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bioethanol ppt


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bioethanol ppt

  2. 2. CONTENTS I. What is bioethanol? II. Bioethanol Production III. Fuel Properties IV. Application V. Advantages VI. Disadvantages and Concerns VII.Ethanol Controversy VIII.Comparison of Bioethanol and Biodiesel IX. Future development
  3. 3. What is Bioethanol Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn or sugarcane. Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production
  4. 4. Contd. The principle fuel used as a petrol substitute is bioethanol Bioethanol fuel is mainly produced by the sugar or cellulose fermentation process Ethanol is a high octane fuel and has replaced lead as an octane enhancer in petrol Bioethanol is an alternative to gasoline for flexifuel vehicles
  5. 5. Bioethanol Production • Wheat/Grains/Corn/Sugar-cane can be used to produce ethanol. (Basically, any plants that composed largely of sugars) • Bioethanol is mainly produced in three ways. • Sugar • starch ethanol sugar • cellulose and hemicellulose ethanol ethanol
  6. 6. Bioethanol Production • Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis – – – – – ~77% of sulfuric acid is added to the dried biomass to a 10% moisture content. Acid to be added in the ratio of 1/25 acid :1 biomass under 50°C. Dilute the acid to ~30% with water and reheat the mixture at100°C for an hour. Gel will be produced and pressed to discharge the acid sugar mixture. Separate the acid & sugar mixture by using a chromatographic column .
  7. 7. Bioethanol Production • Dilute Acid Hydrolysis – – – – oldest, simplest yet efficient method hydrolyse the bio-mass to sucrose hemi-cellulose undergo hydrolysis with the addition of 7% of sulfuric acid under the temperature 190°C. to generate the more resistant cellulose portion, 4% of sulfuric acid is added at the temperature of 215°C
  8. 8. Bioethanol Production • Wet milling process – corn kernel is soaked in warm water – proteins broken down – starch present in the corn is released (thus, softening the kernel for the milling process) – microorganisms, fibre and starch products are produced. – In the distillation process, ethanol is produced.
  9. 9. Bioethanol Production • Dry milling process – Clean and break down the corn kernel into fine particles – Sugar solution is produced when the powder mixture (corn germ/starch and fibre) is broken down into sucrose by dilute acid or enzymes. – Yeast is added to ferment the cooled mixture into ethanol.
  10. 10. Bioethanol Production • Sugar fermentation – Hydrolysis process breaks down the biomass cellulosic portion into sugar solutions which will then be fermented into ethanol. – Yeast is added and heated to the solution. – Invertase acts as a catalyst and convert the sucrose sugars into glucose and fructose. (both C6H12O6).
  11. 11. Bioethanol Production Chemical reaction 1  The fructose and glucose sugars react with zymase to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. Chemical reaction 2  Fermentation process requires 3 days to complete and is carried out at a temperature of between 250°C and 300°C.
  12. 12. Bioethanol Production • Fractional Distillation Process – After the sugar fermentation process, the ethanol still does contain a significant quantity of water which have to be removed. – In the distillation process, both the water and ethanol mixture are boiled. – Ethanol has a lower boiling point than water, therefore ethanol will be converted into the vapour state first  condensed and separated from water.
  13. 13. Feedstocks • Sugar is required to produce ethanol by fermentation. – Plant materials (grain, stems and leaves) are composed mainly of sugars – almost any plants can serve as feedstock for ethanol manufacture • Choice of raw material depends on several factors – – – – ease of processing of the various plants available Crops used in Bioethanol production prevailing conditions of climate Brazil sugar cane landscape and soil composition USA corn sugar content India sugar cane Europe wheat and barley
  14. 14. Feedstocks • R&D activities on using lignocellulosic (woody materials) as feedstock – Lignocellulosic biomass is more abundant and less expensive than food crops – higher net energy balance – accrue up to 90% in greenhouse gas savings, much higher than the first generation of biofuel – However, more difficult to convert to sugars due to their relatively inaccessible molecular structure
  15. 15. Conversion of starch to sugar and then sugar to ethanol Eg:-1) wheat Fermentation conditions Temperature - 32˚C and 35˚C pH - 5.2.  Ethanol is produced at 10-15% concentration and the solution is distilled to produce ethanol at higher concentrations
  16. 16. Eg:- 2) sugar cane Simplest of all the processes • Fermentation conditions are similar to the above process
