AcknowledgementsThis project would not have been a success without the guidance and motivation of all mymentors. I am thankful to all the persons behind this project.I would like to express my gratefulness to Ms. Shivani Sood, who acted as amentor throughout my project for providing me valuable information andguidance. Secondly, I would like to thank Ms. Renu Bhargava who have been very helpful in facilitating my site visits and encouraged at every instant.Last but not the least; I would like to thank my classmates & my family for motivating me all thetime throughout this project. Suneeta Bodapati Interior Designing – JD Institute, Noida 3
IntroductionFundamentally, Interior designers must know about the building materials that will be used tocreate and furnish the space, how texture, color, lighting and other factors combine and interactto make a space.The aim of this project was to understand about different types of the basic building materials i.e.wood, bricks, glass, sand, steel, stone, concrete & Bamboo.This report explores the basic properties of building materials featuringTimber, Glass, Stone, Brick, Steel and Concrete. Common uses of these building material is alsocovered.Prices of these building material is based on the survey report by Builders Association of Indiaand are subject to change based on type, supplier and location of sale. 4
TimberTimber is a live material. Its properties are anisotropic, they change with changes inenvironmental conditions and load duration has also a significant effect upon strength anddeformation. The properties not only vary from species to species but even within a particularspecies. Due to climatic differences and different forestry practices, spruce from NorthernEurope, for example, has different properties than spruce from Southern Europe. To be able todesign timber structures successfully, the practicing engineer needs to be aware of the particularproperties of the timber being specified.
Timber - Properties1. Flexibility and Strength:This property is due to the abundance of interlocked fibers to provide strength. The direction andstructure of the cells also effects the strength of the timber, straight grained timber is strongerthan a cross grained or wavy timber. Defects like cracks, decay or a knot will decrease thestrength of the timber.2. Toughness:Toughness is the ability of timber to change its shape. It is dependent on the strength andelasticity so that it can be bent without breaking. A timber that has been used for steam bentwork is Beech as it has these two properties. A timber is tough if it has an interlocked cellstructure that makes it difficult to split.3. Durability:Durability is being able to withstand disease or insect attack. Impregnated in the cell walls duringgrowth are chemical substances, oils, resins that cause the timber to be durable. Impregnatingthe wood with a suitable preservative can increase durability. Softwoods/Hardwoods and light orheavy timbers can all be durable.
Timber - Properties4. Hardness:This can be gauged in different ways. The timbers resistance to nails, the difficulty in sawing andworking, and the resistance to wear. As a rule, hardwoods are more resistant to wear thansoftwoods as they have small thick walled cells, and the softwoods generally have thin walledcells. The thickness of the cell wall and the smallness of the cell cavities make the wood hard. Themoisture content of the wood and the maturity of the timber also affects the hardness.5. Density or Weight:Heavy timbers have thick cell walls and small cell cavities; this means that it is made up of a lot ofwood substance and little air. Whereas light timbers have thin cell walls and large cavities, thesehave little wood and a lot of air. Balsa is an excellent example of light timber as only 7% of itsvolume is solid wood, the remaining is air cavities.6. Resistance to Fire:All timber or wood burns, but as we have learnt, different timbers can have extremely differentproperties. The denser the timber the longer it takes to ignite. Jarrah, Teak and Kauri are all denseand partially fire resistant and can be used in construction. Chemical treatments are available toapply to timber providing added fire resistances as well as specialised fire resistant paintproducts.
Timber - Properties7. Smell:Whilst being planed or sawn several timbers have strong distinctive smells. Certain oils beingpresent in the wood usually cause this. Some people can recognize a timber from its scent alone.Some scents are very useful for example cedar and camphorwood have an smell that is pleasantto us but not to insects therefore they are an ideal timber for making clothes chests. This worksboth ways as some timbers have a very unpleasant smell, e.g. the Australian Walnut andStinkwood, which would not be desirable as clothes chests.
Timber - Uses1. Timber flooring:A very popular flooring that cannot be matched for its lasting beauty and durability. The boardsare all pre-finished with coating already applied, so it can be installed in half the time oftraditional flooring.Pre-finished engineered flooring also comes in Raw, so you can choose the level of gloss asrequired.Pre-finished engineered flooring is comprised of 4 or 5 layers of timbers fused together into longplanks then pre-finished ready to lay.Even though pre-finished, the boards can be sanded many times giving them the same lifespan astraditional timber flooring.
