Veterinary antineoplastic drugs

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Veterinary antineoplastic drugs

  1. 1. Clinical Pharmacology of Anti-neoplastic drugs
  2. 2. Characteristics of Tumors <ul><li>Rapid rate of division and growth, </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in the rate of drug uptake or in the sensitivity of different types of cells to particular drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Retention in the malignant cells of hormonal responses characteristic of the cells from which the cancer is derived, eg, estrogen responsiveness of certain breast carcinomas . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Priniciples of anti-neoplastic therapy <ul><li>TYPE OF TUMOR TO BE TREATED </li></ul><ul><li>THE STAGE OF MALIGNANCY </li></ul><ul><li>THE CONDITION OF THE ANIMAL </li></ul><ul><li>FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS </li></ul>
  4. 4. Safe handling of anti-neoplastic agents <ul><li>Avoid inhalation during </li></ul><ul><li>transferring drugs between containers, </li></ul><ul><li>Opening drug-filled glass ampules, or </li></ul><ul><li>Crushing or splitting oral medications </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs should be prepared in a specified low-traffic area with proper ventilation where no food, drink, or tobacco products are allowed </li></ul><ul><li>3)disposal of contaminated vials, </li></ul><ul><li>syringes, </li></ul><ul><li>needles </li></ul><ul><li>Gloves </li></ul>
  5. 5. Safe handling of anti-neoplastic agents <ul><li>conscientious wearing of latex gloves during preparation or administration of drug </li></ul><ul><li>cleaning of the drug preparation area </li></ul><ul><li>Handling of excreta from animals that have received selected cytotoxic drugs to avoid skin exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid re-capping of needles containing drug residues to prevent accidental self-inoculation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Safe handling of anti-neoplastic agent <ul><li>Avoid food, drink, or any ingestible materials in the vicinity of </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug preparation areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Kennels housing treated animals for any possible contamination with these agents </li></ul><ul><li>Women of child-bearing age and pregnant women should not handle antineoplastic drugs </li></ul>
  7. 7. Classification <ul><li>Alkylating agents </li></ul><ul><li>Antimetabolites </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotic antineoplastics </li></ul><ul><li>Mitotic inhibitors </li></ul><ul><li>Harmones </li></ul><ul><li>MIscellaneous </li></ul>
  8. 8. Alkylating agents <ul><li>Mechanism of action </li></ul><ul><li>Alkylates DNA causing miscoding and cross-linking of DNA strands </li></ul><ul><li>DNA synthesis is inhibited </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclophosphamide </li></ul><ul><li>Melphalan </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorambucil </li></ul><ul><li>Carboplatin </li></ul><ul><li>Streptozotocin </li></ul><ul><li>Dacarbazine </li></ul><ul><li>Busulfan </li></ul>
  9. 9. Antimetabolites <ul><li>Mechanism of action </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits formation of tetrahydrofolate, a necessary cofactor in thymidylate synthesis, essential for DNA synthesis and repair </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrimidine analog, incorporates into DNA causing stereo hindrance and inhibition of DNA synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Methotrexate </li></ul><ul><li>Cytarobine </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorouracil </li></ul><ul><li>Dactinomycin </li></ul>
  10. 10. Antibiotic antineoplastics <ul><li>Mechanism of action </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupts helical structure and DNA template, inhibits RNA and DNA polymerases </li></ul><ul><li>DNA aggregation, oxidation, and strand breakage </li></ul><ul><li>generates oxygen radicals that cause chain scission and fragmentation of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Doxorubicin </li></ul><ul><li>Mitoxantrone </li></ul><ul><li>Bleomycin </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mitotic inhibitors <ul><li>Mechanism of action </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption of mitotic spindle apparatus and arrest of cell cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Vinblastine </li></ul><ul><li>Vincristine </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hormones <ul><li>Mechanism of action </li></ul><ul><li>inhibits mitosis in lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-estrogenic; blocks the effects of estrogen on target tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-androgenic; competes with testosterone for binding to androgen receptors </li></ul><ul><li>GnRH analog that initially stimulates, then decreases, the secretion of FSH and LH, reduced FSH and LH lead to decreased concentration of testosterone (males) and estrogen (females) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Prednisolone </li></ul><ul><li>Tamoxifen </li></ul><ul><li>Flutamide </li></ul><ul><li>Leuprolide </li></ul>
  13. 13. Miscellaneous <ul><li>Mechanism of action </li></ul><ul><li>Reacts with proteins and </li></ul><ul><li>nucleic acids, </li></ul><ul><li>forms cross-links between DNA </li></ul><ul><li>strands and between DNA&protein, </li></ul><ul><li>disrupts DNA synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Destroys adrenal zona fasciculata &zona reticularis </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Causes topoisomerase-II- mediated DNA scission </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Cisplatin </li></ul><ul><li>L-Asparginase </li></ul><ul><li>Mitotane </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroxyurea </li></ul><ul><li>Etoposide </li></ul>
  14. 14. Biologic Response Modifiers in Cancer Therapy <ul><li>Enhancing innate anti-tumor defense mechanisms of the host </li></ul><ul><li>Nonspecific immunomodulators, including bcg , levamisole and cimetidine </li></ul><ul><li>Development of lymphokines and cytokines (eg, interleukins, interferon, and tumor necrosis factor) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-tumor antibody therapy- cl/mab 231 </li></ul>

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