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ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
ACC/AHA 2009 STEMI/PCI Guidelines
Focused Update
ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of
Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction
(STEMI) and the ACC/AHA/SCAI Guidelines on
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
2009;54;2205-2241
Circulation.
2009;120;2271-2306
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Hospitalizations in the U.S. Due to Acute
Coronary Syndromes (ACS)
Acute Coronary
Syndromes*
1.57 Million Hospital Admissions - ACS
UA/NSTEMI† STEMI
1.24 million
Admissions per year
.33 million
Admissions per year
Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2007 Update. Circulation 2007; 115:69-171.
*Primary and secondary diagnoses. †About 0.57 million NSTEMI and 0.67 million
UA.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Class I
Benefit >>> Risk
Procedure/ Treatment
SHOULD be
performed/
administered
Class IIa
Benefit >> Risk
Additional studies
with focused
objectives needed
IT IS REASONABLE
to perform
procedure/administer
treatment
Class IIb
Benefit ≥ Risk
Additional studies with
broad objectives
needed; Additional
registry data would be
helpful
Procedure/Treatment
MAY BE
CONSIDERED
Class III
Risk ≥ Benefit
No additional studies
needed
Procedure/Treatment
should NOT be
performed/administered
SINCE IT IS NOT
HELPFUL AND MAY
BE HARMFUL
Level A: Recommendation based on evidence from multiple randomized trials or meta-analyses
Multiple (3-5) population risk strata evaluated; General consistency of direction and magnitude of
effect
Level B: Recommendation based on evidence from a single randomized trial or non-randomized studies
Limited (2-3) population risk strata evaluated
Level C: Recommendation based on expert opinion, case studies, or standard-of-care
Very limited (1-2) population risk strata evaluated
should
is recommended
is indicated
is useful/effective/
beneficial
is reasonable
can be useful/effective/
beneficial
is probably recommended or
indicated
may/might be considered
may/might be reasonable
usefulness/effectiveness is
unknown /unclear/uncertain
or not well established
is not recommended
is not indicated
should not
is not
useful/effective/beneficial
may be harmful
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for the Use
of Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa
Antagonists in STEMI
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
It is reasonable to start treatment with GP
IIb/IIIa antagonists at the time of primary PCI in
selected patients with STEMI:
abciximab
tirofiban and eptifibatide
Use of GP IIb/IIIa Antagonists in STEMI
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
Modified
Recommendation
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
The usefulness of GP IIb/IIIa antagonists (as part
of a preparatory pharmacologic strategy for
patients with STEMI prior to arrival in the
cardiac catheterization laboratory for
angiography and PCI) is uncertain.
Modified
Recommendation
Use of GP IIb/IIIa Antagonists in STEMI
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for the
Use of Thienopyridines
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Loading Doses for
Thienopyridines in Patients
with ACS
(STEMI and UA/NSTEMI)
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for the use of
Thienopyridines
A loading dose of thienopyridine is recommended for
STEMI patients for whom PCI is planned.
Regimens should be one of the following:
MODIFIED
Recommendation
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
Clopidogrel at least 300 to 600 mg should
be given as early as possible before or at the
time of primary or non-primary PCI.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
• The optimal loading dose of clopidogrel has not been
established
• Randomized clinical trials using >300mg of
clopidogrel as a loading dose for PCI in STEMI or
UA/NSTEMI have not rigorously established superior
safety or efficacy
• Clopidogrel is a prodrug which must undergo hepatic
conversion to its active metabolite for platelet
inhibition, a process taking several hours.
Recommendations for the use of
Thienopyridines
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for the use of
Thienopyridines
Prasugrel 60 mg should be given as
soon as possible for primary PCI.
MODIFIED
Recommendation
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for the use of
Thienopyridines
For STEMI patients undergoing non-primary PCI, the
following regimens are recommended:
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII a. …and has been given clopidogrel, it should be
continued as the thienopyridine of choice.
b. …without a thienopyridine, a loading dose of 300-600
mg of clopidogrel should be given as the
thienopyridine of choice.
