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16 05-19-icwsm-charliehebdo-v2

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Presented at ICWSM 2016

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16 05-19-icwsm-charliehebdo-v2

  1. 1. Are you Charlie or Ahmed? Cultural pluralism in Charlie Hebdo response on Twitter Jisun An, Haewoon Kwak, Yelena Mejova, Sonia Alonso Saenz De Oger*, and Braulio Gomez Fortes** Qatar Computing Research Institute (QCRI), *: Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, Qatar, **: Deusto University, Spain ICWSM  2016
  2. 2. 2015 Charlie Hebdo Shooting
  3. 3. A radical defense of freedom of speech A defense of the compatibility between Islam and freedom of speech
  4. 4. #jesuis charlie #jesuis charlie #jesuis charlie#jesuis ahmed #jesuis ahmed What social factors contributes to reactions on Twitter?
  5. 5. Culture, religion, … Offline context Personal connection What social factors affect your opinion?
  6. 6. Clash of Civilization Density Theory Interdependence Theory Theories behind each dimension
  7. 7. Our goal: To understand the social factors that contribute to online individual behavior Clash of Civilization Density Theory Interdependence Theory
  8. 8. Our goal: To understand the social factors that contribute to online individual behavior Clash of Civilization Density Theory Interdependence Theory
  9. 9. “The fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. … The dominating source of conflict will be cultural.” by Samuel P. Huntington
  10. 10. Charlie Hebdo and Clash of civilization Western Christian civilization Islamic civilization
  11. 11. Charlie Hebdo and Clash of civilization Western Christian civilization Islamic civilization A higher proportion of pro-Muslim tweets (#JSA)
  12. 12. Charlie Hebdo and Clash of civilization Western Christian civilization Islamic civilization A higher proportion of pro-free speech tweets (#JSC)
  13. 13. Our goal: To understand the social factors that contribute to online individual behavior Clash of Civilisation Density Theory Interdependence Theory
  14. 14. Density theory “Individual behavior is density dependent and hence varies as a function of aggregate population characteristics” by huckfeldt, 2009
  15. 15. For Westerners, their behaviour or attitude towards Charlie Hebdo attack varies as a function of the % of muslim.
  16. 16. Possible reactions of Westerners by prominent of Muslim diasporas Understanding and empathy
  17. 17. Possible reactions of Westerners by prominent of Muslim diasporas U and empathy Threats and fear
  18. 18. Density theory the proportion of Muslims in the population (Aggregated population characteristic) the proportion of pro-Muslim tweets (Reaction of Westerners) [H2a] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the higher the proportion of pro-Muslim tweets. [H2a] More Muslims, More Understanding
  19. 19. Density theory the proportion of Muslims in the population the proportion of pro-Muslim tweets [H2b] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the lower the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H2b] More Muslims, More Fear
  20. 20. Our goal: To understand the social factors that contribute to online individual behavior Clash of Civilisation Density Theory Interdependence Theory
  21. 21. By interacting with others on a daily basis we negotiate relationships in order to derive some benefit, and in this process we change ourselves.
  22. 22. [H3] Within mixed Arab/non-Arab networks, users are likely to tweet similar content to that of their neighborhood. Interdependence theory
  23. 23. Density  theory Interdependence  theory Clash  of  civilization [H2a] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the higher the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H2b] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the lower the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H3] Within mixed Arab/non-Arab networks, users are likely to tweet similar content to that of their neighborhood. [H1] More pro-free speech tweets by users in Western Christian civilisation countries & more pro-Muslim tweets by users in the islamic civilisation countries.
  24. 24. Density  theory Interdependence  theory Clash  of  civilization [H2a] The higher population [H2b] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the lower the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H3] Within likely to tweet similar content to that of their neighborhood. [H1] More pro-free speech tweets by users in Christian civilisation countries tweets by users in the Western and Islamic “civilization” Location of a user Muslim identification Social network
  25. 25. Western and Islamic “civilizations”
  26. 26. 11M tweets with #CharlieHebdo, #JeSuisCharlie, and #JeSuisAhmed
  27. 27. Twitter Data #Charlie Hebdo #JeSuis Charlie #JeSuis Ahmed All Rick’s dataset 7.1M (2M) 6.5M (2M) 264K (170K) 11M (3M) Remove users having less than 2 tweets or more than 148 tweets 8.8M (1.4M) Locating users: Geotagged + Yahoo! PlaceMaker 4M (642K) 39 countries of interests 1.37M (290K) 1.62M (309K) 42K (26K) 3M (464K) Social network 932M tweets, 23M mentioned user 276M links (0.6% are reciprocal) 3M (464K)
  28. 28. IdentificationMuslim ccc VS Muslim Non-Muslim
  29. 29. Identification “94% of Arabs are Muslims” by CIA, The World Factbook 2010 Muslim Arabic *Exceptions: Iran and Turkey
  30. 30. Arabic Identification By Language: Any user who tweets in Arabic has a name in Arabic set their language on Twitter as Arabic By Arabic names in English: We build a dictionary of 4,401 Arabic names in English using baby name lexicons. majority voting with CLD2, langid.py, and LangDetect
  31. 31. Arabic Identification Out of 464K users, 5.3% of users (23,924) are “Arab”.
  32. 32. We focus on “Western” users
  33. 33. Density  theory Interdependence  theory Clash  of  civilization [H2a] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the higher the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H2b] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the lower the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H3] Within mixed Arab/non-Arab networks, users are likely to tweet similar content to that of their neighborhood. [H1] More pro-free speech tweets by users in Western Christian civilisation countries & more pro-Muslim tweets by users in the islamic civilisation countries.
