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Partisan 
Sharing: 
Facebook 
Evidence 
and 
Societal 
Consequences 
Jisun 
An 
Social 
Computing 
Team, 
Qatar 
Computing...
Which 
one 
would 
you 
choose 
to 
read 
in 
the 
waiting 
room?
Conservative 
Neutral 
Liberal 
Republicans/conservatives 
spend 
more 
time 
with 
National 
Review; 
Democrats/liberals ...
The 
theory 
of 
selective 
exposure 
holds 
that 
people 
tend 
to 
seek 
out 
political 
information 
confirming 
their ...
SELECTIVE 
EXPOSURE: 
EXIST 
OR 
NOT? 
It 
exists: 
people 
tend 
to 
preferentially 
choose, 
read, 
and 
enjoy 
partisan...
SELECTIVE 
EXPOSURE: 
EXIST 
OR 
NOT? 
It 
exists: 
people 
tend 
to 
preferentially 
choose, 
read, 
and 
enjoy 
partisan...
What 
happens 
after 
exposure?
How 
do 
people 
react 
to 
such 
exposure?
Sharing 
is 
one 
indication 
that 
reveals 
what 
people 
act 
on 
after 
the 
exposure.
Sharing 
captures 
how 
people 
perceive 
news 
information 
in 
an 
unobtrusive 
way.
Partisan 
sharing: 
people 
tend 
to 
share 
like-­‐minded 
political 
information 
and 
avoid 
challenging 
ones.
OUR 
GOAL 
By 
looking 
at 
news 
sharing 
in 
social 
media, 
we 
aim 
to 
examine 
whether 
partisan 
sharing 
exists 
o...
HYPOTHESIS 
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sharing 
Percei...
HYPOTHESIS 
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sharing 
Percei...
HYPOTHESIS 
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sharing 
Percei...
HYPOTHESIS 
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sharing 
Percei...
NEWS 
SHARING 
IN 
FACEBOOK 
Subset 
of 
myPersonality 
users 
228,064 
US 
based 
Facebook 
users 
(4.9M 
URLs)
NEWS 
SHARING 
IN 
FACEBOOK 
Subset 
of 
myPersonality 
users 
228,064 
US 
based 
Facebook 
users 
(4.9M 
URLs)
MEASURING 
PARTISAN 
SHARING 
We 
measure 
how 
balance 
a 
user’s 
news 
sharing 
is. 
Net 
Partisan 
skew 
reflects 
par...
MEASURING 
PARTISAN 
SHARING 
We 
measure 
how 
balance 
a 
user’s 
news 
sharing 
is. 
Net 
par(san 
skew: 
ln(#conservat...
METHODOLOGY 
1. 
Facebook 
news 
consumption 
From 
a 
list 
of 
100 
news 
papers 
in 
USA 
61,977 
news 
articles 
poste...
METHODOLOGY 
1. 
Facebook 
news 
consumption 
From 
a 
list 
of 
100 
news 
papers 
in 
USA 
61,977 
news 
articles 
poste...
METHODOLOGY 
1. 
Facebook 
news 
consumption 
From 
a 
list 
of 
100 
news 
papers 
in 
USA 
61,977 
news 
articles 
poste...
METHODOLOGY 
1. 
Facebook 
news 
consumption 
From 
a 
list 
of 
100 
news 
papers 
in 
USA 
61,977 
news 
articles 
poste...
METHODOLOGY 
1. 
Facebook 
news 
consumption 
From 
a 
list 
of 
100 
news 
papers 
in 
USA 
61,977 
news 
articles 
poste...
NEWS 
SHARING 
IN 
TWITTER 
Build 
a 
VotingTime 
to 
recruit 
Twitter 
users 
71 
UK 
based 
Twitter 
users 
(1K 
politic...
METHODOLOGY 
1. 
Twitter 
news 
consumption 
From 
a 
list 
of 
100 
news 
papers 
in 
USA 
5,714 
news 
articles 
posted ...
Does 
selective 
tendency 
exist 
in 
political 
news 
sharing?