If the patient did not receive fibrinolytic therapy…
c. …either a loading dose of 300-600 mg of clopidogrel
should be given or, once the coronary anatomy is
known and PCI is planned, a loading dose of 60 mg of
prasugrel should be given promptly and no later than 1
hour after the PCI.
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
If the patient has received fibrinolytic therapy…
MODIFIED
Rec
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
The Duration of
Thienopyridine Therapy
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Thienopyridines
The duration of thienopyridine therapy
should be as follows:
MODIFIED
Recommendation
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII a. In patients receiving a stent during PCI,
clopidogrel 75 mg qd or prasugrel 10 mg qd
should be given for at least 12 months;
b. If the risk of morbidity from bleeding
outweighs the anticipated benefit afforded
by thienopyridine therapy, earlier
discontinuation should be considered.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Thienopyridines
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
In patients taking a thienopyridine in whom CABG is
planned and can be delayed, it is recommended that
the drug be discontinued to allow for dissipation of the
antiplatelet effect.
The period of withdrawal should be at least 5 days in
patients receiving clopidogrel
and at least 7 days in patients receiving prasugrel,
… unless the need for revascularization and/or the net
benefit of the thienopyridine outweighs the potential
risks of excess bleeding.
MODIFIED Recommendation
(prasugrel added)
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Thienopyridines
MODIFIED
Recommendation
Continuation of clopidogrel or
prasugrel beyond 15 months may
be considered in patients
undergoing drug-eluting stent
placement
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Thienopyridines
NEW
Recommendation
In STEMI patients with a prior
history of stroke and TIA for
whom primary PCI is planned,
prasugrel is not recommended
as part of a dual antiplatelet
therapy regimen
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for
Use of Parenteral
Anticoagulants in Patients
with STEMI
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Use of Parenteral Anticoagulants
in STEMI
Modified
Recommendation
a. For prior treatment with UFH, additional boluses of UFH
should be administered as needed to maintain
therapeutic activated clotting time levels, taking into
account whether GP IIb/IIIa antagonists have been
administered
For patients proceeding to primary
PCI, who have been treated with
ASA and a thienopyridine,
recommended supportive
anticoagulant regimens include:
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Use of Parenteral Anticoagulants
in STEMI (cont.)
Modified
Recommendation
b. Bivalirudin is useful as support for primary PCI with or
without prior treatment with heparin.
For patients proceeding to primary
PCI, who have been treated with
ASA and a thienopyridine,
recommended supportive
anticoagulant regimens include:
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
• Bilvalirudin added as an acceptable anticoagulant for
primary PCI
• Unfractionated heparin (UFH) administration guided by:
– Therapeutic activated clotting time (ACT) levels
– Prior administration of GP IIb/IIIa antagonists
• Enoxaparin and fondaparinux unchanged from 2007
STEMI Focused Update
Use of Parenteral Anticoagulants in STEMI
Patients Proceeding to Primary PCI:
Modified Class I Recommendations
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for Triage and
Transfer for PCI for Patients with
STEMI
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for Triage and
Transfer for PCI (for STEMI)
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
NEW
Recommendation
Each community should develop a
STEMI system of care following the
standards developed for Mission
Lifeline including:
• Ongoing multidisciplinary team
meetings with EMS, non-PCI-
capable hospitals (STEMI Referral
Centers), & PCI-capable hospitals
(STEMI Receiving Centers)
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for Triage and
Transfer for PCI (for STEMI) (cont.)
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
NEW
Recommendation
STEMI system of care standards in
communities should also include:
• Process for prehospital identification
& activation
• Destination protocols to STEMI
Receiving Centers
• Transfer protocols for patients who
arrive at STEMI Referral Centers
and are primary PCI candidates,
and/or are fibrinolytic ineligible
and/or in cardiogenic shock
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for Triage and
Transfer for PCI (for STEMI) (cont.)