  34. 34. Density  theory Interdependence  theory Clash  of  civilization [H2a] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the higher the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H2b] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the lower the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H3] likely to tweet similar content to that of their neighborhood. [H1] More pro-free speech tweets by users in Western Christian civilisation countries & more pro-Muslim tweets by users in the islamic civilisation countries.
  35. 35. Percentage of tweets mentioning each hashtags The relative proportion of #JSC to #JSA is strikingly different in two groups For Arab, 1 #JSA tweet / 10 #JSC tweet For Non-Arab, 1 #JSA tweet / 43 #JSC tweet
  36. 36. Percentage of tweets mentioning each hashtags The relative proportion of #JSC to #JSA is strikingly different in two groups For Arab, 1 #JSA tweet / 10 #JSC tweet For Non-Arab, 1 #JSA tweet / 43 #JSC tweet Support for H1?
  37. 37. Density  theory Interdependence  theory Clash  of  civilization [H2a] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the higher the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H2b] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the lower the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H3] likely to tweet similar content to that of their neighborhood. [H1] More pro-free speech tweets by users in Western Christian civilisation countries & more pro-Muslim tweets by users in the islamic civilisation countries. Weak support
  38. 38. Density  theory Interdependence  theory Clash  of  civilization [H2a] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the higher the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H2b] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the lower the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H3] likely to tweet similar content to that of their neighborhood. [H1] More pro-free speech tweets by users in Western Christian civilisation countries & more pro-Muslim tweets by users in the islamic civilisation countries. Weak support
  39. 39. The proportion of Muslims in the population vs. the proportion of pro-Islam tweets #JSA tweets #JSC + #JSA tweets
  40. 40. *we exclude Turkey and Iran r=0.745 r=0.845 r=0.675 Westerners who live in Middle Eastern countries tend to tweet more with #JSA than those who live in the West
  41. 41. *we exclude Turkey and Iran r=0.745 r=0.845 r=0.675 Westerners in the Middle East tend to tweet more with #JSA than those who live in the West Non-Arab users r=0.845
  42. 42. r=0.745 r=0.845 r=0.675 Arab in the West tend to tweet more with #JSC than those who live in the Middle East Arab users *we exclude Turkey and Iran r=0.675
  43. 43. Our data shows … r=0.845 Westerners  in   Middle-­‐east Westerners   in  West If only clash of civilisation mattered, then the group should look like this, Pseudo Graph
  44. 44. Density  theory Interdependence  theory Clash  of  civilization [H2a] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the higher the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H2b] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the lower the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H3] likely to tweet similar content to that of their neighborhood. [H1] More pro-free speech tweets by users in Western Christian civilisation countries & more pro-Muslim tweets by users in the islamic civilisation countries. Mixed Support
  45. 45. Density  theory Interdependence  theory Clash  of  civilization [H2a] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the higher the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H2b] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the lower the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H3] Within mixed Arab/non-Arab networks, users are likely to tweet similar content to that of their neighborhood. [H1] More pro-free speech tweets by users in Western Christian civilisation countries & more pro-Muslim tweets by users in the islamic civilisation countries. Mixed Support
  46. 46. A Westerner
  47. 47. ccc ccc ccc ccc ccc ccc Arab mention Arab mention Non-Arab Non-Arab Non-Arab Non-Arab Non-Arab Non-Arab A Westerner
  48. 48. Mean percentage of JSA tweets for four user groups in conditions with and without Arab mentions. How does Arab mention affect #JSA tweeting behavior?
  49. 49. Mean percentage of JSA tweets for four user groups in conditions with and without Arab mentions. The personal mentions in users’ interactions do affect 1.26 3.03 5.37 9.86 2.83 15.76
  50. 50. Pearson and Spearman correlations of % of JSA tweets to % of Arab mentions in the mention network by different user groups. More Arab mentions, more #JSA tweets
  51. 51. Density  theory Interdependence  theory Clash  of  civilization [H2a] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the higher the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H2b] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the lower the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H3] Within mixed Arab/non-Arab networks, users are likely to tweet similar content to that of their neighborhood. [H1] More pro-free speech tweets by users in Western Christian civilisation countries & more pro-Muslim tweets by users in the islamic civilisation countries. Mixed Support Support
  52. 52. Density  theory Interdependence  theory Clash  of  civilization [H2a] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the higher the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H2b] The higher the proportion of Muslims in the population, the lower the proportion of pro-Islam tweets. [H3] Within mixed Arab/non-Arab networks, users are likely to tweet similar content to that of their neighborhood. [H1] More pro-free speech tweets by users in Western Christian civilisation countries & more pro-Muslim tweets by users in the islamic civilisation countries. Mixed Support Support
  53. 53. Takeaway Clash of civilization has a mixed result, needs to be rejected or at least qualified, in favor of social context theories. Social context is important in examining online behavior. Both offline social context and personal mentions in users’ interactions do affect the likelihood of expressing an opinion favorable to #JeSuisAhmed. “Offline” distinction is a stronger predictor of online behavior.
  54. 54. QCRI Georgetown University, Qatar Deusto University, Spain @JisunAn, @haewoon, @yelenamejova Sonia Alonso Saenz De Oger Braulio Gomez Fortes Are you Charlie or Ahmed? Cultural pluralism in Charlie Hebdo response on Twitter

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