PARTISAN 
SHARING 
(POLITICS) 
0.4 
0.2 
0.0 
Political News Sharing 
-4 -2 0 2 
Density 
4+ posts 8+ posts
PARTISAN 
SHARING 
(POLITICS) 
0.4 
0.2 
0.0 
Political News Sharing 
-4 -2 0 2 
Density 
4+ posts 8+ posts 
Sharing 
Libe...
PARTISAN 
SHARING 
(POLITICS) 
Sharing 
Liberal 
news 
1.00 
0.75 
0.50 
0.25 
0.00 
Political News Sharing 
-2 0 2 
Densi...
PARTISAN 
SHARING 
(POLITICS) 
1.00 
0.75 
0.50 
0.25 
0.00 
Political News Sharing 
-2 0 2 
Density 
Liberal (n=149) Cons...
Does 
partisan 
sharing 
influence 
consumption 
of 
other 
type 
of 
news?
PARTISAN 
SHARING 
(ENTERTAINMENT) 
1.00 
0.75 
0.50 
0.25 
0.00 
Non-political News Sharing 
-5.0 -2.5 0.0 2.5 
Density 
...
NO! 
When 
sharing 
entertainment 
news, 
people 
tend 
to 
select 
outlets 
regardless 
their 
political 
beliefs. 
PARTI...
CHANGES 
ACROSS 
INDIVIDUALS 
Does 
par?san 
sharing 
change 
depending 
on 
users’ 
characteris?cs? 
Does 
an 
individual...
CHANGES 
ACROSS 
INDIVIDUALS 
Does 
par?san 
sharing 
change 
depending 
on 
users’ 
characteris?cs? 
Does 
an 
individual...
CHANGES 
ACROSS 
INDIVIDUALS 
Does 
par?san 
sharing 
change 
depending 
on 
users’ 
characteris?cs? 
Does 
an 
individual...
CHANGES 
OVER 
TIME 
Is 
partisan 
sharing 
more 
or 
less 
prevalent 
in 
politically 
salient 
periods 
(e.g., 
during 
...
VALIDATION 
WITH 
TWITTER 
DATA 
Existence: 
Partisan 
sharing 
exists. 
Changes 
across 
individual 
1. Political 
leanin...
SOCIETAL 
CONSEQUENCES 
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sha...
Will 
partisan 
sharing 
lead 
to 
polarized 
political 
attitudes?
PERCEIVED 
BIAS 
OF 
NEWS 
OUTLETS 
Ask 
respondents 
to 
which 
extent 
they 
thought 
four 
news 
outlet 
– 
BBC 
(N), 
...
PERCEIVED 
BIAS 
OF 
NEWS 
OUTLETS 
(N) 
(C) 
(L) 
(C) 
(N) 
(C) 
(L) 
(C) 
Strongly 
Biased 
Liberal 
and 
conservative 
...
POLITICAL 
KNOWLEDGE 
Ask 
respondent 
4 
small 
political 
knowledge 
quizzes 
about 
general 
UK 
political 
facts
POLITICAL 
KNOWLEDGE 
Ask 
respondent 
4 
small 
political 
knowledge 
quizzes 
about 
general 
UK 
political 
facts 
2.0 ...
POLITICAL 
KNOWLEDGE 
Ask 
respondent 
4 
small 
political 
knowledge 
quizzes 
about 
general 
UK 
political 
facts 
2.0 ...
Partisan 
sharing 
exists. 
Can 
we 
predict 
an 
individual 
net 
partisan 
skew?
Partisan 
sharing 
exists. 
Can 
we 
predict 
an 
individual 
net 
partisan 
skew? 
-­‐ News 
filtering 
system 
-­‐ Expos...
Partisan 
sharing 
exists. 
Can 
we 
predict 
an 
individual 
net 
partisan 
skew? 
-­‐ News 
filtering 
system 
-­‐ Expos...
PREDICTING 
AN 
INDIVIDUAL 
NET 
PARTISAN 
SKEW 
Three 
Facebook 
variables: 
# 
of 
Facebook 
friends, 
# 
of 
postings, ...
PREDICTING 
AN 
INDIVIDUAL 
NET 
PARTISAN 
SKEW 
|Net 
partisan 
skew| 
None 
of 
them 
was 
correlated 
for 
conservative...
