Biodiversity, Floristic Composition and Climate Change in the Sundarbans


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Biodiversity, Floristic Composition and Climate Change in the Sundarbans

  1. 1. Biodiversity, Floristic Composition and Climate Change in the Sunderbans<br />Presented by<br />Istiak Sobhan<br />13 April 2011<br />
  2. 2. Area over BD+IND 10,000 km2<br />Roughly 60% fall in BD<br />Located in the SW part of the country between latitudes 89000/ and 89055/ E and longitudes 21030/ and 23030/N.<br />Total area in BD part of SRF is 577,356 ha of which 175,724 ha is water.<br />The Sundarbans<br />
  3. 3. Biodiversity<br />3 Protected Areas in Sundarban Reserved Forests (SRF), which constitute the core area of the World Heritage Site, inscribed in 1997. SRF is the 1stRamsar site of the country.<br />The total area of the 798thWorld Heritage Site is about 1,400 km2, of which 490 km2 is water, carrying a very rich biodiversity of flora and fauna.<br />400 species of fish and crustacean<br />275 species of birds<br />incl 95 waterfowl<br />42 species of mammal<br />50 species of reptiles<br />8 species of amphibians<br />25 species of mangroves<br />
  4. 4. Factors influence biodiversity<br />Water resources<br />People living around<br />Landuse in and around the forest<br />Elevation<br />Salinity (soil & water)<br />Natural disaster (Cyclone) <br />Sedimentation<br />
  5. 5. Major river systems<br />Ichhamati-Jamuna system<br />Benta-Kobadak- Kholpetua - Arpangasia system <br />Kobadak sub system<br />Sibsha system<br />Gorai- Rupsha - Pussur System<br />Sela gang system<br />Bhairab subsystem<br />Madhumati-Baleswar system<br />Chitra subsystem<br />
  6. 6. Demography<br />Consists of the three districts Bagerhat, Khulna and Satkhira.<br />The districts cover a total area of 10,660 sq. km. <br />Dependent population mainly in the northern part is about six million (6m).<br />
  7. 7. Livelihood<br />Broadly 17 SRF-adjoining Upazilas, considered as impact zone (SIZ), a band extending 20 km outside the SRF boundary (Popn 1.84m)<br />Variety of NTFP such as fish, honey, wax, nypa leaves, etc. are collected by the inhabitants.<br />Also gather climbers, grasses, medicinal herbs, etc. <br />The 12,000 Km of rivers and creeks produces large quantities of fish, shrimps, crabs, oysters, etc. <br />
  8. 8. Phultala<br />Dighalia<br />River/Beels<br />Terokhada<br />Kalaroa<br />Mollarhat<br />Rupsa<br />Dumuria<br />Chitalmari<br />Satkhira Sadar<br />Fakirhat<br />Tala<br />Bagerhat Sadar<br />Batiaghata<br />Debhata<br />Kachua<br />Paikgacha<br />Assasuni<br />Rampal<br />Dacope<br />Morrelganj<br />Kaliganj<br />Mongla<br />Koyra<br />Sarankhola<br />Shyamnagar<br />Settlements/ Homestead Veg.<br />Wetland grass<br />Mangrove<br />Fallow land<br />Cropping Pattern Map<br />Fallow Fallow Boro<br />Fallow T.Aman Boro<br />Fallow T.Aman Fallow<br />Fallow T.Aman Rabi(Pulses)<br />Bagda T.Aman Bagda<br />Bagda Fallow Bagda<br />Golda Golda Boro <br />Golda Golda Golda<br />Till/Other T.Aman Fallow<br />Till/Other T.Aman Rabi (Other winter crops) <br />
  9. 9. Sundarbans Boundary<br />Ground <br />Elevation <br />
  10. 10. River Siltation in Southwest Region<br />Heavy Siltation<br />Moderate Siltation<br />Slow Slitation<br />
  11. 11. Soil salinity of 1973 & 2000<br />2000<br />1973<br />Total 70,000 ha cultivable land affected by salinity in Khulna and Jessore.<br />
  12. 12. Water salinity<br />Slide 12<br />
  13. 13. Cyclone<br />More than 40% cyclones over the last 100 yrs crossed through the Sundarbans.<br />
  14. 14. Profile of vegetation along the geomorphic gradient<br />
  15. 15. Historical changes in vegetation<br />Geological evidences suggest that the Bengal Basin tilted eastward during the 12th Century because of the neo-tectonic movement (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). <br />The lack of freshwater to the western part has had significant effects on the floristic composition of the forests. For instance, according to some studies of fossil pollen, Heritierafomes was a dominant arborescent species in the Calcutta region about 5000 years ago (Blasco, 1975). <br />The Indian Sundarbans as well as the western part of the Bangladesh Sundarbans no longer support a healthy population of this species.<br />
  16. 16. Changes in floristic composition<br />
  17. 17. Matrix of changes<br />
  18. 18. Changes in area<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Forest Area Affected by cyclone SIDR<br />Forest affected areas in the Sundarbans<br />NDVI, Satellite Aqua, 20th November 2007<br />Resolution is 250 m<br />Affected area is 21% Of total Sundarbans area<br />
  21. 21. Mean Temperature and Trend<br />National mean shows 0.3 0C increase over the 40 years.<br />
  22. 22. SLR Trends in different points of Bangladesh<br />3.9 mm/yr<br /> 5.6 mm/yr<br />1.4 mm/yr<br />
  23. 23. Coastal flooding<br />Slide 23<br />Year 2050<br />Year 2030<br />Sundarbans and Coastal District<br />
  24. 24. Flood/ Inundation Analysis<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Factor by which annual sedimentation rate changes due to sea-level rise<br />SLR: 14 cm<br />SLR: 32 cm<br />Factor of change<br />< 0.75<br />0.75 – 1.0<br />1.0 - 2.0<br />SLR: 88 cm<br />> 2.0<br />
  28. 28. Cropping pattern in SIA under SLR condition<br />
  29. 29. Thank You<br />Acknowledgement: CEGIS, IWM, IWFM, BCAS, CDMP, FD, RIMS and IUCN<br />