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TEXTILE TESTING
METHODS
INTRODUCTION
Fabric testing is an important segment of the
textile industry. We can easily detect the faults of
machinery ...
COTTON
Cotton fiber is a single
elongated cell.
Under a microscope, cotton
fiber looks like flat, spirally
twisted ribbon-...
WOOL
Wool fiber has
irregular, roughly
cylindrical, multi cellular
structure with tapered ends.
Under a microscope, three
...
LINEN
Linen fiber, under a
microscope, looks like having
multiple sided cylindrical
filaments with fine pointed
edges.
The...
•

SILK
Silk fibers are straight and

smooth.
• Raw silk fiber, composed of two
filaments, has elliptical shape
under the ...
POLYESTER
• Polyester (aka Terylene ) is a category of polymers which
contain the ester functional group in their main cha...
NYLON
The basic microscopic appearance is generally
fine, round, smooth, and translucent.
Sometimes it has shiny appearanc...
PHYSICAL TESTS
BREAKING
STRENGTH
TEARING STRENGTH
BURSTING
STRENGTH
PILLING PROPENSITY
AIR PERMEABILITY
ABRASION
RESISTANC...
BREAKING STRENGTH
•
•

Breaking strength is the force required to
break a fabric when it is under tension (being
pulled).
...
BREAKING STRENGTH
• Mainly used for woven fabric because the tests
are unidirectional and woven fabrics have
unidirectiona...
IMPORTANCE OF BREAKING STRENGTH
TEST
• Breaking strength is important in various end
uses
such
as
automotive
safety
belts,...
TEARING STRENGTH
Tearing strength is the force required to
continue a tear or rip already stated in a fabric.
• This test ...
BURSTING STRENGTH
Bursting strength is the amount of pressure required to rupture a
fabric.

• In this test, the testing f...
PILLING PROPENSITY
Pilling is the formation of small balls of fibres called pills
on the surface of the fabric.
• Pilling ...
PILLING PROPENSITY
After each test, each of the specimen is first evaluated for pilling
usually on a 5-4-3-2-1 pilling sca...
AIR PERMEABILITY
Air permeability is the rate of air flow through a material
under a differential pressure between two fab...
VARIABLES WHICH AFFECT AIR
PERMEABILITY
Fiber content: more crimp, lower air
permeability.

Yarn size: heavier yarns, lowe...
ABRASION RESISTANCE
Abrasion resistance is the wearing away of any part of a
material when rubbed against any other materi...
CHEMICAL TESTING
• COLORFASTNESS PROPERTIES.
• CHEMICAL SOLUBILITY TEST .
COLORFASTNESS
PROPERTIES
• Used to determine the resistance of dyed or
printed fabrics to color change under various
condi...
COLORFASTNESS
PROPERTIES

Problem persists with deeper colors like red rather than
pastel colors.

There is a scale from 5...
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
COLORFASTNESS TESTS.
1. COLORFASTNESS TO SUNLIGHT .

2. COLORFASTNESS TO WASHING.
3. COLORFASTNESS TO C...
COLORFASTNESS TO SUNLIGHT
• Dyed fabrics when exposed to sunlight
will in time fade or change color. This
property is call...
COLORFASTNESS TO SUNLIGHT
• the no of hours that the specimens are in the machine
should be indicated .
• The device used ...
COLORFASTNESS TO WASHING
• A no of variations are followed to test
colorfastness to washing because there
are differences ...
COLORFASTNESS TO WASHING
• This instrument determines a materials colorfastness to
washing and staining as well as to dry ...
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE
WASHING
• The washing temperature
should have a great affect on
colors.
Often the dye is l...
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE
WASHING
• Mechanical action.
Mechanical action subjected to
laundering should also be incl...
COLORFASTNESS TO CROCKING
• Crocking is the transference of
color by rubbing from one
colored textile material to
another ...
COLORFASTNESS TO CROCKING
•The arm is rotated back & forth causing the white
crock test cloth to rub against the specimen....
COLORFASTNESS TO CROCKING
•The arm is rotated back & forth causing the white
crock test cloth to rub against the specimen....
Colorfastness to frosting
•Frosting is a localized color change produced by a
relatively severe, localized flat abrasion a...
Colorfastness to perspiration
•Perspiration may change the color of a fabric.
•Three things may take place :
1. color chan...
Colorfastness to dry cleaning
•Color may change due to dry cleaning too.
•This test indicates what will happen to the
colo...
Colorfastness to
burnt gas fumes
•Lastly, color changes due to the presence of nitrous
oxide in the atmosphere.
•Acetate i...
Chemical test
•In these types of tests , chemicals are
used as a part of the test procedure.
•the specimen is dissolved in...
Chemical solubility
test
COTTON & FLAX:
They can be differentiated by observing their
longitudinal appearance with a micro...
SILK & WOOL:
Differentiate visually
SOLVENTS