NEW
Recommendation
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
It is reasonable to transfer high risk
patients who receive fibrinolytic
therapy as primary reperfusion
therapy at a non-PCI capable facility
to a PCI-capable facility as soon as
possible where either PCI can be
performed when needed or as a
pharmacoinvasive strategy.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for Triage and
Transfer for PCI (for STEMI) (cont.)
NEW
Recommendation
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
Consideration should be given
to initiating a preparatory
antithrombotic (anticoagulant
plus antiplatelet) regimen prior
to and during patient transfer
to the catheterization
laboratory.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for Triage and
Transfer for PCI (for STEMI) (cont.)
Patients who are not high risk
who receive fibrinolytic therapy
as primary reperfusion therapy at
a non-PCI capable facility may
be considered for transfer to a
PCI-capable facility as soon as
possible where either PCI can be
performed when needed or as a
pharmacoinvasive strategy.
Modified
Recommendation
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Triage and Transfer for PCI: STEMI Patients
Who Are Candidates for Reperfusion
• Terms “facilitated PCI” and “rescue PCI”
no longer used for the recommendations
in this update
• Contemporary therapeutic choices
leading to reperfusion for pts with
STEMI can be described without these
potentially misleading labels
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for Triage and
Transfer for PCI: High Risk Definition
• Defined in CARESS-in-AMI as STEMI patients
with one or more high-risk features:
– extensive ST-segment elevation
– new-onset left BBB
– previous MI
– Killip class >2, or
– LVEF <35% for inferior MI;
• Anterior MI alone with 2 mm or more
ST-elevation in 2 or more leads qualifies
Di Mario et al. Lancet 2008;371.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for Triage and
Transfer for PCI: High Risk Definition
• Defined in TRANSFER-AMI as >2 mm ST-
segment elevation in 2 anterior leads or ST
elevation at least 1 mm in inferior leads with
at least one of the following:
– SBP <100 mm Hg
– heart rate >100 bpm
– Killip Class II-III
– >2 mm of ST-segment depression in the anterior
leads
– >1mm of ST elevation in right-sided lead V4
indicative of right ventricular involvement
Cantor et al. N Eng J Med 2009;360:26.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI)
2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5
STEMI patient who is a
candidate for reperfusion
Initially seen at a PCI
capable facility
Initially seen at a
non-PCI
capable facility
Send to Cath Lab for
primary PCI
(Class I, LOE:A)
Transfer for primary
PCI
(Class I, LOE:A)
Initial Treatment
with fibrinolytic
therapy
(Class 1, LOE:A)
Prep antithrombotic (anticoagulant
plus antiplatelet) regimen
Diagnostic angio
Medical
therapy only
PCI CABG
NOT HIGH RISK
Transfer to a PCI
facility may be
considered
(Class IIb,
LOE:C),
especially if
ischemic
symptoms
persist and
failure to
reperfuse is
suspected
HIGH RISK
Transfer to a PCI
facility is
reasonable for
early diagnostic
angio & possible
PCI or CABG
(Class IIa, LOE:B),
High-risk patients
as defined by 2007
STEMI Focused
Update should
undergo cath
(Class 1: LOE B)
At PCI
facility,
evaluate
for timing
of
diagnostic
angio
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI
(in STEMI)
2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5
• Those presenting to a non-PCI-capable
facility should be triaged to fibrinolytic
therapy or immediate transfer for PCI.
• Decision depends on multiple clinical
observations that allow judgment of:
– mortality risk of the STEMI
– risk of fibrinolytic therapy
– duration of the symptoms when first seen
– time required for transport to a PCI-capable facility
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI
(in STEMI)—(cont.)
2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 4
• If primary PCI is chosen, the patient will
be transferred for PCI.