Timber - Uses2. Timber Elements:If you have a timber floor then you might want to add some timber elements. Timber elementscan be almost anything from a coat rack through to ceiling fans. They create an air of class as wellas a natural look for your home. However, if you are using many different timber elements thereare many different colors and shades so you want your timber elements to match.
Timber - Uses3. Timber Outdoors:Timber features are extremely popular for outdoor use but they will need to be treated in orderto prevent warping, staining and general degradation.Timber decks look amazing and they create a more easily maintained entertainment space andare often being used to replace some grassed areas. It is much easier to use some decking oilevery six months rather than mow the lawn every week.
Timber - Uses4. Timber in the Kitchen:Timber in the kitchen can sometimes look a little dated but if you use it in combination withother modern elements it can look amazing. Ornate kitchen cabinets are out but chunky timbercupboards look great and wooden bench tops can be amazing. However, some of these optionswill be more costly than traditional kitchen options such as stainless steel or tiles.
Timber - Uses5. Timber in the Bathroom:Timber in the bathroom can work well but like outdoor timber it needs to be done carefully. Dueto the amount of moisture in a bathroom there is a huge risk of warped timber and evenmoisture rot. It is best to consult with a professional before installing anything timber in a wetarea.
Timber - Uses6. Furniture:Wood veneers are ideal for doors, panels and curved surfaces as they are thin and can be gluedover the edges and rounded surfaces. They are used a lot in furniture.
GlassInterior designing can never be made much stylish and elegant without glass usage. As glassprovides all the possible ways to decorate your home furniture, kitchens, floors, doors withecstatic looks, and your home beauty would be further refurbished. Even your office writingboards, signage, lobbies, and staircases can be made vibrant while embellishing with the varioustype of interior glass solutions available on the go.Interior designing glasses are the decorative glasses that use the combinations ofcolor, transparency and ample lighting to beautify your interiors with stylish looks.The interior designing glasses are available in plethora of options of range, color and style. Theyare broadly classified into the following categories:1. Lacquered/ Colored glass2. Patterned glass (with clear patterns)3. Décor glassThe various types of these interiors have wide range of applications and can bepartitioned, paneled to suit your taste in your office or home location.
Glass - Properties1. Weight:Glass, like water, can be deceptively heavy even in relatively small physical sizes. Glass has adensity of 2,500 kilograms per cubic meter, making it approximately 2.5 times heavier than theequivalent volume of water and heavier for its size than many other building materials. Theweight aspect of glass means that window frames and other structural elements need to bespecifically designed for their glazing role. Specialist products, laminate units and double glazingcan be exceptionally heavy in large units and need specific safety, handling, mounting andengineering consideration.2. Chemical Resistance:Glass will resist most acids with the exception of hydrofluoric, and at high temperaturesphosphoric acid. Alkalis will attack the surface of unprotected glass. General water-born materialsfrom surrounding surfaces and the atmosphere may leave deposits on glass, these should beremoved for longevity and optimal performance.
Glass - Properties3. Strength:Glass is a strong building material with greater capacity to resist compression than stretching orsudden impact. Specialty products, outlined in detail on the Viridian Glass website, are producedwith enhancements that add to the natural strength of float glass. Typical float glass may have thefollowing properties:Compressive strength – 248 Mpa for a 25mm cube.Tensile strength – 20 Mpa as a modulus of rupture.Impact strength – Highly variable depending upon shape, hardness and velocity of impactingobject.Hardness scale – Around 6.0 on Moh’s scale of .4. Conductivity:Glass is generally a poor conductor of electricity, with volume electrical resistivity of310,000,000,000 Ωm. Glass is a better conductor of heat, a typical thermal conductivity measure(U Value) of 5.9 W/m2°K for 6mm thick float glass (determined under AFRC 100-2001environmental conditions and varying slightly with thickness). The thermal conductivity ofstandard glass is a potential problem for energy efficient building that is addressed by coatingtechnology and double glazing (see our posts on Energy Management with Glass).