CONCENTRATION

TEMPERATURE

MINUTES

FIBER

SODIUM
5.25%
HYPOCHLORITE

20*C
...
Polyester:
SOLVENTS

CONCENTRATION

TEMPERATURE

MINUTES

FIBER

META-CRESOL

100%

139*C

5

POLYESTER

Acetate :
SOLVENT...
Rayon:
SOLVENT

CONCENTRATION TEMPERATURE

HYDROCHLORIC 38%
ACID

24*C

MINUTES

FIBER

5

RAYON

Nylon:
SOLVENTS

CONCENT...
Spandex:
SOLVENT

CONCENTRATION TEMPERATURE

MINUTES

FIBER

DIMETHYL
FORMAMIDE

100%

10

LYCRA/
SPANDEX

90*C
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textile testing methods

  1. 1. TEXTILE TESTING METHODS
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Fabric testing is an important segment of the textile industry. We can easily detect the faults of machinery and materials during test of textiles. Textile standards: Standard is a prescribed required level of performance of material. These standards are: • NFPA: National Fire Protection Association • ANSI: American National Standard Institute • ISO: International organization for
  3. 3. COTTON Cotton fiber is a single elongated cell. Under a microscope, cotton fiber looks like flat, spirally twisted ribbon-like tube with rough granular surface. Mercerized cotton does not have natural twist. The finishing process makes them swollen, straight, smooth and round with a shining surface. Microscopic view of cotton
  4. 4. WOOL Wool fiber has irregular, roughly cylindrical, multi cellular structure with tapered ends. Under a microscope, three basic layers are shownepidermis (outer layer), cortex (middle layer) and medulla (inner layer). Medulla is seen only in coarse and medium wool fibers and that too under a highly powerful MICROSCOPIC VIEW OF WOOL
  5. 5. LINEN Linen fiber, under a microscope, looks like having multiple sided cylindrical filaments with fine pointed edges. The filaments show nodes at intervals. It, in fact, looks like a bamboo stick having joints that results into a little unevenness. Microscopic view of linen/flax
  6. 6. • SILK Silk fibers are straight and smooth. • Raw silk fiber, composed of two filaments, has elliptical shape under the microscope. • The two fine and lustrous filaments are shown clearly looking like transparent rods with triangular shape. • Wild silk or tussah fiber has different appearance than the cultivated silk. It is flattened, coarse, thick and broader fiber having fine, wavy lines all across its surface whereas cultivated silk is MICROSCOPIC VIEW OF SILK
  7. 7. POLYESTER • Polyester (aka Terylene ) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. • Generally, polyester fibers are smooth and straight and the cross-section is round. • With various finishing processes, its appearance changes in context of texture and luster. MICROSCOPIC VIEW OF POLYESTER
  8. 8. NYLON The basic microscopic appearance is generally fine, round, smooth, and translucent. Sometimes it has shiny appearance. If it looks dull, it will also be dotted under the microscope. It is also produced in multilobal cross-sectional types. MICROSCOPIC VIEW OF NYLON
  9. 9. PHYSICAL TESTS BREAKING STRENGTH TEARING STRENGTH BURSTING STRENGTH PILLING PROPENSITY AIR PERMEABILITY ABRASION RESISTANCE
  10. 10. BREAKING STRENGTH • • Breaking strength is the force required to break a fabric when it is under tension (being pulled). Breaking longation is the increase in length that has occurred when the fabrics breaks.
  11. 11. BREAKING STRENGTH • Mainly used for woven fabric because the tests are unidirectional and woven fabrics have unidirectional yarns. • Factors that produce a strong fabric include fiber content, yarn size and type, weave, and yarns per inch. • Breaking strength is expressed in pounds and the elongation is expressed as a percent and in both cases a number of warp tests and weft test are performed.
  12. 12. IMPORTANCE OF BREAKING STRENGTH TEST • Breaking strength is important in various end uses such as automotive safety belts, parachute harness and pants. • Breaking strength can also be used to test the effects of destructive forces upon a woven fabric including sunlight, abrasion, laundering etc.
  13. 13. TEARING STRENGTH Tearing strength is the force required to continue a tear or rip already stated in a fabric. • This test is used mainly in woven fabrics because the test is unidirectional and woven fabrics have unidirectional yarns. • A number of tear strength test is carried out and the average is taken to determine the tear strength. • Tearing strength is expressed either in pounds or grams.
  14. 14. BURSTING STRENGTH Bursting strength is the amount of pressure required to rupture a fabric. • In this test, the testing force is applied radially and not in one direction as in breaking or tearing strength tests. • Fabrics like knits, felt, non woven, lace and netting are usually tested in this manner because these fabrics either do not have yarns or yarns are not in any given direction. • The bursting strength is expressed in pounds.