• If fibrinolytic therapy is chosen, the
patient will receive the agent and a
judgment as to whether the patient is
high risk or not will be determined.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI
(in STEMI)—(cont.)
2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5
• If high risk, the patient should
receive appropriate antithrombotic
therapy and be moved immediately
to a PCI-capable facility for
diagnostic catheterization and
consideration of PCI.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI
(in STEMI)—(cont.)
2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5
• If not high risk, the patient may
be moved to a PCI-capable
facility after receiving
antithrombotic therapy, or
observed in the initial facility
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI
(in STEMI)—(cont.)
2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5
• Patients best suited for transfer for PCI are
STEMI pts:
– Presenting with high-risk features
– High bleeding risk from fibrinolytic therapy
– Late presenters 4 hrs after onset of symptoms
• Decision to transfer is a judgment made
considering the time required for transport
and the capabilities of the receiving hospital
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI
(in STEMI)—(cont.)
2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5
• STEMI pts best suited for fibrinolytic
therapy are those presenting early after
symptom onset with low bleeding risk
• After fibrinolytic therapy, if not high risk,
transfer to a PCI-capable facility may be
considered, especially if symptoms
persist and failure to reperfuse is
suspected.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI)
2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5
• The duration of symptoms should continue to
serve as a modulating factor in selecting a
reperfusion strategy for STEMI patients.
• While patients at high risk (e.g., CHF, shock,
contraindications to fibrinolytic therapy) are
best served with timely PCI, inordinate delays
between the time from symptom onset and
effective reperfusion with PCI may prove
deleterious, especially among the majority of
STEMI patients at relatively low risk.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI)
2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5
• Each community and each facility in that
community should have an agreed-upon plan
for how STEMI patients are to be treated,
including:
– which hospitals should receive STEMI patients
from EMS units capable of obtaining diagnostic
ECGs
– management at the initial receiving hospital, and
– written criteria & agreements for expeditious
transfer of patients from non-PCI-capable to PCI-
capable facilities
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for
Intensive Glucose Control
in STEMI
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Intensive Glucose Control in STEMI
NEW
Recommendation
It is reasonable to use an insulin
based regimen to achieve and
maintain glucose levels less than
180 mg/dl while avoiding
hypoglycemia for patients with
STEMI with either a complicated
or
uncomplicated course
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for
Thrombus Aspiration During
PCI for STEMI
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Thrombus Aspiration During PCI for
STEMI
NEW
Recommendation
Aspiration thrombectomy
is
reasonable for patients
undergoing primary PCI
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
PCI Focused Update Section
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for PCI for
Unprotected Left Main CAD
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
PCI for Unprotected Left Main
NEW
Recommendation
PCI of the LMA using stents as an
alternative to CABG may be
considered in patients with anatomic
conditions that are associated with
low risk of PCI procedural
complications and
Clinical conditions that predict an
increased risk of adverse surgical
outcomes
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
PCI for Unprotected Left Main
DELETED
Recommendation
It is reasonable that patients
undergoing PCI to unprotected
left
main coronary obstructions be
followed up with coronary
angiography between 2 and 6
months after PCI.
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for the
Timing of Angiography and
Antiplatelet Therapy in
UA/NSTEMI
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for the Timing of
Angiography and Antiplatelet Therapy in
UA/NSTEMI
NEW
Recommendation
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
Patients with definite or likely UA/NSTEMI
selected for an invasive approach should
receive dual-antiplatelet therapy.
Aspirin should be initiated on presentation.
Clopidogrel (before or at the time of PCI)
(Level of Evidence: A)
or
prasugrel (at the time of PCI) (Level of
Evidence: B) is recommended as a second
antiplatelet agent.
ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update
Recommendations for the Timing of
Angiography and Antiplatelet Therapy in
UA/NSTEMI
III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
NEW
Recommendation
It is reasonable for initially
stabilized high-risk patients with
UA/NSTEMI (GRACE risk score >
140) to undergo an early invasive
strategy within 12 to 24 hours of
admission. For patients not at
high risk, an early invasive
approach is also reasonable.

