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Surviving Sepsis Guidelines 2012

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Surviving Sepsis Guidelines 2012

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Surviving Sepsis Campaign
International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012
Critical Care Medicine 2013 Feb;41(2):580-637

Surviving Sepsis Campaign
International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012
Critical Care Medicine 2013 Feb;41(2):580-637

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Surviving Sepsis Guidelines 2012

  1. 1. Surviving Sepsis Campaign International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012 Critical Care Medicine 2013 Feb;41(2):580-637
  2. 2. MANAGEMENT OF SEVERE SEPSIS Management of Severe Sepsis Initial Resuscitation Diagnosis Antibiotic Therapy Source Control Fluid Therapy Vasopressors Corticosteroids Blood Product Administration Glucose Control Bicarbonate Therapy
  3. 3. Guide to Recommendations’ Strengths and Supporting Evidence 1 = strong recommendation 2 = weak recommendation or suggestion A = good evidence from randomized trials B = moderate strength evidence from small randomized trial(s) or multiple good observational trials C = weak or absent evidence, mostly driven by consensus opinion
  4. 4. Initial Resuscitation
  5. 5. Initial Resuscitation Protocolized, quantitative resuscitation of patients with sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion (defined in this document as hypotension persisting after initial fluid challenge or blood lactate concentration ≥ 4 mmol/L). Goals during the first 6 hrs of resuscitation: a) CVP 8–12 mmHg b) MAP ≥ 65 mm Hg c) Urine output ≥ 0.5 mL/kg/hr d) ScvO2 70% or 65%, respectively (grade 1C).
  6. 6. Initial Resuscitation In patients with elevated lactate levels targeting resuscitation to normalize lactate (grade 2C).
  7. 7. 2001;345:1368-77.
  8. 8. Surviving Sepsis Campaign Bundles TO BE COMPLETED WITHIN 3 HOURS: 1) Measure lactate level 2) Obtain blood cultures prior to administration of antibiotics 3) Administer broad spectrum antibiotics 4) Administer 30 mL/kg crystalloid for hypotension or lactate ≥4 mmol/L TO BE COMPLETED WITHIN 6 HOURS: 5) Apply vasopressors (for hypotension that does not respond to initial fluid resuscitation) to maintain a MAP ≥65 mmHg 6) In the event of persistent arterial hypotension despite volume resuscitation (septic shock) or initial lactate ≥4 mmol/L : – Measure CVP – Measure ScvO2 7) Remeasure lactate if initial lactate was elevated
  9. 9. Diagnosis
  10. 10. Diagnosis Cultures as clinically appropriate before antimicrobial therapy if no significant delay (> 45 mins) in the start of antimicrobial(s) (grade 1C). At least 2 sets of blood cultures (both aerobic and anaerobic bottles) be obtained before antimicrobial therapy with at least 1 drawn percutaneously and 1 drawn through each vascular access device, unless the device was recently (<48 hrs) inserted (grade 1C).
  11. 11. Diagnosis Use of the 1,3 beta-D-glucan assay (grade 2B), mannan and anti-mannan antibody assays (2C), if available, and invasive candidiasis is in differential diagnosis of cause of infection.
  12. 12. Diagnosis Imaging studies performed promptly to confirm a potential source of infection.
  13. 13. Antimicrobial Therapy
  14. 14. Antimicrobial Therapy Administration of effective intravenous antimicrobials within the first hour of recognition of septic shock (grade 1B) and severe sepsis without septic shock (grade 1C) as the goal of therapy.
  15. 15. Antimicrobial Therapy Use of low procalcitonin levels or similar biomarkers to assist the clinician in the discontinuation of empiric antibiotics in patients who initially appeared septic, but have no subsequent evidence of infection (grade 2C).
  16. 16. Antimicrobial Therapy Combination empirical therapy for neutropenic patients with severe sepsis (grade 2B) and for patients with difficult-to-treat, multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens such as Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas spp. (grade 2B). For patients with severe infections associated with respiratory failure and septic shock, combination therapy with an extended spectrum beta-lactam and either an aminoglycoside or a fluoroquinolone is for P. aeruginosa bacteremia (grade 2B). A combination of beta-lactam and macrolide for patients with septic shock from bacteremic Streptococcus pneumoniae infections (grade 2B).
  17. 17. Antimicrobial Therapy Empiric combination therapy should not be administered for more than 3–5 days. De-escalation to the most appropriate single therapy should be performed as soon as the susceptibility profile is known (grade 2B).
  18. 18. Antimicrobial Therapy Duration of therapy typically 7–10 days; longer courses may be appropriate in patients who have a slow clinical response, undrainable foci of infection, bacteremia with S. aureus; some fungal and viral infections or immunologic deficiencies, including neutropenia (grade 2C).