PREDICTING 
AN 
INDIVIDUAL 
NET 
PARTISAN 
SKEW 
with 
perceived 
bias 
of 
news 
outlets 
BBC 
(N), 
Telegraph 
(C), 
Gua...
with 
perceived 
bias 
of 
news 
outlets 
BBC 
(N), 
Telegraph 
(C), 
Guardian 
(L), 
The 
Sun 
(C) 
Ask 
respondents 
the...
SUMMARY 
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sharing 
Perceived...
SUMMARY 
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sharing 
Perceived...
SUMMARY 
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sharing 
Perceived...
SUMMARY 
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sharing 
Perceived...
SUMMARY 
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sharing 
Perceived...
SUMMARY 
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sharing 
Nega(ve: ...
Factors Consequences 
Political leaning 
Amount of political 
news consumption 
Time 
Partisan sharing 
Nega(ve: 
related ...
About Partisan Sharing at COSN 2014
About Partisan Sharing at COSN 2014
About Partisan Sharing at COSN 2014
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About Partisan Sharing at COSN 2014

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Slides of my talk at COSN 2014
Title: Partisan Sharing: Facebook Evidence and Societal Consequences
PDF: http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.7254

Published in: Data & Analytics
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About Partisan Sharing at COSN 2014

  1. 1. Partisan Sharing: Facebook Evidence and Societal Consequences Jisun An Social Computing Team, Qatar Computing Research Institute (QCRI) with Daniele Quercia (Yahoo Labs Barcelona), Jon Crowcroft (Univ. of Cambridge) COSN 2014
  2. 2. Which one would you choose to read in the waiting room?
  3. 3. Conservative Neutral Liberal Republicans/conservatives spend more time with National Review; Democrats/liberals spend more time with The Nation.
  4. 4. The theory of selective exposure holds that people tend to seek out political information confirming their beliefs and avoid challenging information.
  5. 5. SELECTIVE EXPOSURE: EXIST OR NOT? It exists: people tend to preferentially choose, read, and enjoy partisan news. Measure what people select to read through survey & experiment on newspaper, magazine, TV/ radio programs.
  6. 6. SELECTIVE EXPOSURE: EXIST OR NOT? It exists: people tend to preferentially choose, read, and enjoy partisan news. Measure what people select to read through survey & experiment on newspaper, magazine, TV/ radio programs. It does not exists: no evidence for selective exposure in their news diet. Measure actual exposure through web log & recording & Twitter on TV/radio programs and online news.
  7. 7. What happens after exposure?
  8. 8. How do people react to such exposure?
  9. 9. Sharing is one indication that reveals what people act on after the exposure.
  10. 10. Sharing captures how people perceive news information in an unobtrusive way.
  11. 11. Partisan sharing: people tend to share like-­‐minded political information and avoid challenging ones.
  12. 12. OUR GOAL By looking at news sharing in social media, we aim to examine whether partisan sharing exists or not.