  15. 15. PILLING PROPENSITY Pilling is the formation of small balls of fibres called pills on the surface of the fabric. • Pilling occurs only when there is rubbing or an abrasive action on the surface of the fabric. • Pilling usually occurs during normal wear and also while clothes are in the dryer • Evaluation should be made taking into account the size, number, and visibility of the pills as well as the type and degree of other surface change.
  16. 16. PILLING PROPENSITY After each test, each of the specimen is first evaluated for pilling usually on a 5-4-3-2-1 pilling scale, then surface appearance is evaluated both for colour change as well as for fuzz. An average of ratings is usually taken as a result.
  17. 17. AIR PERMEABILITY Air permeability is the rate of air flow through a material under a differential pressure between two fabric surfaces. This property is important for a wide range of textile applications. With some products like curtains high air permeability is required and for other products like parachutes and gas filters air permeability required is very less. Air permeability is expressed as cubic feet per square foot of fabric at a stated pressure differential between two surfaces of fabric.
  18. 18. VARIABLES WHICH AFFECT AIR PERMEABILITY Fiber content: more crimp, lower air permeability. Yarn size: heavier yarns, lower air permeability. Yarn Twist: less twist, less air permeability. Fabric Thickness: thicker fabric, lower air permeability. Multiple layers: more layers, lower air permeability. Fabric yarns per inch or stitches per inch: greater density, lower air permeability.
  19. 19. ABRASION RESISTANCE Abrasion resistance is the wearing away of any part of a material when rubbed against any other material. Garments that are made from fibres that possess both high breaking strength and abrasion resistance can be worn often and for a long period of time before signs of physical wear appear.. Nylon is extremely high in abrasion resistance so it is used widely in action outer whereas Acetate has poor abrasion resistance so it does not last long when used for lining in jackets and coats.
  20. 20. CHEMICAL TESTING • COLORFASTNESS PROPERTIES. • CHEMICAL SOLUBILITY TEST .
  21. 21. COLORFASTNESS PROPERTIES • Used to determine the resistance of dyed or printed fabrics to color change under various conditions. •There are various reasons as to which a fabric changes colors like sunlight, pollution gases, abrasion, perspiration, dry cleaning etc. •A fabric that experiences little color alteration when exposed to a fading force is said to have a good colorfastness while if the color does not hold, then the fabric has poor colorfastness.
  22. 22. COLORFASTNESS PROPERTIES Problem persists with deeper colors like red rather than pastel colors. There is a scale from 5 to 1 for evaluating colorfastness. Class 5 means no shade change and class 1 means very great shade change. Colorfastness to light is rated on L9 to L1 scale with L9 being the best rating and L1 the worst .
  23. 23. DIFFERENT TYPES OF COLORFASTNESS TESTS. 1. COLORFASTNESS TO SUNLIGHT . 2. COLORFASTNESS TO WASHING. 3. COLORFASTNESS TO CROCKING. 4. COLORFASTNESS TO FROSTING. 5. COLORFASTNESS TO PERSPIRATION. 6. COLORFASTNESS TO DRY CLEANING. 7. COLORFASTNESS TO BURNT GAS FUMES ( GAS FADING ).
  24. 24. COLORFASTNESS TO SUNLIGHT • Dyed fabrics when exposed to sunlight will in time fade or change color. This property is called as colorfastness to sunlight. • Many apparels are tested up to 40 hours because certain fabrics have to resist the fading effect of the sun to a much greater degree.eg men's suit. • Drapery fabrics are usually tested for 8 hours whereas canopy fabrics for 160 hours.
  25. 25. COLORFASTNESS TO SUNLIGHT • the no of hours that the specimens are in the machine should be indicated . • The device used is called a weather- ometer. • This machine offers accelerated weathering and light fastness test for chemicals. • A combination of artificial light, heat & moisture is used.
  26. 26. COLORFASTNESS TO WASHING • A no of variations are followed to test colorfastness to washing because there are differences in washing procedures of different fabrics. • Eg wool fabrics cannot be washed like cottons i.e. with same considerable mechanical action in hot, soapy solutions. • The machine used is called launderometer.
  27. 27. COLORFASTNESS TO WASHING • This instrument determines a materials colorfastness to washing and staining as well as to dry cleaning . • The specimens are placed in containers in which there is either dry cleaning solvent or water. • The container rotate inside the machine, agitating the specimens.
  28. 28. IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE WASHING • The washing temperature should have a great affect on colors. Often the dye is loosened from fabrics by the action of hot water. • Additions to bath Bleaching and sodium carbonate should be included to intensify the washing action. • Time is important Articles from which dye runs should be washed without soaking and for less time so that less amount of color runs out.