Glass - Properties5. Light Transmission:Clear glass is not completely transparent, a 6mm-thick piece of clear float glass will capturearound 13-percent of light within the visible spectrum, allowing 87-percent of the visible light topass through it. As the wave-length of light moves away from the visible range, the transmissionchanges and for many frequencies, glass is quite opaque. Almost as though it was created for ourviewing pleasure and natural light transmission. Glass is relatively transparent to short wave infra-red but opaque to long-wave infra-red. Float glass transmits very little in the short-wave length ofthe ultraviolet band but transmission increases as the boundary with the visible light spectrum isapproached (in all cases, transmission varies with glass type and thickness).6. Temperature PerformanceGlass is created at high temperature (see our post on Manufacturing Float Glass) and will returnto liquid form if heated sufficiently. This can be a problem for fire-resistance. Glass products madefor fire protection are enhanced with the addition of substrates, laminates and othertechnologies to maintain rigidity at high temperature. The most common temperature issue withglass is not ‘high temperature’ but ‘thermal endurance’. Normal 6mm-thick float glass will ruptureif heated to 75-degrees Celsius and plunged into 20-degree Celsius water (a temperaturedifferential of 55 degrees). For this reason many glass products are toughened. Toughened floatglass has a temperature differential of around 250 degrees.
1. Lacquered glass: Glass – UsesLacquered glass is a colored glass with high durability giving your interiors with a fresh andrejuvenated look.Usage: The lacquered types have significant applications in interior wall paneling offices andhouses. They are graded as the best decorative glasses and ideal materials to embellishreceptions, lifts and are available in colors such as ivory, black, almond green, solar yellow, extrawhite, etc.The colored glasses also have wide usages in wardrobes, cupboard of your homes andsignages, writing boards in your offices. They are again helpful in cladding and can be easilymaintained and installed.The lacquered glasses play a significant role in humid and UV resistance. They are hygienic, easilymaintained and are resistant to discoloration .As they are devoid of many chemicals such aslead, copper, arsenic, etc, they play a vital role in enhancing the environmental friendliness andsustainability. They can be cut, polished, laminated, screen printed for modern and trendyinteriors.
2. Patterned glass: Glass – UsesThe patterned glasses have precise geometric patterns that allow optimized lights into theinteriors.Usage: The patterned glasses are the appropriate ones to the kitchenshutters, workstations, windows & shelves. They give vibrancy in shop fittings, furniture and areavailable with clear finishes.The textured / patterned glasses are the ones that give privacy with translucency. They enhancethe aesthetics by its diffusing properties and make the interiors vibrant to the full.The patterned glasses can be bent, laminated, double-glazed, etc and have controlled geometricstructures for our applications.
3. Decor glass: Glass – UsesThese are the textured glasses that are designed with creativity and available in various patterns.It works by the process of diffusing lights into the interiors creating a vibrant environment.Usage: These are the apt ones for your kitchens, workstations that enhance the aesthetics to thefull. Even it has myriad of uses in windows, shop fittings, furniture for creating stunning interiorenvironment.The décor glasses have fantabulous aesthetics and provide privacy without sacrificing the benefitsof natural light.They have huge mechanical strength and provide optimal light transmittance with translucency.
StoneMaterials that are originally from nature are the ones that makes home feel fabulous. Rock is oneof those materials. Whether it is in the raw sense for a rustic fireplace or it has been polishedsmooth into beautiful accents around a master bath tub. Rock is one of the oldest homematerials since the beginning of civilization and it remains a timeless classic for years to come.Stone is an amazing material for home improvements and commercial designs.Stone is a timeless material which will never date (if selected right). Natural stone has to bequarried, cut and finished. There are many types available which are really made by nature. Someof them are created by volcanoes and lava, some of the are created by riverbeds and oceans.There are many different types of stone with different properties and applications
Stone - Properties1. Strength & Durability:The more compact grained and heavier a stone the harder it is. Due to alternate wetting anddrying the resulting crushing strength can be reduced even up to 30-40%. Being dry stones allowmore crushing strength than when wet.2. Porosity:Porosity is the ratio of pores (micro-voids) in the stone, to its total solid volume. Pores and thecapillary structure develop differently in each of the three stone groups. Dense and compactstones have very few or no pores in them. An important feature of sedimentary rocks is theirporosity. Pores are natural holes in the stones which allow fluids like rainwater to enter and leavethe fabric. Some free fluid flow through a rock is necessary to maintain the rocks durability, and itis not always advisable to block such flow by using incorrect mortar mixes or by injectingunsuitable synthetic fluids.Very high porosities, however, may allow excessive volumes of corrosive fluids such as acidrainwater to enter and cause severe damage to the rock. Thin section rock analysis can identifywhere such problems are likely to occur. Most durable sedimentary building stones commonlyhave moderate porosity.