  13. 13. HYPOTHESIS Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Perceived bias of news outlets Political knowledge Voting probability
  14. 14. HYPOTHESIS Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Perceived bias of news outlets Political knowledge Voting probability
  15. 15. HYPOTHESIS Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Perceived bias of news outlets Political knowledge Voting probability
  16. 16. HYPOTHESIS Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Perceived bias of news outlets Political knowledge Voting probability
  17. 17. NEWS SHARING IN FACEBOOK Subset of myPersonality users 228,064 US based Facebook users (4.9M URLs)
  18. 18. NEWS SHARING IN FACEBOOK Subset of myPersonality users 228,064 US based Facebook users (4.9M URLs)
  19. 19. MEASURING PARTISAN SHARING We measure how balance a user’s news sharing is. Net Partisan skew reflects par?sanship and is based on which news ar?cle a user shares on the poli?cal leanings (liberal & conserva?ve) of those news ar?cles
  20. 20. MEASURING PARTISAN SHARING We measure how balance a user’s news sharing is. Net par(san skew: ln(#conservative news) - ln(#liberal news) 0 It is ±2 if, for every 7.4 (≈ e2) conservative (liberal) articles, the user shares 1 liberal (conservative) article Net Partisan skew reflects par?sanship and is based on which news ar?cle a user shares on the poli?cal leanings (liberal & conserva?ve) of those news ar?cles + Share only liberal news aritlces Share only conserva(ve news ar(cles -­‐ Share ar(cles equally on both poli(cal leaning
  21. 21. METHODOLOGY 1. Facebook news consumption From a list of 100 news papers in USA 61,977 news articles posted by 12,495 users News articles comes from 37 news sites
  22. 22. METHODOLOGY 1. Facebook news consumption From a list of 100 news papers in USA 61,977 news articles posted by 12,495 users News articles comes from 37 news sites 2. Determining media slant Classify news outlets into liberal, conservative, or center http://mondotimes.com & Shapiro’s classification
  23. 23. METHODOLOGY 1. Facebook news consumption From a list of 100 news papers in USA 61,977 news articles posted by 12,495 users News articles comes from 37 news sites 2. Determining media slant Classify news outlets into liberal, conservative, or center http://mondotimes.com & Shapiro’s classification
  24. 24. METHODOLOGY 1. Facebook news consumption From a list of 100 news papers in USA 61,977 news articles posted by 12,495 users News articles comes from 37 news sites 2. Determining media slant Classify news outlets into liberal, conservative, or center http://mondotimes.com & Shapiro’s classification 3. Only news articles about politics Topic classification using Alchemy API 12 topics: Arts Entertainment, Business, Computer Internet, Culture Politics, Gaming, Health, Law Crime, Recreation, Religion, Science Technology, Sports, Weather 37% of news articles (22,929) are classified: 42% in Culture Politics
  25. 25. METHODOLOGY 1. Facebook news consumption From a list of 100 news papers in USA 61,977 news articles posted by 12,495 users News articles comes from 37 news sites 2. Determining media slant Classify news outlets into liberal, conservative, or center http://mondotimes.com & Shapiro’s classification 3. Only news articles about politics Topic classification using Alchemy API 12 topics: Arts Entertainment, Business, Computer Internet, Culture Politics, Gaming, Health, Law Crime, Recreation, Religion, Science Technology, Sports, Weather 37% of news articles (22,929) are classified: 42% in Culture Politics 4. Measuring partisanship: Net partisan skew ln(#conservative news) - ln(#liberal news)
  26. 26. NEWS SHARING IN TWITTER Build a VotingTime to recruit Twitter users 71 UK based Twitter users (1K political news articles)
  27. 27. METHODOLOGY 1. Twitter news consumption From a list of 100 news papers in USA 5,714 news articles posted by 71 users News articles comes from 10 news sites 2. Determining media slant Classify news outlets into liberal, conservative, or center Manual coding by three UK political journalists (kappa = 0.92) 3. Only news articles about politics Topic classification using Alchemy API 12 topics: Arts Entertainment, Business, Computer Internet, Culture Politics, Gaming, Health, Law Crime, Recreation, Religion, Science Technology, Sports, Weather 17.6% in Culture Politics 4. Measuring partisanship: Net partisan skew ln(#conservative news) - ln(#liberal news)
  28. 28. Does selective tendency exist in political news sharing?
  29. 29. PARTISAN SHARING (POLITICS) 0.4 0.2 0.0 Political News Sharing -4 -2 0 2 Density 4+ posts 8+ posts
  30. 30. PARTISAN SHARING (POLITICS) 0.4 0.2 0.0 Political News Sharing -4 -2 0 2 Density 4+ posts 8+ posts Sharing Liberal news Sharing conservative news
  31. 31. PARTISAN SHARING (POLITICS) Sharing Liberal news 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00 Political News Sharing -2 0 2 Density Liberal (n=149) Conservative (n=84) 0.4 0.2 0.0 Political News Sharing -4 -2 0 2 Density 4+ posts 8+ posts Sharing conservative news YES! Users consume a considerable number of like-­‐minded political news and avoid cross-­‐cutting news.
