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Biodiversity and indicators of climate change


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Biodiversity and indicators of climate change

  1. 1. Biodiversity indicators of climate changein the context of coastal and marine environment of IndiaProfessor B.C. ChoudhuryWildlife Institute of India,Dehradune.mail:<br />
  2. 2. Macro level indicators of climate change<br />Rise in temperature<br />Sea level rise<br />Oceanic chemistry and circulation<br />Changes in coastal geomorphology<br />Changes in vegetation structure and phenological cycle<br />(all these are monitored through satellite based remote sensing tools)<br />
  3. 3. Sea surface temperature (SST) of the north Indian Ocean derived from the Satellite NOAA-AVHRR. The Colour code is at 1o C interval. Red depicts high temperature (32o C) and blue low (23o C). Orange and yellow are towards higher range and green towards lower range.<br />
  4. 4. Coastal and marine biodiversity supporting habitats vulnerable to climate change<br />Coral Reef and seagrass meadows<br />Mangroves<br />Coastal lagoons and lakes<br />Estuaries<br />Intertidal mudflats<br />Rocky shores<br />Sandy shores and sand dunes<br />Islands<br />
  5. 5. Coastal and marine biodiversity supporting habitats vulnerable to climate change<br />Mangroves<br />Coral Reef<br />Intertidal mudflats & Swamps<br />Seagrass<br />Beaches & Sand dunes<br />Seaweed<br />Backwaters,<br />Estuaries,<br />Lakes &<br />Lagoons<br />Rocky shoreline<br />
  6. 6. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats<br />Coral reefs<br />Coral reefs live very close to the upper thermal tolerance<br />Warm episodes (rise in temperature) have resulted in wide scale coral bleaching and mortality. Viz. El-Nino-southern oscillation<br />1998 coral bleaching across the globe as well as recent re-occurence in 2011.<br />
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  8. 8. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats<br />Mangroves<br />Changes in the community structure and composition<br />Changes in zonation and distribution patterns<br />Increase in mono-specificity<br />Loss of hammock and basin and increase in over-wash mangroves <br />Loss of nursery grounds of a host of brackish and marine living resources<br />
  9. 9. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats<br />Lagoons and lakes<br />Increase in salinity and salinity tolerant species<br />Changes in species composition w.r.t SALINE:BRACKISH:FRESHWATER tolerant species<br />Significant changes in benthos characteristics<br />
  10. 10. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats<br />Estuaries<br />Increased upstream tidal backwash into the rivers and creeks<br />Changes in composition and breeding behaviour of anadromous and catadromous migrators<br />
  11. 11. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats<br />Intertidal mudflats<br />Almost total loss of intertidal mudflats along the Indian peninsula viz. Gulf of Khambat<br />Further aggravated where stiff topography structures viz. seawall prevent the inland migration of mudflat<br /> impacted faunal groups are wader bird’s diversity & abundance and their migration patterns.<br />
  12. 12. Chilika Ramsar Site<br />
  13. 13. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats<br />Rocky shores<br />Loss of anchorage to seaweeds and algae<br />Decline in habitats for gastropods, bivalves and crustaceans<br />
  14. 14. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats<br />Sandy shores and sand dunes<br />Loss of nesting areas for shore crabs, marine turtles and waders<br />Loss of sand dune stabilizing vegetations viz. Ipomea, Spinifix<br />Ground water quality<br />Economic loss, coastal tourism and fisheries related livelihood <br />
  15. 15. Impact of climate change on specific coastal and marine habitats<br />Oceanic Islands<br />Impact and loss of coraline and volcanic islands (viz. Lakshadweep (Pitti island) and Andaman & Nicobar)<br />Loss of endemic species (Megapod, Amphibians and Reptiles)<br />
  16. 16. Endemism – An overview in Andamans<br />
  17. 17. Endemics - Forest lizard<br />©S.P.Vijayakumar<br />
  18. 18. Endemics - Nicobar Tree Frog<br />©S.P.Vijayakumar<br />
  19. 19. Endemics - Andaman cobra<br />©S.P.Vijayakumar<br />
  20. 20. Endemics- Narcondam Hornbill<br />
  21. 21. Endemics - Nicobar Megapode<br /><br />
  22. 22. Invertebrates - The giant crabs<br />©S.P.Vijayakumar<br />
  23. 23. Impact on Conservation Network (PAs and Conservation Areas)<br />Impact on 60-70 coast based PAs in India<br />Impact on 106 Important Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Areas (ICMBA)<br />Loss of coast based important bird areas (Pitti Island, Rann of Kachchh, Kolleru, Pulicate, Chilka & Sunderban)<br />
  24. 24. Identified ICMBA sites (106)<br />62 ICMBAs West Coast<br />44 ICMBAs East Coast<br />
  25. 25. Prioritized ICMBA sites<br />Alia Bet<br />Madhavpur<br />Chandipur<br />Purna<br />Thane<br />Chilka<br />Rushikulya<br />Naupada<br />Purnagad<br />Bantumilli<br />Achra-Malvan<br />Machilipatnam<br />Kali<br />Netrani<br />Kundapur<br />Kaliveli<br />Kolavipalem<br />Pichavaram<br />Vypin-Fort Kochi<br />Kumarakom<br />Palk Bay<br />Kumbalangi<br />
