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Cancer vaccine

its a small technical paper filled with information about cancer vaccines on which the research is being carried out effectively.

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Cancer vaccine

  1. 1. 1 CANCER VACCINES: A novel approach to cancer.
  2. 2. TOPICS OF THE DAY: Introduction Cancer statistics Immunotherapy Cancer vaccines Types of cancer vaccines Conclusion 2
  3. 3. 33 A cancer vaccine is a vaccine that treats existing cancer or prevents the development of cancer in certain high-risk individuals. Vaccines that treat existing cancer are known as therapeutic cancer vaccines. Some types of cancer, such as cervical cancer and some liver cancers, are caused by oncoviruses. Scientists have also been trying to develop vaccines against existing cancers. INTRODUCTION:
  4. 4. CANCER STATISTICS: 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 4
  5. 5. IMMUNOTHERAPY: 5 Immunotherapy is treatment that uses your body's own immune system to help fight cancer. Considered by many to be the “fourth modality of cancer treatment” after chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. Based on utilizing the patient’s immune system to fight the cancer. Cancer vaccines fall under this category of treatment.
  6. 6. CANCER VACCINES: 6 Majority used for treatment not prevention. May offer method that can enhance the immune response against cancer. Cancer Vaccines: Different than HPV vaccine and traditional prophylactic vaccines. HPV Vaccine: Immunity to the virus causing cervical cancer. Traditional prophylactic vaccines: As with the HPV vaccine, provide immunity to a particular disease. At this time, cancer vaccines are only available in clinical trials.
  7. 7. TYPES OF CANCER VACCINES: 7 Types of Cancer Vaccines Dendritic cell vaccines Antigen vaccines Tumour cell vaccine DNA vaccine Anti idiotype vaccine
  8. 8. Dendritic Cell Vaccines: 8 Dendritic cells can be generated outside of the body. Dendritic cells are made capable of recognizing antigen by gene therapy and exposure to antigen. Dendritic cells are made capable of recognizing antigen by gene therapy and exposure to antigen.
  9. 9. These vaccines are being studied in: prostate melanoma breast lung colorectal leukemia kidney
  10. 10. Antigen Vaccines: 10 This includes peptide vaccines: only one specific epitope is injected. Vast amounts of antigen can be created in laboratories. Some antigens are specific for a certain type of cancer; others may induce an immune response in several cancers. 
  11. 11. These vaccines are being studied in: 11 prostate melanoma breast ovarian colorectal pancreatic kidney
  12. 12. Anti-Idiotype Vaccines: 12 Based on the idea that antibodies can also act as antigens triggering an immune response. This idea would be used to create a vaccine in which the antibodies (which resemble the cancer cells) would be injected into the cancer patient eliciting an immune response. Primary target is LYMPHOMA.
  13. 13. DNA Vaccine: 13 Introduction of tumor genes instead of tumor antigen itself. Cells in the body take up the injected DNA. Specific antigens would then be made on a continuous basis. The idea of these vaccines is that the body would be provided with a constant supply of antigens to allow the immune response to continue against the cancer.
  14. 14. 14 prostate melanoma head neck leukemia THESE VACCINES ARE BEING STUDIED IN:
  15. 15. TUMOR CELL VACCINES: 15
  16. 16. Utilizes whole tumor cells rendered safe by irradiation. Specific immune response initiated when injected into body. Body attacks similar cells that remain in body. Autologous: removed tumor cells from patient’s own body. Allogenic:removed tumor cells from someone other than the patient. Many different epitopes are recognized. 16
  17. 17. 17 lung melanoma breast ovarian colorectal pancreatic kidney THESE VACCINES ARE BEING STUDIED IN:
  18. 18. OncoVAX by Intracel: 18 Autologous vaccine for Stage II colon cancer. Received fast-track status from FDA in 2006. STUDY: 254 patients received either OncoVAX or placebo. Improves 5-year survival and recurrence-free interval. 57.1% relative risk reduction.
  19. 19. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) by Dendreon: 19 Asymptomatic Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer (AIPC).
  20. 20. TARGET: 20 Target-prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP), which is found in 95% of prostate cancers. STUDY OF PROVENGE VS. PLACEBO: 98 men with AIPC. 3.3 month or 21% improvement in median survival. 3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP: 32% of men that receivedProvenge alive compared to21% placebo.  52% increase in survival rate.
  21. 21. Lung Cancer Vaccine at UK: 21 Dendritic cell vaccine. Study: Patients with Stage IA to IIIB were given vaccine.Patients treated prior with surgery, chemoradiation.
  22. 22. CONCLUSION: May be more effective in cancers that are not advanced. Clinically not yet at our fingertips. Much progress has been made in this area of research. More research still needs to be done including larger studies. Researchers are actively trying to overcome hurdles in the making of these vaccines. Could make a big impact on our approach to cancer. Most importantly these vaccines could mean better quality of life and longer survival for our patients!! 22
  23. 23. BOTTOM LINE: “A whole new front, in the war of cancer.’’ 23
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