coal

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coal as fuel

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coal

  1. 1. MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JAIPUR CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
  2. 2. WHAT IS ENERGY 2. WHAT IS COAL 3. HISTORY 4. CONSUMPTION 5. ENERGY LOSS 6. COAL FORMATION 7. TYPES 8. AVALIBILITY 9. COAL MINES 10. DANGERS OF COAL MINES 11. PRESENT USE 12. FUTURE USE 13. ADVANTAGE 14. DISADVANTAGE 15. VARIOUS EFFECTS 1.
  3. 3.  - COAL IS AN UNRENEWABLE SOURCE OF FUEL WHY?  - COAL IS FORMED FROM VEGETATION THAT CAN BE AS OLD AS 400 MILLION YEARS OLD. (THAT IS WHY IT’S CALLED A FOSSIL FUEL)
  4. 4.     The earliest use of coal in the Americas was the Aztecs In the 1300s in what is now the United States, Native Americans used coal for cooking, making clay pots, and heating. Large-scale coal mining developed in the Industrial Revolution when demands for energy skyrocketed The first documented mining of coal in the US was 50 tons dug in 1748 in Virginia
  5. 5.  In the past, coal had a variety of uses. Gas for gas lights  domestic heating, railroad fuel and for stationery steam engines.  Heating for the iron and steel industries  Weapons for the civil war 
  6. 6. Over time different ways of creating energy have been discovered. These ways are a lot more complex it effects the environment a lot. Some of the ways that have been developed over time are Biomass, Wind, Geothermal, and Hydropower. These ways are not only a lot better for the environment but more efficient. Coal covers about 21% of energy consumption. Even though it isn't the smart choice it will still keep our cities running until the next 25+ years.
  7. 7. 60.00% 55.60% 50.00% 40.00% 25.90% 30.00% 20.00% 9.90% 10.00% 5.00% 2.70% 0.90% ab le en ew R as G il O oa l C uc le ar N H yd ro 0.00%
  8. 8. •50% of coal •80% of natural gas •65% of oil
  9. 9. Energy lost from coal 65% lost in power plants 10% lost on transmission lines (stray voltage)
  10. 10. Formation of coal Organic matter derived mostly from land plants accumulates in low-energy environment (like a swamp). Oxidative decay uses up lots of oxygen, rendering the sediment pore waters devoid of oxygen (anoxic). Gentle cooking and pressing (lithification) as a result of increasing burial depth remove the pore water and increase carbon content (due to release of volatile components of the organic molecules). Low grade coal (lignite) cooked very little. High grade coal (anthracite) cooked a lot (close to being a metamorphic rock). Lower grade coal tends to contain minerals such as pyrite, which formed under the reducing (low-oxygen) conditions.
  11. 11. HOW IS COAL FORMED? PEAT – DECOMPOSED SUBMERGED PLANT REMAINS LIGNITE – YOUNG COAL. IT HAS LOW CARBON CONTENT PEAT + PRESSURE + HEAT + TIME = COAL
  12. 12. MORE CARBON = MORE HEAT COAL RANK CARBON CONTENT ANTHRACITE 98% BITUMINOUS 85% LIGNITE 60%
  13. 13. Oil Natural gas Coal
  14. 14. Worldwide, compared to all other fossil fuels, coal is the most abundant and widely distributed across the continents 998 billion tons The resulting ratio of coal reserves to production is approximately 164 years (at current rates of production and no change in reserves) Significant reserves are found in the United States and Russia but not in the Middle East.
  15. 15. Availability of Coal Mines  Two types of coal mining  Surface mining  There are over 1000 surface mines in the U.S.  Underground mining  There are over 1000 underground mines in the U.S .Requires more workers, but is the most efficient process
  16. 16. Surface (strip) mine, Western U.S. Underground (shaft) mine, Eastern U.S.
  17. 17. There are many precautions coal miners have. They where a special device that detects poisonous gases that can harm humans. They used canaries to detect gases if the canary died that meant you got to get out of that mine.
  18. 18. Coal production has increased by more than 70% since 1970 9 out of every 10 tons of coal mined in the United States today is used to generate electricity 56% of electricity in US is coal-generated Use of coal is not limited to electricity generation: Make chemicals, cement, paper, metal products Methanol, ethylene About 9 percent of U.S.-mined coal is exported to some 40 countries
  19. 19. The United States has a 300-year supply of coal, if it continues to use it at the same rate as today Worldwide coal consumption is supposed to increase 2% per year from 2005 to 2030 29 percent of total world energy consumption in 2030
  20. 20. There will likely be a significant increase in the use of coal for electricity generation in countries such as China and India New technologies will continue to enhance our ability to identify the shape and composition of untapped coal reserves
  21. 21. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF COAL? - HIGHER HEATING VALUE COMPARED TO BIOMASS. - MORE ABUNDANT THAN OIL. VS BETTER VS BETTER
  22. 22. The combustion of coal produces carbon dioxide(CO2) and nitrogen oxides with varying amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other pollutants Coal-fired power plants represent the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions, which is a major cause of global warming Coal-fired power plants represent the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions, which is a major cause of global warming Sulfur dioxide reacts with oxygen to form sulfur trioxide (SO3) gas, which in turn reacts with moisture in the air to form sulfuric acid. This acid in the atmosphere is returned to the Earth in the form of acid rain.
  23. 23. Effects on health Black Lung Disease (miners) Respiratory illnesses (public)
  24. 24. Effects on land Coal sludge releases Hardpan at strip mines Mountaintop removal Huge water use Slurry pipelines
  25. 25. Effects on air Greenhouse gases 3/4 sulfur dioxide 1/3 nitrogen oxides 1/2 carbon dioxide
  26. 26. www.wikipedia.com/coal use www.googleimage.com/air pollution www.slideshare.com/coal
  27. 27. THANK YOU

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