  26. 26. Impact on Indicator Flagship Species of Conservation Importance<br />Horseshoe crab-loss of breeding and nesting ground<br />Salt water crocodile-Innundation and loss of nesting ground<br />Turtles-Batagurbaskaand Pelochelyscantori<br />Aquatic mammals-Irrawady dolphins and gangetic dolphins<br />Marine turtles – Sea turtles<br />Egglaying Snakes-Achrochordus, Laticauda<br />Mammals – tiger, fishing cat ad Otter<br />Obligate vegetation – Seagrass, Seaweeds and Halophytes<br />
  27. 27. Horse shoe Crab<br />Tachypleus gigas<br />Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. River Terrapin (Batagur baska)<br />
  30. 30. Asian giant softshell turtle (Pelochelyscantori)<br />
  31. 31. Gangetic Dolphin in WB<br />
  32. 32. Irrawaddy Dolphins<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Royal Bengal TigerPantheratigris<br />Sunderbans – largest known population in India, also largest /reports of man-tiger conflict/Worlds only known population of tigers in littoral habitat<br />Threats: Poaching & Retaliatory killings due to tiger-human conflicts<br />
  35. 35. Fishing Cat (Prionailurusviverrinus) <br />
  36. 36. Smooth coated Otter (Lutrogaleperspicillata)<br />
  37. 37. Seaweed & Sea Grass<br />
  38. 38. Impact on Ethnic Human Population<br />Coast based fishing communities<br />Indigenous tribal populations viz. Jarawas, Shompens, Onge, Sentineles, Great Andamanese, Nicobari<br />
  39. 39. Indigenous communities - <br />The Great Andamanese<br />The Onge<br />The Jarawa<br />The Sentineli<br />Nicobarese<br />Shompens<br />Pankaj Saksheria<br />©S.P.Vijayakumar<br />
  40. 40. Other identified impacts<br />Impact on TSD (Temperature dependent Sex Determination) – Turtles and Crocodiles<br />Enhanced cyclone, hurricanes, thunder storms and more frequent El-Nino like conditions<br />
  41. 41. Case study – Marine Turtles <br />
  42. 42. <ul><li>To understand the dynamics of beach geomorphology for successful Arribada.
  43. 43. To understand the factors that contribute to the success or failure of hatching with respect to the nesting beach geomorphology.</li></li></ul><li>METHODS<br /><ul><li>Beach profiling</li></ul>Available beach width and height between high tide line to vegetation line (benchmark) was monitored on monthly basis. <br /><ul><li>Hatching success and emergence success</li></ul>After hatching, selected nests were excavated and empty egg shells were counted for calculating hatching and emergence success (Miller 1999)<br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
  47. 47. AUGUST (Lowest)<br />DECEMEBR<br />MARCH (Highest)<br />MAY (Erosion)<br />MASS NESTING<br />Rushikulya Mass Nesting Beach<br />21 km<br />MASSNESTING <br />BEACH<br />1 km<br />
  48. 48. AUGUST<br />DECEMEBR<br />MARCH<br />MAY<br />SPORADIC NESTING<br />Devi Nesting Beach<br />19 km<br />HIGH SPORADIC NESTING <br />BEACH<br />1 km<br />
  49. 49. AUGUST (lowest)<br />DECEMEBR<br />MARCH (Highest)<br />MAY (Erosion begins)<br />MASS NESTING<br />Gahirmatha Mass Nesting Beach<br />Wheeler <br />island<br />MASSNESTING <br />BEACH<br />35 km<br />
  50. 50. Typical Tide Curves from full moon to new moon period at three comparative study sites<br />
  51. 51. Beach height & Mean tidal amplitude in Gahirmatha rookery<br />Nasi-1. Old nesting <br />beach<br /> new Nesting beach in wheeler island<br />
  52. 52. In 2004, (Mass nesting area 3000 m X 60 m)<br />Wheeler Island<br />Coconut Island<br />Nasi-II<br />Babubali<br />Nasi-I<br />Source: Prustyet al 2006<br />
  53. 53. In 2009, (Mass nesting area 900 m X 87 m)<br />Wheeler Island<br />Extended sandbar at Wheeler Island<br />
  54. 54. In 2010, (Mass nesting area 1000 m X 53 m)<br />Wheeler Island<br />Extended sandbar at Wheeler Island<br />
  55. 55. Hatching and emergence success: 2009-10<br />HS<br />ES<br />Error bars show 95.0% CI of mean<br />Error bars show 95.0% CI of mean<br />
  56. 56. 30 years of study shows the following changes possibly related to climate change i. Shift in breeding season from December to Marchii. Gradual shift in mass nesting site fidelityiii. Loss of nesting beachesiv. Gradual changes in migratory pattern<br />
  57. 57. What is needed ?<br />Identifying climate change related thrust areas of research for all sectors on involving coastal and marine systems<br />Involvement of coast based academic organizations and universities<br />Creation of Centre of Excellence and Advanced Studies on Climate Change<br />International and National NGOs to initiate climate change initiatives<br />Improvement in existing prediction framework<br />Increased focus on research in the ability of possible climate change impacted vulnerable species for adaptation<br />Inclusion of climate change in academic curriculum<br />
  58. 58. Probable loss of areas of Sunderban Tiger Reserve in India due to different levels of sea level rise<br />
  59. 59. Sunderban specific…<br />Projecting Sunderban as an climate change impacted global ecological entity<br />Identification of priority vulnerable biodiversity indicators and mechanisms for their safeguards against local and total extinction<br />Capacity building and information sharing common database<br />Trans boundary common minimum programme on climate change monitoring in Bangladesh and India<br />