  17. 17. Contd. Ethanol can be produced from a variety of feedstocks such as sugar cane, bagasse, sugar beet, switchgrass, potatoes, fruit, molasses corn, stover, wheat, straw, other biomass, as well as many types of cellulose waste and harvestings Agricultural feedstocks are considered renewable because they get energy from the sun using photosynthesis Cornfield in South Africa Sugar cane harvest Switchgrass
  18. 18. Direct conversion of sugar to ethanol • This is usually done using molasses. • Molasses is a thick dark syrup produced by boiling down juice from sugarcane; specially during sugar refining. • As molasses is a by product, ethanol production from molasses is not done in a large scale around the world. The main reaction involved is fermentation yeast C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH sugar (e.g.:-glucose) ethanol + 2 CO2 carbon dioxide
  19. 19. The top five ethanol producers in 2010 Brazil - 16500 billion liters The United States -16270 billion liters China - 2000 billion liters The European Union - 950 billion liters India - 300 billion liters
  20. 20. consumption of ethanol in india
  21. 21. Bioethanol Properties  Colourless and clear liquid  Used to substitute petrol fuel for road transport vehicles  One of the widely used alternative automotive fuel in the world (Brazil & U.S.A are the largest ethanol producers)  Much more environmentally friendly  Lower toxicity level source :
  22. 22. Fuel Properties Fuel Properties Gasoline Molecular weight 111 [kg/kmol] Density [kg/l] at 15⁰C 0.75 Bioethanol 46 Oxygen content [wt%] Lower Calorific Value [MJ/kg] at 15ºC Lower Calorific Value [MJ/l] at 15ºC Octane number (RON) Octane number (MON) Cetane number Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio [kg air/kg fuel] Boiling temperature [ºC] Reid Vapour Pressure [kPa] at 15ºC 34.8 0.80-0.82 41.3 26.4 31 21.2 97 109 86 92 8 14.7 11 9.0 30-190 78 75 16.5 • Energy content – Bioethanol has much lower energy content than gasoline – about two-third of the energy content of gasoline on a volume base
  23. 23. Fuel Properties Fuel Properties Molecular weight [kg/kmol] Density [kg/l] at 15⁰C Oxygen content [wt%] Lower Calorific Value [MJ/kg] at 15ºC Lower Calorific Value [MJ/l] at 15ºC Octane number (RON) Octane number (MON) Cetane number Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio [kg air/kg fuel] Boiling temperature [ºC] Reid Vapour Pressure [kPa] at 15ºC Gasoline 111 Bioethanol 46 0.75 0.80-0.82 34.8 41.3 26.4 31 21.2 97 109 86 92 8 14.7 11 9.0 30-190 78 75 16.5 • Reid vapour pressure (measure for the volatility of a fuel) – Very low for ethanol, indicates a slow evaporation – Adv: the concentration of evaporative emissions in the air remains relatively low, reduces the risk of explosions – Disadv: low vapour pressure of ethanol -> Cold start difficulties – engines using ethanol cannot be started at temp < 20ºC w/o aids
  24. 24. Fuel Properties Fuel Properties Gasoline Molecular weight 111 [kg/kmol] Density [kg/l] at 15⁰C 0.75 Bioethanol 46 Oxygen content [wt%] Lower Calorific Value [MJ/kg] at 15ºC Lower Calorific Value [MJ/l] at 15ºC Octane number (RON) Octane number (MON) Cetane number Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio [kg air/kg fuel] Boiling temperature [ºC] Reid Vapour Pressure [kPa] at 15ºC 34.8 0.80-0.82 41.3 26.4 31 21.2 97 109 86 92 8 14.7 11 9.0 30-190 78 75 16.5 • Octane number – Octane number of ethanol is higher than petrol – hence ethanol has better antiknock characteristics – increases the fuel efficiency of the engine – oxygen content of ethanol also leads to a higher efficiency, which results in a cleaner combustion process at relatively low temperatures
  25. 25. Application • • • • • transport fuel to replace gasoline fuel for power generation by thermal combustion fuel for fuel cells by thermochemical reaction fuel in cogeneration systems feedstock in the chemicals industry ndz/freehandz1209/freehandz120900083/1 5300880-bioethanol--biomass-truck.jpg
  26. 26. Application • Blending of ethanol with a small proportion of a volatile fuel such as gasoline -> more cost effective • Various mixture of bioethanol with gasoline or diesel fuels – – – – E5G to E26G (5-26% ethanol, 95-74% gasoline) E85G (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) E15D (15% ethanol, 85% diesel) E95D (95% ethanol, 5% water, with ignition improver)
  27. 27. Advantages • Exhaust gases of ethanol are much cleaner – it burns more cleanly as a result of more complete combustion • Greenhouse gases reduce – ethanol-blended fuels such as E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) reduce up to 37.1% of GHGs • Positive energy balance, depending on the type of raw stock – output of energy during the production is more than the input • Any plant can be use for production of bioethanol – it only has to contain sugar and starch • Carbon neutral – the CO2 released in the bioethanol production process is the same amount as the one the crops previously absorbed during photosynthesis