Stone - Properties3. Permeability:Associated with stones porosity is its permeability. This is the extent to which the pores andcapillary structures are interconnected throughout the stone. These networks, theirsize, structure and orientation affect the degree and depth to which moisture, vapors and liquidscan be absorb into the interior of the stone or migrate from the substrate by capillary actionthrough the stone.Permeability is increased when a stone is highly fractured or the veining material is soft or grainy.A particular variety of stone may be highly permeable (a well defined interconnected network ofpores), although its porosity is low (a low percentage of voids).The size and shapes of pores and the capillary structure differs in stones and is an importantfactor in relation to stone decay.
Stone - Properties4. Hardness:Hardness is the property of a material to avoid and resist scratching. It is determined bycomparison with the standard minerals of the MoH’s (Measurement of Hardness) scale. Theobjective of the MOH Scale is to measure stones resistance to hardness.MOH Scale: Talc, Gypsum, Calcite (Most Marbles), Fluorite, Apatite, Feldspar (Granite), Quartz(Granite), Topaz, Corundum, Diamond5. WeatheringIt is a complex interaction of physical, chemical and biological processes that alters the stone insome general or specific way. The physical properties of stone differs widely between stonegroups and even within the same stone type.The mineral composition, textural differences, varying degrees of hardness and pore/capillarystructure are the main reasons why stone nor all the surface of the same stone shows signs ofalteration the same and evenly. These minerals can be broken down, dissolved or converted tonew minerals by a variety of processes which are grouped as Mechanical and Chemical. Intensityand duration are two key elements that govern to what extent weathering reactions will have onstone.
Stone - Properties6. Absorbency:It is the result of these two properties (permeability and porosity). Absorbency is an importantdetermining factor in stones sensitivity to stains. The size of the pores, their orientation, how wellthey are networked and the type of finish the stone has are important contributing factors to astones overall absorbency. In relation to clean-ability this factor is more important than howporous a stone is. Honed and textured surfaces are more susceptible to soiling and staining dueto the fact that there are more open pores at the surface than a highly polished finish.
Stone - Uses1. Building and decorative stone:Stone used for its resistance to weather or its aesthetic appeal – walls and decorative purposes.Buildings, walls, paving slabs.2. Aggregates:Stone used for its strong physical properties – crushed and sorted into various sizes for use inconcrete, coated with bitumen to make asphalt or used dry as bulk fill in construction. Mostlyused in roads, concrete and building products.
Stone - Uses3. Other uses:Stone walls, Roof tile in the form of slates, Murram for covering and flooring of road surface
BricksMore than ever, architects, builders and clients appreciate the beauty and flexibility brick adds tointerior designs. From churches to restaurants to conference centers, interiors that incorporatebrickwork into their designs enhance intimacy and communicates a homey, comfortable feelingto all its visitors.
Bricks – Properties1. Feel:Hard - molded clay is baked at a very high temperature to form bricksBricks are roughish, dry and looks dullEasy to handle - bricks are all the same regular shape and size making them easy to carry andbuild2. Resists:Cold - brick keeps in heat (insulates)Electricity - they will not carry an electrical chargeWeather - bricks are hard-wearing and reasonably weatherproofFire - they will blacken but not burn. A number of bricks burnt black in the simple kilns3. Changes:If frozen - bricks are not waterproof and will slowly absorb water - if the water freezes andtherefore expands then the ice will lead to the bricks flaking and breaking upIf knocked - bricks are brittle and will shatter - some bricks are stronger than others dependingon the sort of clay used
Bricks – Uses1. Bricks in building construction:Various types of bricks such as common burnt clay bricks, sand lime bricks, fly ash bricks, concretebricks, and fire clay bricks are used for construction of buildings. Among these types, commonburnt clay bricks are recommended for building a house. Red clay bricks have been in use frommany years for home constructions. The red bricks are much heat resistant and hence arepreferred in India.
Bricks – Uses2. Indoor exposed brick work:Many people like the appearance of bare bricks inside their house too. Why not try installing anexposed brick wall. Admittedly, this works best if you live in historical areas where exposed brickis commonplace, rather than an ultra modern apartment development.
Bricks – Uses3. Brickwork garden path:A garden path can look amazing when constructed from bricks. You really can let yourimagination run wild when it comes to the pattern you want the bricks layed in. You dont evenhave to have a completely brick covered path either as you can mix the bricks with other buildingmaterials to add an extra special visual impact.
