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PERCEPTIONPERCEPTION
2
 Perception refers to the way we try to understand the
world around us. We gather information through our five
sense organs, but perception adds meaning to these sensory
inputs.
 Perception is the process by which we organize and
interpret our sensory impressions in order to give meaning
to the environment. Here, a situation may be the same but
the interpretation of that situation by two individuals may
be immensely different.
 Perception is the set of processes by which an individual
becomes aware of and interprets information about the
environment.
3
Versions of what we seeFigure 11.2
4
What is Perceptual
Process
• The Process by which people select, organize,
interpret, retrieve and respond to information.
• The first process of perception is selection &
attention
• The process of perceptual selection is based on
internal factors & external factors
i) Internal – relating to the state of the individual
ii) External – the environment
5
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
• PROCESS OF RECEIVING STIMULI 
• PROCESS OF SELECTING STIMULI
• PROCESS OR ORGANIZING STIMULI 
• PROCESS OF INTERPRETING 
• PROCESS OF CHECKING
• PROCESS OF REACTING 
6
stimulus)External
factors Influencing
Selection
• Intensity – Adv, Strikes(generally, stimuli
which are high in intensity are perceived
more readily than those of low intensity)
• Size
• Contrast – differ from familiar
• Movement
• Repetition
• Familiarity
• Novelty
7
Internal factors
Influencing Selection
• Psychological need
• Background
• Experience
• Personality
• Self-acceptance
8
Process of Organizing
Stimuli
Grouping:
• Similarity – stimuli which are similar are put
together.
• Proximity – objects or persons closer put
together
• Closure – Triangle
• Figure – ground – tendency to keep something in
focus and the others in the background
• Perceptual Constancy – tendency to stabilize
perceptions
9
Factors that attribute to
the Process of Interpreting
• Perceptual set – Previously held
beliefs
• Stereo Typing(generally favorable or
unfavorable opinion a person holds
for a particular group of person)
• Halo Effect(opinion or attitude
towards a single person)positive &
negative halo effect.
• Perceptual defense
• (contextual factors)
10
Process of checking
• Comparing your perceptions with
other people’s
11
Process of reacting
• Impression formation – judgment
Action may be covert or overt
Covert action: the formation of opinion
Overt action: is a definite action in response to the
perception.
Limitations
1. Generalizations
2. Surroundings
3. Situational limitation – cannot show behaviors
critical for impression formation
4. Preconceived Notions
12
Selective AttentionSelective Attention
Emotions andEmotions and
BehaviorBehavior
Organization andOrganization and
InterpretationInterpretation
Perceptual Process
Model
Environmental StimuliEnvironmental Stimuli
Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling TastingFeeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting
13
14
• The perceptions and judgments regarding a person’s actions
are often significantly influenced by the assumptions we
make about the person’s internal state.
• Attribution theory refers to the ways in which we judge
people differently, depending on what meaning we attribute
to a given behaviour.
• Whenever we observe the behaviour of an individual, we
attempt to determine whether it was internally or
externally caused.
• Attributions are found to strongly affect various functions
in an organization, e.g. the process of employee performance
evaluations, nature of supervision or guidance or the general
attitude towards the organization in general.
15
• There are often some errors or biases in our judgment about others.
• When we make judgment about other people’s behaviour, we tend to
underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the
influence of internal or personal factors. This is called fundamental
attribution error.
• Another noticeable tendency, called self-serving bias, refers to the
inclination for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal
factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.

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Understanding Perception and the Perceptual Process

  • 2. 2  Perception refers to the way we try to understand the world around us. We gather information through our five sense organs, but perception adds meaning to these sensory inputs.  Perception is the process by which we organize and interpret our sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment. Here, a situation may be the same but the interpretation of that situation by two individuals may be immensely different.  Perception is the set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment.
  • 3. 3 Versions of what we seeFigure 11.2
  • 4. 4 What is Perceptual Process • The Process by which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve and respond to information. • The first process of perception is selection & attention • The process of perceptual selection is based on internal factors & external factors i) Internal – relating to the state of the individual ii) External – the environment
  • 5. 5 THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS • PROCESS OF RECEIVING STIMULI  • PROCESS OF SELECTING STIMULI • PROCESS OR ORGANIZING STIMULI  • PROCESS OF INTERPRETING  • PROCESS OF CHECKING • PROCESS OF REACTING 
  • 6. 6 stimulus)External factors Influencing Selection • Intensity – Adv, Strikes(generally, stimuli which are high in intensity are perceived more readily than those of low intensity) • Size • Contrast – differ from familiar • Movement • Repetition • Familiarity • Novelty
  • 7. 7 Internal factors Influencing Selection • Psychological need • Background • Experience • Personality • Self-acceptance
  • 8. 8 Process of Organizing Stimuli Grouping: • Similarity – stimuli which are similar are put together. • Proximity – objects or persons closer put together • Closure – Triangle • Figure – ground – tendency to keep something in focus and the others in the background • Perceptual Constancy – tendency to stabilize perceptions
  • 9. 9 Factors that attribute to the Process of Interpreting • Perceptual set – Previously held beliefs • Stereo Typing(generally favorable or unfavorable opinion a person holds for a particular group of person) • Halo Effect(opinion or attitude towards a single person)positive & negative halo effect. • Perceptual defense • (contextual factors)
  • 10. 10 Process of checking • Comparing your perceptions with other people’s
  • 11. 11 Process of reacting • Impression formation – judgment Action may be covert or overt Covert action: the formation of opinion Overt action: is a definite action in response to the perception. Limitations 1. Generalizations 2. Surroundings 3. Situational limitation – cannot show behaviors critical for impression formation 4. Preconceived Notions
  • 12. 12 Selective AttentionSelective Attention Emotions andEmotions and BehaviorBehavior Organization andOrganization and InterpretationInterpretation Perceptual Process Model Environmental StimuliEnvironmental Stimuli Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling TastingFeeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14 • The perceptions and judgments regarding a person’s actions are often significantly influenced by the assumptions we make about the person’s internal state. • Attribution theory refers to the ways in which we judge people differently, depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behaviour. • Whenever we observe the behaviour of an individual, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. • Attributions are found to strongly affect various functions in an organization, e.g. the process of employee performance evaluations, nature of supervision or guidance or the general attitude towards the organization in general.
  • 15. 15 • There are often some errors or biases in our judgment about others. • When we make judgment about other people’s behaviour, we tend to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors. This is called fundamental attribution error. • Another noticeable tendency, called self-serving bias, refers to the inclination for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.

Editor's Notes

  1. Perceptual information is gathered from : Sight, hearing, touch, taste and Smell.