The objective of the project! The approach: use several algorithms manipulating the same data.
Introduction To Biometrics
By:Sunil Kumar Sharma
What is Biometrics? Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of a person based on his or her physiological or behavioural characteristics.• BIO-Physical or Behavioral• METRICS-To measure characteristics
Behavioral biometrics:Speaker/voicerecognization: Analyzing vocal behaviorSignature/handwriting: Analyzing signature dynamics Keystroke/patterning: Measuring the time spacing of typed words
TWO MAIN USES1) IDENTFICATION -figure out “Who is X?” -accomplished by system performing a “one-to-many” search2) VERIFICATION -answer the question “Is this X?” -accomplished by the system performing a “one-to-one” search
Sensing Elements-The sensing element, or the input interfaceelement, is the hardware core of a biometrics system and convertshuman biological data into digital form. This could be acomplimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager or acharge coupled device (CCD) in the case of face recognition,handprint recognition or iris/retinal recognition systems; aCMOS or optical sensor in the case of fingerprint systems; or amicrophone in the case of voice recognition systems. Thesesensors capture the biometric information and convert it into adigital form that can be processed by the next stage - theprocessing elements.
Processing Elements- The processing element is generally amicroprocessor, digital signal processor or computer thatprocesses the data captured from the sensors. The processing ofthe biometric image generally involves image enhancement,normalization, template extraction, and matching/comparisonof the biometric template during enrolment and authenticationof the users.Storage Elements- The function of the storage element is tostore the enrolled template that is recalled to perform a match atthe time of authentication. For most identification solutions(1:N), the storage element would be random access memory(RAM) or flash EPROM or some other form of memory IC,and in some other cases it could be a data server. In the case ofverification (1:1), a removable storage element like a contact orcontactless smart card can be used.
Interface Elements- Finally, there is the output interfaceelement, which will communicate the decision of the biometricsystem to the interfaced asset to enable access to the user. Thiscan be a simple serial communication protocol like RS232, or thehigher bandwidth USB protocol. It could also be the TCP/IPprotocol via a wired medium like 10/100 Ethernet or through awireless medium using either the 802.11b protocol, ISM RFband, RFID, Bluetooth, or one of the many cellular protocols.
Biometric sensor:-acquire images .Preprocessing:-reference points extraction , contour spacing , binayrization.Feature extraction:-removal of noise , convert data intonumeric feature template.Matcher:- - Compare extracted template with previously enrolled templates. - Determine degree of similarity & output matching score.Decision:-matching score compare with threshold.
Biometrics – How do they work? Although biometric technologies differ, they all work in a similar fashion: The user submits a sample that is an identifiable, unprocessed image or recording of the physiological or behavioral biometric via an acquisition device (for example, a scanner or camera) This biometric is then processed to extract information about distinctive features to create a trial template or verification template Templates are large number sequences. The trial template is the user’s “password.”
An Example: A Multi-model System Sensors Extractors Classifiers Negotiator ID Accept/ Reject Face Face Face Extractor Feature MLP 2D (bmp) AND Voice Voice Voice Extractor Feature MLP 1D (wav)Objective: to build a hybrid and expandable biometric app. prototypePotential: be a middleware and a research tool
A Few Definitions Total False Acceptence FAR = Total False Attempts Total False Rejection FRR = Total True Attempts EER is where FAR=FRR
Threshold Analysis Minimum cost FAR and FRR vs. Threshold
Practical Usages✓ Government—Passports, national identification (ID) cards, voter cards, driver’s licenses, social services.✓ Transportation—Airport security, boarding passes, and commercial driver’s licenses✓ Healthcare—Medical insurance cards, patient/employee identity cards✓ Financial—Bankcards, ATM cards, credit cards, and debit cards✓ Retail and gaming—Retail programs, such as check cashing, loyalty rewards and promotional cards, and gaming systems for access management and VIP programs✓ Security—Access control and identity verifications, including time and attendance
Conclusion1. All authentication methods are prone to errors. Nevertheless, reliable user authentication must ensure that an attacker cannot masquerade as a legitimate user2. Biometrics is uniquely bound to individuals and may offer organizations a stronger method of authentication.3. Possibly in the near future, you will not have to remember PINs and passwords and keys in your bags or pockets will be things of the past.