SteelOf all the different metals and materials that we use, steel is by far the most important. Whensteel was developed, it revolutionized the American iron industry. With it cameskyscrapers, stronger and longer bridges, and railroad tracks that did not collapse. Steel ismanufactured from pig iron by decreasing the amount of carbon and other impurities and addingspecific amounts of alloying elements.
Steel – Properties1. Ductile:Steel is tough and ductile, easily machined, formed, and welded. It does not respond to any formof heat treating.2. Tough:These alloys are used in structures where the strength of material is especially important. Bridgemembers, rail-road cars, dump bodies3. Corrosion resistant:Some of these steels are so highly resistant to wear that they are used for the races and balls inantifriction bearings. Chro-mium steels are highly resistant to corrosion and to scale.
Steel – Uses1. Residential Steel:In residential construction, steel is actually gaining popularity. In the past, builders preferredwood over steel for framing residential buildings, but its durability has some builders looking tosteel as an alternative. We use steel for structural work, such as beams, purloin and girders. Assheet steel for cladding, such as in furniture or stainless steel bench tops and backsplashes alsofor component work such as brackets, screws and hardware.
Steel – Uses2. Rust free Steel (Stainless steel):Steel is also used on bench tops, in bathrooms, for sanitary fittings for hardware and fixings and itis also used extensively in appliances.
ConcreteOne of the easiest ways to achieve an industrial look at home is to use industrial materials.Concrete is an obvious choice and in recent months we have witnessed a huge rise in the use ofconcrete in interior design. Many designers are now using concrete in unexpected and unusualways and it would seem that there is nothing that can’t be made using this versatile material.
Concrete – Properties1. Strength:With proper materials and techniques, concrete can withstand manyacids, silage, milk, manure, fertilizers, water, fire, and abrasion. Concrete has substantial strengthin compression, but is weak in tension.2. Surface:Concrete can be finished to produce surfaces ranging from glass-smooth to coarselytextured, and it can be colored with pigments or painted.3. Curing:Concrete that has been specified, batched, mixed, placed, and finished "letter-perfect" can still bea failure if improperly or inadequately cured.
Concrete – Uses1. Concrete floors:Flooring, especially in high traffic commercial applications is what most people associate concretefloors with. Residential concrete floors can be stained, sealed or painted any color in the rainbowto create the perfect color for your application.
Concrete – Uses2. Kitchen countertops:One of the gorgeous benefits of concrete is that it can be formed into almost any shape. Withform work, concrete can making sweeping curves and angled cantilevers. Kitchen countertops areno exception to this design creativity. Simple lines of natural concrete or you prefer coloredconcrete, the choices are limitless.
Concrete – Uses3. Concrete in the bathroom:Similar to the kitchen the bathroom has opportunities for high design or simple lines. Bathtubsthat once use to only be made from cast iron, or porcelain, are now starting to use concrete forsimplicity of form. Modern and minimalist bathrooms have taken on the use of concrete bathtubsthe most.
Concrete – Uses4. Exterior forms:The majority of ultra modern architecture homes use concrete to convey sharp angles, sweepinglines and massive forms. Concrete is one of the few building materials that can take on thechanges in climatic changes beautifully. Concrete has been used in a multitude of innovativeproducts like light emitting concrete. This concrete allows light and figures to be seen through theconcrete! This type of concrete works well in homes that want to convey subtle design with lighttrickling through the ‘porous’ surface.
Price listTimber BrickTeak Wood – Burma Rs. 3,000/cft Bricks Rs. 18,000/lorry loadTeak Wood – African Rs. 2,400/cft Mud Bricks Rs. 1.50 - 1.75 per pieceTeak Wood – India Rs. 2,800/cft Mud Bricks (Light Weight) Rs. 2.50 - 2.75 per tonTeak Wood- Medium Rs. 1,450/cft Fly Ash / Hallow Bricks Rs. 3.25 + per pieceBeeja Sal Rs. 900/cftNeem Rs. 350 to 500/cftMango Rs. 150 to 250/cft Steel Rs. 35,000 ~ Rs. 37,000Babool Rs. 350 to 400/cft Glass Rs 30 ~ Rs. 300/sqft Concrete Rs. 41,000 ~ Rs. 43,000 Stone Shabad stone Rs. 5 - 10 per tile Markapur Rs. 4 - 8 per tile Marbles – tiles Rs. 14 onwards per sft Marbles – Slabs Rs. 20 onwards per sft Granite – tiles Rs. 20 onwards per sft Granite – Slabs Rs. 45 onwards per sft