  19. 19. Antimicrobial Therapy Antiviral therapy initiated as early as possible in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of viral origin (grade 2C).
  20. 20. Source Control
  21. 21. Source Control A specific anatomical diagnosis of infection requiring consideration for emergent source control be sought and diagnosed or excluded as rapidly as possible, and intervention be undertaken for source control within the first 12 hr after the diagnosis is made, if feasible (grade 1C).
  22. 22. Source Control When source control in a severely septic patient is required, the effective intervention associated with the least physiologic insult should be used (eg, percutaneous rather than surgical drainage of an abscess).
  23. 23. Source Control If intravascular access devices are a possible source of severe sepsis or septic shock, they should be removed promptly after other vascular access has been established.
  24. 24. Fluid Therapy Crystalloids as the initial fluid of choice in the resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock (grade 1B). Against the use of hydroxyethyl starches for fluid resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock (grade 1B).
  25. 25. Fluid Therapy Albumin in the fluid resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock when patients require substantial amounts of crystalloids (grade 2C).
  26. 26. Fluid Therapy Initial fluid challenge in patients with sepsis- induced tissue hypoperfusion with suspicion of hypovolemia to achieve a minimum of 30 mL/kg of crystalloids (grade 1C).
  27. 27. Fluid Therapy Fluid challenge technique be applied wherein fluid administration is continued as long as there is hemodynamic improvement either based on dynamic (eg, change in pulse pressure, stroke volume variation) or static (eg, arterial pressure, heart rate) variables.
  28. 28. Vasopressors Vasopressor therapy initially to target a MAP of 65 mmHg (grade 1C). Norepinephrine as the first choice vasopressor (grade 1B).
  29. 29. Vasopressors Epinephrine (added to and potentially substituted for norepinephrine) when an additional agent is needed to maintain adequate blood pressure (grade 2B). Vasopressin 0.03 units/minute can be added to norepinephrine with intent of either raising MAP or decreasing norepinephrine dosage.
  30. 30. Vasopressors Dopamine as an alternative vasopressor agent to norepinephrine only in highly selected patients (eg, patients with low risk of tachyarrhythmias and absolute or relative bradycardia) (grade 2C).
  31. 31. Vasopressors A trial of dobutamine infusion up to 20 mg/kg/min be administered or added to vasopressor in the presence of a) myocardial dysfunction as suggested by elevated cardiac filling pressures and low cardiac output, or b) ongoing signs of hypoperfusion, despite achieving adequate intravascular volume and adequate MAP (grade 1C).
  32. 32. Corticosteroids
  33. 33. Corticosteroids Not using intravenous hydrocortisone to treat adult septic shock patients if adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy are able to restore hemodynamic stability. In case this is not achievable, we suggest intravenous hydrocortisone alone at a dose of 200 mg per day (grade 2C). When hydrocortisone is given, use continuous flow (grade 2D).
  34. 34. Blood Product Administration
  35. 35. Blood Product Administration Once tissue hypoperfusion has resolved and in the absence of extenuating circumstances, such as myocardial ischemia, severe hypoxemia, acute hemorrhage, or ischemic heart disease, we recommend that RBC transfusion occur only when hemoglobin <7.0 g/dL to target a hemoglobin of 7.0 –9.0 g/dL in adults (grade 1B).
  36. 36. Blood Product Administration In patients with severe sepsis, administer platelets prophylactically when counts are <10,000/mm3 in the absence of apparent bleeding. We suggest prophylactic platelet transfusion when counts are < 20,000/mm3 if the patient has a significant risk of bleeding. Higher platelet counts (≥50,000/mm3) are advised for active bleeding, surgery, or invasive procedures (grade 2D).
  37. 37. Regarding rhAPC
  38. 38. Glucose Control
  39. 39. Glucose Control A protocolized approach to blood glucose management in ICU patients with severe sepsis commencing insulin dosing when 2 consecutive blood glucose levels are >180 mg/dL. This protocolized approach should target an upper blood glucose ≤180 mg/dL rather than an upper target blood glucose ≤ 110 mg/dL (grade 1A).
  40. 40. Glucose Control Blood glucose values be monitored every 1–2 hrs until glucose values and insulin infusion rates are stable and then every 4 hrs thereafter (grade 1C).
  41. 41. Bicarbonate Therapy
  42. 42. Bicarbonate Therapy Not using sodium bicarbonate therapy for the purpose of improving hemodynamics or reducing vasopressor requirements in patients with hypoperfusion-induced lactic acidemia with pH ≥7.15 (grade 2B).

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