </li></ul><ul><li>Executive branch </li></ul><ul><li>president </li></ul><ul><li>presidency council </li></ul><ul><li>council of ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial branch </li></ul><ul><li>supreme judicial council </li></ul><ul><li>supreme court </li></ul><ul><li>court of cassation </li></ul><ul><li>public prosecution department </li></ul><ul><li>judiciary oversight commission </li></ul>
  7. 7. Education <ul><li>Primary schools provide a six-year course, at the end of which the student must pass an examination to be admitted to secondary school. </li></ul><ul><li>Education at all levels from primary to higher education is free, and no private schools are permitted to operate. </li></ul><ul><li>There are seven universities in Iraq, four of them in Baghdad. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Education <ul><li>Following the invasion of Kuwait, UN sanctions imposed on Iraq in 1990 badly affected education in Iraq. </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq was unable to build new schools during 1990-2003 </li></ul><ul><li>The number of children under twelve who have left school in order to earn a living has been significantly increasing since the UN sanctions imposed on Iraq in 1990. </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO reports say that before the sanctions 95,692 students dropped out of school. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999, following nine years of sanctions, 131,658 Iraqi children were out of school. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Impact on International Trade <ul><li>Iraq's imports have declined dramatically in the last decade, as a direct result of the UN sanctions. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, Iraq's total imports were estimated at US$8.9 billion, almost 40 percent lower than their 1989 levels of US$22 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq was not allowed to import any goods until 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>After the conclusion of the food-for-oil agreement, Iraq's imports have been regulated by the UN, which approves all goods entering the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Before the Gulf War, Iraq imported the majority of its goods from the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Brazil and Turkey. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of exports are dominated by oil, which accounted for about 95 percent of total sales abroad before the Gulf War(2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Impact on International Trade <ul><li>Coverage of all the main shipping sectors: oil tankers, chemicals, LPG, LNG, dry bulk, containership, break bulk and port developments </li></ul><ul><li>In the oil market Iraq does provide an important source of demand for Suezmax and Vlccs, but cessation of Iraqi exports is not in itself a threat to the global markets. </li></ul><ul><li>The most likely way in which the global shipping markets will evolve over the next 18 months regardless of the length of the current conflict in Iraq. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Risks in International Trade <ul><li>Risk of insolvency of the buyer </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of protracted default - the failure of the buyer to pay the amount due within six months after the due date </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of non-acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Surrendering economic sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of Exchange rate </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of cancellation or non-renewal of export or import licenses </li></ul><ul><li>War risks </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of expropriation or confiscation of the importer's company </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of the imposition of an import ban after the shipment of the goods </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer risk - imposition of exchange controls by the importer's country or foreign currency shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Surrendering political sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of political parties in importer's company </li></ul><ul><li>Economic risks </li></ul><ul><li>Political risks </li></ul>
  12. 12. Changes for the Future <ul><li>Inadequate Security and Political Progress in Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Strains on the Military </li></ul><ul><li>Resurgent Al Qaeda in Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>A New Strategy Needed </li></ul>
  13. 13. Changes for the Future <ul><li>Judgment You Can Trust </li></ul><ul><li>A Responsible, Phased Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging Political Accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Surging Diplomacy </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing Humanitarian Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>The Status-of-Forces-Agreement </li></ul>
  14. 14. THANK YOU Presented by Onvit 2009.1.26

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