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Steps in water shed management, Problem appraisal


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Steps in water shed management, Problem appraisal, Plan formulation, selection of watershed etc

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Steps in water shed management, Problem appraisal

  1. 1. Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University class seminar on StepS in implementation of waterShed – Size and Selection of waterShed- baSic reSource SurveyS problemS appraiSal and plan formulation By Department of Agronomy Medida Sunil Kumar BAD-14-06 Agricultural College, Bapatla
  2. 2. Definition A unit of area covers all the land which contributes runoff to a common point or outlet and surrounded by a ridge line.
  3. 3. Steps in watershed management Recognition phase Restoration phase Protection phase Improvement phase
  4. 4. I. Recognition Phase Recognition of the problem Analysis of the cause of the problem and its effect. Development of alternative solutions of problem.
  5. 5. II. Restoration phase Selection of best solution to problems identified Application of the solution to the problems of the land
  6. 6. III. Protection Phase  General health of the watershed  Normal functioning  Protection is against all factors which may cause detrimental effects to watershed condition
  7. 7. IV. Improvement phase Overall improvement Agriculture, forest management & production, forage production and pasture management. Socio economic conditions Health, family planning, improving cattle, poultry, etc. are taken depending upon intensity.
  8. 8. Size Size of watershed determines the quantity of rainfall received retained and runoff. Larger the watershed, larger be the channel and storage of water in basin.  Large watershed characteristics are topography, geology, soil, climate and vegetation.
  9. 9. Types of watersheds based on sizS.e No Type of Watershed Area Covered 1 Micro Watershed 0 to 10 ha 2 Small Watershed 10 to 40 ha 3 Mini Watershed 40 to 200 ha 4 Sub Watershed 200 to 400 ha 5 Macro Watershed 400 to 1000 ha 6 River basin above 1000 ha
  10. 10. Selection of watershed area Physical criteria Social criteria
  11. 11. Physical criteria  Low soil fertility  Undulating Topography  Land degradation  Soil erosion  Depleted water table  No land treatment structures  Downstream impacts  Inappropriate agricultural Practices  Problems with flooding  Poor vegetation cover  Deforestation  High percentage of wastelands  High rainfall
  12. 12. Social criteria  Small marginal farmers  Labour availability  Credit Management skills  Tribal status  Peoples interest/response  Presence of peoples institutions  State of poverty  No other source of income  Presence of bonded labour  Inability to meet consumption needs  Presence of villages/people  Migration trends
  13. 13. Surveying It is the art of determining the relative positions of different object on the surface of the earth by measuring the horizontal distance between them and by preparing a map to any suitable scale.
  14. 14. Types of Surveying [Classification] Primary Classification or Primary Division :  Plane surveying  Geodetic surveying Plane Surveying : The shape of the earth is spherical. Thus the surface is obviously curved. But in plane surveying the curvature of earth is not taken into account. This is because plane surveying is carried out over a small area, so the surface of the earth is considered as a plane. The degree of accuracy required in this type of surveying is completely low. Plane surveying is done on an area of less than 250km2. Geodetic surveying : In geodetic surveying the curvature of the earth is taken into consideration. It is extended over a large area greater than 250km2. The line joining any two points considered as a curved line.
  15. 15. Base line data collection  Household census survey  Bio-physical survey  Village level data collection
  16. 16. problems appraisal
  17. 17. For achieving Information packets Educational presentations by technical specialists Watershed tour Discussion sessions with stakeholders and government officials
  18. 18. Problem appraisal helps bring about a more effective planning process with improved decision-making and an increased likelihood of plan implementation by Identify short-term projects to maintain momentum and build trust and confidence in the planning process. Encouraging holistic thinking by increasing understanding of watershed functions, land uses and interactions. Providing an opportunity to gather relevant social, cultural and political information about watershed communities. Initiating public outreach with non-committee members and potential partners.
  19. 19. Signs of a successful RRA  Committee members with different views had fruitful discussions.  Committee members learned about previously unknown aspects of their watershed.  Committee member are more aware of possible impacts of solutions  Committee members gained an increased sense of the importance of their task and the complexity of problems
  20. 20. Problem Appraisal Tips Conduct the problem appraisal after the committee has met a couple of times. Select a group of two or three people to do the organizing with assistance from natural resource conservation society. Brainstorm ideas from the entire committee about what they want to see and learn during the problem appraisal Limit participants in the tour portion of the problem appraisal to those that can be accommodated on a single bus. At the committee meeting after the RRA, discuss newly identified concerns, insights gained, opportunities identified, etc. Build on this information throughout the planning.
  21. 21. Stages in design and appraisal
  22. 22. Plan formulation
  23. 23. Determining management goals • Realistic goals for the proposed plan • Goals should be progressive and allow for future adjustments
  24. 24. Determining priorities and sequences • Not all watershed work can be started at the same time • Priority for sub-watersheds and works • Clear determination of priorities and sequences of work
  25. 25. Preliminary or interim reporting • Mid-point of project = concise preliminary or interim report • Omit many technical details but should emphasize important issues • Explain long-term and short-term targets • Economic assessment • General approval of the planning methodology
  26. 26. Detailed financing plans • After the government and funding agencies have agreed on the new project in principle financial plan is required • Direct investment (i.e., administration, training, fellowships, purchasing, materials, labour, transportation, etc) • Money used for production
  27. 27. Determining the contents of final report Summary and recommendations. Descriptions of watershed conditions (biophysical). Analysis of major watershed problems (biophysical, socio-economic, institutional, etc.). Watershed management needs (including goals, alternatives, strategies, and effects, etc.). Economic and other assessments (including benefit, cost analysis and others). Work programmes (including targets, work schedules, budgeting, financial arrangements and monitoring and evaluation needs). Detailed recommendations. Appendices (including methodology, techniques, maps, photos, detailed figures, etc.).
  28. 28. Preparing the final report • The preparation of a final report is the last step of the whole task. To avoid delay in its production, once the contents are determined it is necessary to make concrete and detailed decisions concerning: • The approximate length of each chapter or section. • The person or organization responsible for preparing each chapter • A deadline for draft submission and discussion. • Nomination of a chief editor and specification of his or her duties. - A final deadline for report submission.
  29. 29. END