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ACC/AHA 2009 Guidelines for STEMI & PCI

  • 1. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update ACC/AHA 2009 STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) and the ACC/AHA/SCAI Guidelines on Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2009;54;2205-2241 Circulation. 2009;120;2271-2306
  • 2. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Hospitalizations in the U.S. Due to Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Acute Coronary Syndromes* 1.57 Million Hospital Admissions - ACS UA/NSTEMI† STEMI 1.24 million Admissions per year .33 million Admissions per year Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2007 Update. Circulation 2007; 115:69-171. *Primary and secondary diagnoses. †About 0.57 million NSTEMI and 0.67 million UA.
  • 3. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Class I Benefit >>> Risk Procedure/ Treatment SHOULD be performed/ administered Class IIa Benefit >> Risk Additional studies with focused objectives needed IT IS REASONABLE to perform procedure/administer treatment Class IIb Benefit ≥ Risk Additional studies with broad objectives needed; Additional registry data would be helpful Procedure/Treatment MAY BE CONSIDERED Class III Risk ≥ Benefit No additional studies needed Procedure/Treatment should NOT be performed/administered SINCE IT IS NOT HELPFUL AND MAY BE HARMFUL Level A: Recommendation based on evidence from multiple randomized trials or meta-analyses Multiple (3-5) population risk strata evaluated; General consistency of direction and magnitude of effect Level B: Recommendation based on evidence from a single randomized trial or non-randomized studies Limited (2-3) population risk strata evaluated Level C: Recommendation based on expert opinion, case studies, or standard-of-care Very limited (1-2) population risk strata evaluated should is recommended is indicated is useful/effective/ beneficial is reasonable can be useful/effective/ beneficial is probably recommended or indicated may/might be considered may/might be reasonable usefulness/effectiveness is unknown /unclear/uncertain or not well established is not recommended is not indicated should not is not useful/effective/beneficial may be harmful
  • 4. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for the Use of Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Antagonists in STEMI
  • 5. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update It is reasonable to start treatment with GP IIb/IIIa antagonists at the time of primary PCI in selected patients with STEMI: abciximab tirofiban and eptifibatide Use of GP IIb/IIIa Antagonists in STEMI III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII Modified Recommendation
  • 6. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII The usefulness of GP IIb/IIIa antagonists (as part of a preparatory pharmacologic strategy for patients with STEMI prior to arrival in the cardiac catheterization laboratory for angiography and PCI) is uncertain. Modified Recommendation Use of GP IIb/IIIa Antagonists in STEMI
  • 7. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for the Use of Thienopyridines
  • 8. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Loading Doses for Thienopyridines in Patients with ACS (STEMI and UA/NSTEMI)
  • 9. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for the use of Thienopyridines A loading dose of thienopyridine is recommended for STEMI patients for whom PCI is planned. Regimens should be one of the following: MODIFIED Recommendation III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII Clopidogrel at least 300 to 600 mg should be given as early as possible before or at the time of primary or non-primary PCI.