  28. 28. Advantages • Decrease in ozone formation – The emissions produced by burning ethanol are less reactive with sunlight than those produced by burning gasoline, which results in a lower potential for forming ozone • Renewable energy resource – result of conversion of the sun's energy into usable energy – Photosynthesis -> feedstocks grow -> processed into ethanol • Energy security – esp. Countries that do not have access to crude oil resources – grow crops for energy use and gain some economic freedom • Reduces the amount of high-octane additives • Fuel spills are more easily biodegraded or diluted to non toxic concentrations
  29. 29. Disadvantages and Concerns • Biodiversity – A large amount of arable land is required to grow crops, natural habitats would be destroyed • Food vs. Fuel debate – due to the lucrative prices of bioethanol some farmers may sacrifice food crops for biofuel production which will increase food prices around the world • Carbon emissions (controversial) – During production of bioethanol, huge amount of carbon dioxide is released – Emission of GHGs from production of bioethanol is comparable to the emissions of internalcombustion engines
  30. 30. Disadvantages and Concerns • Not as efficient as petroleum – energy content of the petrol is much higher than bioethanol – its energy content is 70% of that of petrol • Engines made for working on Bioethanol cannot be used for petrol or diesel – Due to high octane number of bioethanol, they can be burned in the engines with much higher compression ratio • Used of phosphorous and nitrogen in the production – negative effect on the environment • Cold start difficulties – pure ethanol is difficult to vaporise
  31. 31. Disadvantages and Concerns • Transportation – ethanol is hygroscopic, it absorbs water from the air and thus has high corrosion aggressiveness – Can only be transported by auto transport or railroad • Many older cars unequipped to handle even 10% ethanol • Negatively affect electric fuel pumps by increasing internal wear and undesirable spark generation
  32. 32. Ethanol Controversy • Google image
  33. 33. Is it justifiable? use agriculture land to grow energy crops instead of food crops when there are so many starving people in the world. In the developed countries that is not a problem, but in the developing ones where we have a large number of people living below the poverty this may lead to a crisis.
  34. 34. Ethanol Controversy • Is burning biofuel more environmentally friendly than burning oil? – Fact that producing biofuel is not a "green process“ – requires tractors and fertilisers and land – With the increase in biofuel production, more forests will be chopped down to make room for biofuel, ↑ CO2 • Better alternative suggested by scientists.. – steer away from biofuel and focus on reforestation and maximising the efficiency of fossil fuels instead
  35. 35. Comparison of Bioethanol and Biodiesel Bioethanol Biodiesel Process Dry-mill method: yeast, sugars and Transesterification: methyl esters and starch are fermented. From starch, it is glycerin which are not good for engines, fermented into sugar, afterwards it is are left behind. fermented again into alcohol. Environment Both reduce greenhouse gas emissions as biofuels are primarily derived from crops al Benefit which absorb carbon dioxide. Compatibility ethanol has to be blended with fossil fuel Able to run in any diesel generated like gasoline, hence only compatible engines with selected gasoline powered automobiles. Costs Cheaper More expensive Gallons per 420 gallons of ethanol can be generated 60 gallons of biodiesel per acre acre per acre soybeans cost of soybean oil would significantly increase if biodiesel production is increased as well. Energy provides 93% more net energy per produces only 25% more net energy. gallon Greenhouse- 12% less greenhouse gas emission than 41% less compared to conventional gas the production and combustion of gasoline. Emissions regular diesel (GHG)
  36. 36. Social impacts – Created jobs for locals (mainly in rural areas) – Brazilian sugarcane industry has a particularly poor record in respecting worker’s rights – Expansion in sugar cane cultivation may increase food prices. This would leave the poor with a harder survival. – Although the ethanol industry has greatly increased the wealth of the sugar and alcohol sector’s industries, the poor have to be the one handling the negative impacts.
  37. 37. Future development • For bioethanol to become more sustainable to replace petrol, production process has to be more efficient – Reducing cost of conversion – Increasing yields – Increase the diversity of crop used • As microbes are use to convert glucose into sugar which is ferment in bioethanol – Microbiology and biotechnology will be helpful in the genetic engineering
  38. 38. References Philippidis, G. P., and Smith, T, K, 1995, Limiting factors in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process for conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 51/52:117-124. DEMiRBA AYHAN “Bioethanol from Cellulosic MAteriAls” 2005 Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey