RevolutionIntroductionA revolution is a fundamental change in power ororganizational structures that takes place in a relativelyshort period of time. Revolutions have occurredthrough human history and vary widely in terms of methods,duration, and motivating ideology. Their results includemajor changes in culture, economy, and socio politicalinstitutions. Revolutions can be of many types. Some of the revolutions are stated below:-Green RevolutionScientific RevolutionIndustrial RevolutionChemical Revolution
A Revolution in Great Britain During the 1700s changes in technology began based on the use of power-driven machinery. This era is called the Industrial Revolution. Factors for Success Agricultural Factors• Exploration and colonialism • Research and development on farms• Seapower • Jethro Tull, seed drill• Political stability • Improved livestock breeding• Government support • Better varieties of food crops• Growth of private investment – Increased food supply – Population grew • Enclosure movement
Britain’s Big AdvantageThe Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. • Had essential elements for economic success • Factors of production Land Labor Capital
A Revolution in Textiles Textile Industry• Beginning of Industrial Revolution• Weaving was a cottage industry• Labour performed at home• Industrialization transformed thisNew Way of Making Cloth Cloth-making in Factories• Fabric made of wool or cotton • Cottages too small• Supply of fibers increased in the • Factory invented 1700s• Slave labor in America • Power for factories?• Invention of cotton gin • Water frame for water power• Invention of spinning jenny• Invention of flying shuttle • Output increased 8x by 1770
Steam Powers the Revolution Development of Steam Coal for Steam Engines Engine • Steam engines needed large amounts of fuel• First successful steam engine in 1712 • Wood scarce• Innovations by James Watt • Coal mining industry• Steam power versus water power • Changing landscapes• Steam locomotives • Dangers of mining• Steamships• Robert Fulton
Industrialization SpreadsIndustrialization soon spread to western Europe and the United States. Otherregions did not industrialize in the 1800s. What was it about Westerncountries that encouraged them to embrace industry? Why Western America Europe Countries? • British restrictions • Belgium, 1807• Political liberty • Hamilton, 1791 • France, 1815• Freedom to compete • Samuel Slater • Germany, 1850• Rewards reaped – Water frame – Railroads• Exploitation and improvements – Slater’s Mill – Treaties • Lowell’s Mill
Industry in AsiaEventually, industry spread to Asia.• Japan first in 1868• Meiji government• The 1900s—industrialization for – China – India – Russia
Industrial RevolutionThus new innovations grew in the IndustrialRevolution. After that new innovations grew inthe 18 th and 19 thcenturies such asRoadsRailwaysMiningCoal industries Child LabourDue to this revolution in Britain it expanded inU.S.A., France, Germany, Japan etc. But, someproblems grew i.e. child labour, capitalism etc.
Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution was a period in thelate 18th and early 19th centuries when majorchanges in agriculture, manufacturing,production, and transportation had a profoundeffect on the socioeconomic and culturalconditions. It firstly took place in Britain.
Industrial RevolutionInnovationsTextiles - Cotton spinning using RichardArkwrights water frame, JamesHargreavess Spinning Jenny, and SamuelCromptons Spinning Mule (a combination ofthe Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame).Steam power - The improved steamengine invented by James Watt was initiallymainly used for pumping out mines, butfrom the 1780s was applied to powermachines.
Industrial Revolution James WattSpinning Mule Watt’s steam engine
Industrial RevolutionInnovationsIron founding - In the Iron industry, coke wasfinally applied to all stages of iron smelting,replacing charcoal. This had been achieved muchearlier for lead and copper as well as forproducing pig iron in a blast furnace, but thesecond stage in the production of bariron depended on the use of potting andstamping.Glass making - A new method of producing glass,known as the cylinder process, was developed inEurope during the early 19th century.
INDUSTRIAL POLICY Protection to Indian IndustriesIndia is probably one of the few countries in the world whichused its import policy for the healthy d e v e l o p m e n t o f local industries. Levying higher tariffs restricted imports, and there was also a total or partialphysical ban on the imports of products from outside India .During second and third year plans In this plans more emphasis was given to capital goodsindustries,machines which india wanted to develop formaking new machines,devolpment of textilemachinery,power equipment etc.
Authority Government bodies like the State Trading Corporation,Mines & Minerals Trading Corporation controls imports ofproducts. HIGH CUSTOMS TARIFFS Customs tariffs were raised in s o m e c a s e s t o 2 0 0t o 3 0 0 % o n imported products . This gave protectionto local industries.FINANCIAL STRUCTUREDevelopment of banks like Industrial finance corporation ofIndia (IFCI) 1948, Industrial development bank of India(IDBI)1964,(UTI) 1963, (LIC) 1956.•Regulations under the foreign exchange and regulationact(FERA)•Restricted foreign investment in a company to 40% .Thisensured that much of the control in companies with foreigncollaboration remained in the hands of Indians. To succeed,Indian businessmen had to learn and apply modernmanagement and production techniques.
•Encouragement to small scale industries supports like credit, marketing, technology,entrepreneurship development, fiscal financialand infrastructural support.•Shares Percentage in Final Energy Consumption Sector 1953-54 1990-91 Industry 39.8 50.4 Transport 46.2 24.5 Domestic 9.9 13.8 Agriculture 1.7 9.0 Others 2.4 2.3 Total 100.0 100.0
•First Industrial policy resolution of 1948 The first industrial policy gave emphasis to industry where state had a monopoly (arms and ammunition etc.) there also existed mixed sector industries (coal, iron and steel etc.) Government controlled industries (automobiles, heavy machinery etc.) and private industries. The industrial policy resolution also stressed the importance of cottage and small scale industries.•Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956This resolution changed mixed economy approach by givingmore importance to public sector.The resolution brought out the importance of removing regionaldisparities in our country. A sufficient attention was paid by theresolution for providing facilities to labourers. Industrial Policy1970
•National industrial policy(1970)1) This policy provided that there should be a class of coreindustries consisting of basic, critical and strategic industries ineconomy.(2) All new investment prepositions of over Rs. 5 crore shall bedeemed to be in the heavy investment sector.(3) The joint sector concept should be accepted in principle.(4) The existing policy of reservation for the small sector will becontinued.(5) The exemption limit from licensing provision will be raised toRs. 1 lakhs .
•Industrial Policy of 1980The main objectives of 1980 industrial policy were the revival ofeconomy, effective operational management of public sector,promotion of industries in rural areas, removal of regionalimbalance, concessions for industries engaged in research anddevelopment of optimum utilization of installed capacity.•Industrial Policy 1999a) Consolidate the strengths built up during the last four decades of economicplanning and to build on the gains already made.(b) Correct the weakness that may have crept in the industrial structure as ithas developed over the last four decades.(c) Maintain a sustained growth in productivity and gainful employment.(d) To attain international competitiveness government has decided toliberalize industrial licensing policy, foreign investment, foreign technologyagreement, public sector policy and MRTP for the sake of realization ofobjectives of the policy. The new industrial policy has abolished industriallicensing. The new industrial policy has also scrapped the asset limit of MRTPcompanies.
Industries in India Iron & Steel PlantsJamshedpur (TescoPlants) JharkhandBurnpur Harapur Kulti(TISCO Plants) West BengalVijay Nagar Plants KarnatakaBhadravati KarnatakaSalem Tamil NaduVishakhapatnam Plants Andhra PradeshBhilai Steel Plant ChhattisgarhRaurkela Steel Plant OrissaDurgapur Plants BengalBokaro Plants (BS), SteelLimited (BSP) Jharkhand
At last these revolutions played a great role inthe world history. The future revolution willbe 4G and we should be ready to welcome itand be a part of it.
“You cannot buy the Revolution,You cannot make the Revolution,You can only be the Revolution”. Thank You