  • 10. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update • The optimal loading dose of clopidogrel has not been established • Randomized clinical trials using >300mg of clopidogrel as a loading dose for PCI in STEMI or UA/NSTEMI have not rigorously established superior safety or efficacy • Clopidogrel is a prodrug which must undergo hepatic conversion to its active metabolite for platelet inhibition, a process taking several hours. Recommendations for the use of Thienopyridines
  • 11. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for the use of Thienopyridines Prasugrel 60 mg should be given as soon as possible for primary PCI. MODIFIED Recommendation III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
  • 12. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for the use of Thienopyridines For STEMI patients undergoing non-primary PCI, the following regimens are recommended: III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII a. …and has been given clopidogrel, it should be continued as the thienopyridine of choice. b. …without a thienopyridine, a loading dose of 300-600 mg of clopidogrel should be given as the thienopyridine of choice. If the patient did not receive fibrinolytic therapy… c. …either a loading dose of 300-600 mg of clopidogrel should be given or, once the coronary anatomy is known and PCI is planned, a loading dose of 60 mg of prasugrel should be given promptly and no later than 1 hour after the PCI. III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII If the patient has received fibrinolytic therapy… MODIFIED Rec
  • 13. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update The Duration of Thienopyridine Therapy
  • 14. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Thienopyridines The duration of thienopyridine therapy should be as follows: MODIFIED Recommendation III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII a. In patients receiving a stent during PCI, clopidogrel 75 mg qd or prasugrel 10 mg qd should be given for at least 12 months; b. If the risk of morbidity from bleeding outweighs the anticipated benefit afforded by thienopyridine therapy, earlier discontinuation should be considered.
  • 15. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Thienopyridines III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII In patients taking a thienopyridine in whom CABG is planned and can be delayed, it is recommended that the drug be discontinued to allow for dissipation of the antiplatelet effect. The period of withdrawal should be at least 5 days in patients receiving clopidogrel and at least 7 days in patients receiving prasugrel, … unless the need for revascularization and/or the net benefit of the thienopyridine outweighs the potential risks of excess bleeding. MODIFIED Recommendation (prasugrel added) III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
  • 16. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Thienopyridines MODIFIED Recommendation Continuation of clopidogrel or prasugrel beyond 15 months may be considered in patients undergoing drug-eluting stent placement III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
  • 17. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Thienopyridines NEW Recommendation In STEMI patients with a prior history of stroke and TIA for whom primary PCI is planned, prasugrel is not recommended as part of a dual antiplatelet therapy regimen III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
  • 18. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for Use of Parenteral Anticoagulants in Patients with STEMI
  • 19. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Use of Parenteral Anticoagulants in STEMI Modified Recommendation a. For prior treatment with UFH, additional boluses of UFH should be administered as needed to maintain therapeutic activated clotting time levels, taking into account whether GP IIb/IIIa antagonists have been administered For patients proceeding to primary PCI, who have been treated with ASA and a thienopyridine, recommended supportive anticoagulant regimens include: III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
  • 20. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Use of Parenteral Anticoagulants in STEMI (cont.) Modified Recommendation b. Bivalirudin is useful as support for primary PCI with or without prior treatment with heparin. For patients proceeding to primary PCI, who have been treated with ASA and a thienopyridine, recommended supportive anticoagulant regimens include: III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
  • 21. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update • Bilvalirudin added as an acceptable anticoagulant for primary PCI • Unfractionated heparin (UFH) administration guided by: – Therapeutic activated clotting time (ACT) levels – Prior administration of GP IIb/IIIa antagonists • Enoxaparin and fondaparinux unchanged from 2007 STEMI Focused Update Use of Parenteral Anticoagulants in STEMI Patients Proceeding to Primary PCI: Modified Class I Recommendations
  • 22. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for Triage and Transfer for PCI for Patients with STEMI
  • 23. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for Triage and Transfer for PCI (for STEMI) III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII NEW Recommendation Each community should develop a STEMI system of care following the standards developed for Mission Lifeline including: • Ongoing multidisciplinary team meetings with EMS, non-PCI- capable hospitals (STEMI Referral Centers), & PCI-capable hospitals (STEMI Receiving Centers)
  • 24. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for Triage and Transfer for PCI (for STEMI) (cont.) III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII NEW Recommendation STEMI system of care standards in communities should also include: • Process for prehospital identification & activation • Destination protocols to STEMI Receiving Centers • Transfer protocols for patients who arrive at STEMI Referral Centers and are primary PCI candidates, and/or are fibrinolytic ineligible and/or in cardiogenic shock
  • 25. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for Triage and Transfer for PCI (for STEMI) (cont.) NEW Recommendation III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII It is reasonable to transfer high risk patients who receive fibrinolytic therapy as primary reperfusion therapy at a non-PCI capable facility to a PCI-capable facility as soon as possible where either PCI can be performed when needed or as a pharmacoinvasive strategy.