  29. 29. IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE WASHING • Mechanical action. Mechanical action subjected to laundering should also be included in washing test. •Proportion of liquid. The proportion of liquid to the amount of material washed is important because if volume of liquid is too high, the material would just float without the squeezing . Whereas in smaller amount there would be twisting action.
  30. 30. COLORFASTNESS TO CROCKING • Crocking is the transference of color by rubbing from one colored textile material to another . • Similarly, printed fabrics often will crock more easily than dyed fabrics because in printed fabrics the dye is on the surface than inside the fabric. • Dark shades are more likely to crock than light colors because there is more dye in dark colors than light ones. • Wet fabrics will crock more easily than dry ones because the moisture present assists in removing the dye.
  31. 31. COLORFASTNESS TO CROCKING •The arm is rotated back & forth causing the white crock test cloth to rub against the specimen. •The cloth is removed and evaluated on a scale of 5 to 1.(class 5:negligible or no crocking; class 1 : large amount of crocking). The device used is crock meter
  32. 32. COLORFASTNESS TO CROCKING •The arm is rotated back & forth causing the white crock test cloth to rub against the specimen. •The cloth is removed and evaluated on a scale of 5 to 1.(class 5:negligible or no crocking; class 1 : large amount of crocking).
  33. 33. Colorfastness to frosting •Frosting is a localized color change produced by a relatively severe, localized flat abrasion action. Eg back pocket of a pair of trousers. •Fabrics with poor dye penetration will fade quickly from abrasion as on the surface will wear, leaving a very little color. •Blended fabric can change colors if each fiber has different abrasion resistance. •Eg in a dark grey fabric, the black cotton will abrade more quickly than a white polyester fabric, developing a light grey color. •The device used is a surface Abrader.
  34. 34. Colorfastness to perspiration •Perspiration may change the color of a fabric. •Three things may take place : 1. color change of the dyed fabric. 2. Loosening and uneven repositioning of color on colored fabric. 3. Staining of material next to the colored fabric. • • • • Perspiration maybe slightly acidic but through bacterial action, it becomes alkaline. The dye may get affected by both. The device used is the perspiration tester. a slightly acid solution on one cloth & alkaline on another is used. Both specimens are tested. The one with the most color change is used to represent the fabric and its class rating is used as a result.
  35. 35. Colorfastness to dry cleaning •Color may change due to dry cleaning too. •This test indicates what will happen to the color of textile materials after repeated commercial dry cleaning. •Perchlorethylene is used in the test: •Commonly used dry cleaning solvents. •It is slightly more severe in solvent action. •A color that may get affected by perchlorethylene will not get affected by Stoddard solvent (petroleum base). •Device used for this test is the launderometer. •Dry cleaning solvent instead of water is used as liquid.
  36. 36. Colorfastness to burnt gas fumes •Lastly, color changes due to the presence of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. •Acetate is the most susceptible to this gas. •When disperse dye is combined with acetate , severe color changes take place.eg blue which changes to purple. •Solution dyeing & inhibitors can be used to reduce or eliminate color fading . •The device used to perform the test is called gas fading chamber. •The source of burnt gas fumes is a Bunsen burner placed at the bottom of the instrument.
  37. 37. Chemical test •In these types of tests , chemicals are used as a part of the test procedure. •the specimen is dissolved in the chemical to check its solubility . •The test include : •Colorfastness •Fiber identification using the solubility test.
  38. 38. Chemical solubility test COTTON & FLAX: They can be differentiated by observing their longitudinal appearance with a microscope. CONCENTRATION TEMPERATURE MINUTES FIBER SULPHURIC ACID 70% 38*C 20 COTTON SULPHURIC ACID 70% 38*C 20 FLAX
  39. 39. SILK & WOOL: Differentiate visually SOLVENTS CONCENTRATION TEMPERATURE MINUTES FIBER SODIUM 5.25% HYPOCHLORITE 20*C 20 WOOL SODIUM 5.25 % HYPOCHLORITE 20*C 20 SILK
  40. 40. Polyester: SOLVENTS CONCENTRATION TEMPERATURE MINUTES FIBER META-CRESOL 100% 139*C 5 POLYESTER Acetate : SOLVENTS CONCENTRATION TEMPERATURE MINUTES FIBER ACETIC ACID 100% 20*C 5 ACETATE
  41. 41. Rayon: SOLVENT CONCENTRATION TEMPERATURE HYDROCHLORIC 38% ACID 24*C MINUTES FIBER 5 RAYON Nylon: SOLVENTS CONCENTRATION TEMPERATURE MINUTES FIBER META-CRESOL 100% 5 NYLON 139*C
  42. 42. Spandex: SOLVENT CONCENTRATION TEMPERATURE MINUTES FIBER DIMETHYL FORMAMIDE 100% 10 LYCRA/ SPANDEX 90*C

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