  32. 32. PARTISAN SHARING (POLITICS) 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00 Political News Sharing -2 0 2 Density Liberal (n=149) Conservative (n=84) YES! Users consume a considerable number of like-­‐minded political news and avoid cross-­‐cutting news. 5.5 Liberal news 3.7 conservative news 0.4 0.2 0.0 Political News Sharing -4 -2 0 2 Density 4+ posts 8+ posts
  33. 33. Does partisan sharing influence consumption of other type of news?
  34. 34. PARTISAN SHARING (ENTERTAINMENT) 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00 Non-political News Sharing -5.0 -2.5 0.0 2.5 Density 4+ posts 8+ posts
  35. 35. NO! When sharing entertainment news, people tend to select outlets regardless their political beliefs. PARTISAN SHARING 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00 Non-political News Sharing -4 -2 0 2 Density Liberal (n=149) Conservative (n=84) 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00 Non-political News Sharing -5.0 -2.5 0.0 2.5 Density 4+ posts 8+ posts (ENTERTAINMENT)
  36. 36. CHANGES ACROSS INDIVIDUALS Does par?san sharing change depending on users’ characteris?cs? Does an individual net par?san skew depend on: 1) political leaning 2) amount of news consumption
  37. 37. CHANGES ACROSS INDIVIDUALS Does par?san sharing change depending on users’ characteris?cs? Does an individual net par?san skew depend on: 1) political leaning 2) amount of news consumption 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Liberal Conservative Absolute Net Partisan Skew 1.82 1.26 (t(166.54) = 5.805, p < 0.0005 YES! Conserva?ves share 43% less like-­‐minded ar?cles than liberals.
  38. 38. CHANGES ACROSS INDIVIDUALS Does par?san sharing change depending on users’ characteris?cs? Does an individual net par?san skew depend on: 1) political leaning 2) amount of news consumption 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Liberal Conservative Absolute Net Partisan Skew 1.82 1.26 (t(166.54) = 5.805, p < 0.0005 4 3 2 1 0 2 3 4 ln(# political news) Absolute Net Partisan Skew r = .46 (p < 0.001) YES! Conserva?ves share 43% less like-­‐minded ar?cles than liberals. YES! As users share more news, they also share more par?san news.
  39. 39. CHANGES OVER TIME Is partisan sharing more or less prevalent in politically salient periods (e.g., during elections)? May June 2.1 1.8 1.5 1.2 -2month -1month Election month +1month +2month -2month -1month Election month +1month +2month Absolute Net Partisan Skew States with primary election in May June Net partisanship skew is minimum in the election month and tends to increase to a stable point outside that period
  40. 40. VALIDATION WITH TWITTER DATA Existence: Partisan sharing exists. Changes across individual 1. Political leaning: Liberals tend to be more partisan (with net skew of 1.5). 2. News consumption: Those who share more are the ones with stronger partisanship.
  41. 41. SOCIETAL CONSEQUENCES Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Perceived bias of news outlets Political knowledge Voting probability
  42. 42. Will partisan sharing lead to polarized political attitudes?
  43. 43. PERCEIVED BIAS OF NEWS OUTLETS Ask respondents to which extent they thought four news outlet – BBC (N), Telegraph (C), Guardian (L), The Sun (C) – were politically biased (‘0’ mean ‘neutral’ and ‘100’ means ‘strongly biased’)
  44. 44. PERCEIVED BIAS OF NEWS OUTLETS (N) (C) (L) (C) (N) (C) (L) (C) Strongly Biased Liberal and conservative users significantly differ in their perceptions of the media’s leaning
  45. 45. POLITICAL KNOWLEDGE Ask respondent 4 small political knowledge quizzes about general UK political facts
  46. 46. POLITICAL KNOWLEDGE Ask respondent 4 small political knowledge quizzes about general UK political facts 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 <=2 >2 # correct answers Average Net Partisan Skew Those politically knowledgeable tended to be more partisan than those less knowledgeable.
  47. 47. POLITICAL KNOWLEDGE Ask respondent 4 small political knowledge quizzes about general UK political facts 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 <=2 >2 # correct answers Average Net Partisan Skew VOTING PROBABILITY 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Decided Haven't decided Decision to vote for next election Absolute Net Partisan Skew t(4.558) = 4.566, p < 0.01 Those politically knowledgeable tended to be more partisan than those less knowledgeable. UK people who have decided whether to vote are more partisan than those who remain undecided
  48. 48. Partisan sharing exists. Can we predict an individual net partisan skew?