  • 26. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for Triage and Transfer for PCI (for STEMI) (cont.) NEW Recommendation III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII Consideration should be given to initiating a preparatory antithrombotic (anticoagulant plus antiplatelet) regimen prior to and during patient transfer to the catheterization laboratory.
  • 27. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for Triage and Transfer for PCI (for STEMI) (cont.) Patients who are not high risk who receive fibrinolytic therapy as primary reperfusion therapy at a non-PCI capable facility may be considered for transfer to a PCI-capable facility as soon as possible where either PCI can be performed when needed or as a pharmacoinvasive strategy. Modified Recommendation III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
  • 28. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Triage and Transfer for PCI: STEMI Patients Who Are Candidates for Reperfusion • Terms “facilitated PCI” and “rescue PCI” no longer used for the recommendations in this update • Contemporary therapeutic choices leading to reperfusion for pts with STEMI can be described without these potentially misleading labels
  • 29. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for Triage and Transfer for PCI: High Risk Definition • Defined in CARESS-in-AMI as STEMI patients with one or more high-risk features: – extensive ST-segment elevation – new-onset left BBB – previous MI – Killip class >2, or – LVEF <35% for inferior MI; • Anterior MI alone with 2 mm or more ST-elevation in 2 or more leads qualifies Di Mario et al. Lancet 2008;371.
  • 30. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for Triage and Transfer for PCI: High Risk Definition • Defined in TRANSFER-AMI as >2 mm ST- segment elevation in 2 anterior leads or ST elevation at least 1 mm in inferior leads with at least one of the following: – SBP <100 mm Hg – heart rate >100 bpm – Killip Class II-III – >2 mm of ST-segment depression in the anterior leads – >1mm of ST elevation in right-sided lead V4 indicative of right ventricular involvement Cantor et al. N Eng J Med 2009;360:26.
  • 31. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI) 2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5 STEMI patient who is a candidate for reperfusion Initially seen at a PCI capable facility Initially seen at a non-PCI capable facility Send to Cath Lab for primary PCI (Class I, LOE:A) Transfer for primary PCI (Class I, LOE:A) Initial Treatment with fibrinolytic therapy (Class 1, LOE:A) Prep antithrombotic (anticoagulant plus antiplatelet) regimen Diagnostic angio Medical therapy only PCI CABG NOT HIGH RISK Transfer to a PCI facility may be considered (Class IIb, LOE:C), especially if ischemic symptoms persist and failure to reperfuse is suspected HIGH RISK Transfer to a PCI facility is reasonable for early diagnostic angio & possible PCI or CABG (Class IIa, LOE:B), High-risk patients as defined by 2007 STEMI Focused Update should undergo cath (Class 1: LOE B) At PCI facility, evaluate for timing of diagnostic angio
  • 32. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI) 2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5 • Those presenting to a non-PCI-capable facility should be triaged to fibrinolytic therapy or immediate transfer for PCI. • Decision depends on multiple clinical observations that allow judgment of: – mortality risk of the STEMI – risk of fibrinolytic therapy – duration of the symptoms when first seen – time required for transport to a PCI-capable facility
  • 33. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI)—(cont.) 2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 4 • If primary PCI is chosen, the patient will be transferred for PCI. • If fibrinolytic therapy is chosen, the patient will receive the agent and a judgment as to whether the patient is high risk or not will be determined.
  • 34. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI)—(cont.) 2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5 • If high risk, the patient should receive appropriate antithrombotic therapy and be moved immediately to a PCI-capable facility for diagnostic catheterization and consideration of PCI.