  49. 49. Partisan sharing exists. Can we predict an individual net partisan skew? -­‐ News filtering system -­‐ Expose people to diverse information
  50. 50. Partisan sharing exists. Can we predict an individual net partisan skew? -­‐ News filtering system -­‐ Expose people to diverse information -­‐ Knowledgeable in politics -­‐ Participating to political events
  51. 51. PREDICTING AN INDIVIDUAL NET PARTISAN SKEW Three Facebook variables: # of Facebook friends, # of postings, and # of likes Three personal attributes: sex, age, and size of the city she lives in Five personality traits (OCEAN): openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism |Net partisan skew|
  52. 52. PREDICTING AN INDIVIDUAL NET PARTISAN SKEW |Net partisan skew| None of them was correlated for conservatives, while only sex was correlated for liberals. Predicting political leaning is far easier than predicting partisanship, which appears to be quite challenging.
  53. 53. PREDICTING AN INDIVIDUAL NET PARTISAN SKEW with perceived bias of news outlets BBC (N), Telegraph (C), Guardian (L), The Sun (C) Ask respondents their partisanship 0 (Labour) – 25 (liberal) -­‐-­‐ -­‐-­‐ 75 (conservative) – 100 (BNP, UKIP)
  54. 54. with perceived bias of news outlets BBC (N), Telegraph (C), Guardian (L), The Sun (C) Ask respondents their partisanship 0 (Labour) – 25 (liberal) -­‐-­‐ -­‐-­‐ 75 (conservative) – 100 (BNP, UKIP) Linear regression Coefficients: The Guardian ( biasGuardian = 0.62) and right-­‐leaning The Sun (biasTheSun= -­‐0.61). R2 = 0.44 PREDICTING AN INDIVIDUAL NET PARTISAN SKEW
  55. 55. SUMMARY Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Perceived bias of news outlets Political knowledge Voting probability
  56. 56. SUMMARY Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Perceived bias of news outlets Political knowledge Voting probability Par(san sharing exist, but selec(vity is limited to poli(cal news
  57. 57. SUMMARY Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Perceived bias of news outlets Political knowledge Voting probability Par(san sharing exist, but selec(vity is limited to poli(cal news People who are interested in poli(cs tend to have stronger par(sanship
  58. 58. SUMMARY Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Perceived bias of news outlets Political knowledge Voting probability Par(san sharing exist, but selec(vity is limited to poli(cal news People who are interested in poli(cs tend to have stronger par(sanship Poli(cal diversity increases during the elec(on period.
  59. 59. SUMMARY Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Perceived bias of news outlets Political knowledge Voting probability Par(san sharing exist, but selec(vity is limited to poli(cal news People who are interested in poli(cs tend to have stronger par(sanship Poli(cal diversity increases during the elec(on period. Nega(ve: related to distorted percep(ons of media bias
  60. 60. SUMMARY Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Nega(ve: related to distorted percep(ons Perceived bias of news outlets of media bias Political knowledge Voting probability Par(san sharing exist, but selec(vity is limited to poli(cal news People who are interested in poli(cs tend to have stronger par(sanship Poli(cal diversity increases during the elec(on period. Posi(ve: associated with people who are knowledgeable about poli(cs and are ac(vely engaged in poli(cal life
  61. 61. Factors Consequences Political leaning Amount of political news consumption Time Partisan sharing Nega(ve: related to distorted percep(ons Perceived bias of news outlets of media bias Political knowledge Voting probability Par(san sharing exist, but selec(vity is limited to poli(cal news People who are interested in poli(cs tend to have stronger par(sanship Poli(cal diversity increases during the elec(on period. Posi(ve: associated with people who are knowledgeable about poli(cs and are ac(vely engaged in poli(cal life COSN 2014 Partisan Sharing: Facebook Evidence and Societal Consequences Jisun An (Qatar Computing Research Institute, Qatar) with Daniele Quercia (Yahoo Labs Barcelona, Spain) Jon Crowcroft (University of Cambridge, UK)

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