  • 35. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI)—(cont.) 2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5 • If not high risk, the patient may be moved to a PCI-capable facility after receiving antithrombotic therapy, or observed in the initial facility
  • 36. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI)—(cont.) 2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5 • Patients best suited for transfer for PCI are STEMI pts: – Presenting with high-risk features – High bleeding risk from fibrinolytic therapy – Late presenters 4 hrs after onset of symptoms • Decision to transfer is a judgment made considering the time required for transport and the capabilities of the receiving hospital
  • 37. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Pathway: Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI)—(cont.) 2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5 • STEMI pts best suited for fibrinolytic therapy are those presenting early after symptom onset with low bleeding risk • After fibrinolytic therapy, if not high risk, transfer to a PCI-capable facility may be considered, especially if symptoms persist and failure to reperfuse is suspected.
  • 38. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI) 2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5 • The duration of symptoms should continue to serve as a modulating factor in selecting a reperfusion strategy for STEMI patients. • While patients at high risk (e.g., CHF, shock, contraindications to fibrinolytic therapy) are best served with timely PCI, inordinate delays between the time from symptom onset and effective reperfusion with PCI may prove deleterious, especially among the majority of STEMI patients at relatively low risk.
  • 39. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Triage and Transfer for PCI (in STEMI) 2009 STEMI Focused Update. Appendix 5 • Each community and each facility in that community should have an agreed-upon plan for how STEMI patients are to be treated, including: – which hospitals should receive STEMI patients from EMS units capable of obtaining diagnostic ECGs – management at the initial receiving hospital, and – written criteria & agreements for expeditious transfer of patients from non-PCI-capable to PCI- capable facilities
  • 40. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for Intensive Glucose Control in STEMI
  • 41. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Intensive Glucose Control in STEMI NEW Recommendation It is reasonable to use an insulin based regimen to achieve and maintain glucose levels less than 180 mg/dl while avoiding hypoglycemia for patients with STEMI with either a complicated or uncomplicated course III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
  • 42. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for Thrombus Aspiration During PCI for STEMI
  • 43. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Thrombus Aspiration During PCI for STEMI NEW Recommendation Aspiration thrombectomy is reasonable for patients undergoing primary PCI III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
  • 44. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update PCI Focused Update Section
  • 45. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for PCI for Unprotected Left Main CAD
  • 46. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update PCI for Unprotected Left Main NEW Recommendation PCI of the LMA using stents as an alternative to CABG may be considered in patients with anatomic conditions that are associated with low risk of PCI procedural complications and Clinical conditions that predict an increased risk of adverse surgical outcomes III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
  • 47. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update PCI for Unprotected Left Main DELETED Recommendation It is reasonable that patients undergoing PCI to unprotected left main coronary obstructions be followed up with coronary angiography between 2 and 6 months after PCI. III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII
  • 48. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for the Timing of Angiography and Antiplatelet Therapy in UA/NSTEMI
  • 49. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for the Timing of Angiography and Antiplatelet Therapy in UA/NSTEMI NEW Recommendation III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII Patients with definite or likely UA/NSTEMI selected for an invasive approach should receive dual-antiplatelet therapy. Aspirin should be initiated on presentation. Clopidogrel (before or at the time of PCI) (Level of Evidence: A) or prasugrel (at the time of PCI) (Level of Evidence: B) is recommended as a second antiplatelet agent.
  • 50. ACC/AHA 2009 Joint STEMI/PCI Guidelines Focused Update Recommendations for the Timing of Angiography and Antiplatelet Therapy in UA/NSTEMI III IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIII IIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIIIIIaIIaIIa IIbIIbIIb IIIIIIIII NEW Recommendation It is reasonable for initially stabilized high-risk patients with UA/NSTEMI (GRACE risk score > 140) to undergo an early invasive strategy within 12 to 24 hours of admission. For patients not at high risk, an early invasive approach is also reasonable.