SECTION 5
Decisive Battles
THE TIDE TURNS
 1862 Battle of Antietam
 After this battle war began to go badly for the North
 Poor leadership was the...
CONFEDERATE VICTORIES
 December 1862
 Burnside marched army of 120,000 men toward Richmond
 General Lee massed 75,000 m...
THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
 After Lee’s army defeated Union forces at
Chancellorsville he gained confidence & headed north ...
GETTYSBURG ADDRESS
 Both sides suffered heavy casualties at Gettysburg
 Sparsely populated South could not recover from
...
THE FALL OF VICKSBURG
 July 4, 1863
 Vicksburg surrendered to General grant
 Was last city on the Mississippi River in ...
CLOSING IN ON THE CONFEDERACY
 1864
 Grant given command of Union forces
 Decided to attack Richmond no matter how larg...
GRANT VS. LEE
 Grant’s huge army hammered the Confederates in
several battles in northern Virginia
 They were unable to ...
SHERMAN’S MARCH
 Sherman believed in total war
 All-out attacks aimed at destroying an enemy’s army, its
resources, & it...
PEACE AT LAST
 March 1865
 Grant’s army continued to besiege Petersburg
 Grant extended his battle lines east & west
 ...
SURRENDER AT APPOMATTOX
 April 2
 Grant’s troop broke through Confederate lines
 Richmond was captured by the Union
 L...
THE WAR’S TERRIBLE TOLL
 Bloodiest conflict U.S. ever fought
 Confederates: 260,000 men died
 Union: exceeded 360,000 m...
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Section 5

  1. 1. SECTION 5 Decisive Battles
  2. 2. THE TIDE TURNS  1862 Battle of Antietam  After this battle war began to go badly for the North  Poor leadership was the result  McClellan replaced with General Ambrose Burnside
  3. 3. CONFEDERATE VICTORIES  December 1862  Burnside marched army of 120,000 men toward Richmond  General Lee massed 75,000 men at Fredericksburg, VA to block his path  Burnside ordered charge after charge during this battle  Union lost 13,000 men to the Confederates 5,000  Lincoln replaced Burnside with General Joseph Hooker  May 1863  Hooker marched Union army toward Richmond  Union army was smashed at the Battle of Chancellorsville by a force half its size  Battle was costly for the South; Stonewall Jackson was shot and wounded & later died
  4. 4. THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG  After Lee’s army defeated Union forces at Chancellorsville he gained confidence & headed north to Pennsylvania  Union forces now under the command of General George G. Meade meet Lee accidentally at Gettysburg  Confederates were in search of shoes desperately needed in the South  Bloody battle marked a turning point in the war  Union troops took position on the crest of a low ridge  Confederates’ task was to dislodge them from their position  Confederate attempts failed several times, concluding with a suicidal charge across an open field by General George Pickett on July 3  After 3 days 23,000 Union soldiers & 28,000 Confederate soldiers had been killed or wounded  Lincoln wired Meade, “Do not let the enemy escape”  July 4, Lee retreated to Virginia & the Union army failed to pursue him
  5. 5. GETTYSBURG ADDRESS  Both sides suffered heavy casualties at Gettysburg  Sparsely populated South could not recover from  November 19, 1863 President Lincoln visited Gettysburg to dedicate the battlefield cemetery & to honor the soldiers buried there  He promised, “these dead shall not have died in vain”
  6. 6. THE FALL OF VICKSBURG  July 4, 1863  Vicksburg surrendered to General grant  Was last city on the Mississippi River in Confederate hands  Grant was able to capture Vicksburg not by force, but by surrounding the city & cutting it off from supplies  Day after day the Union bombarded Vicksburg  Residents took shelter in cellars & caves they had dug in hillsides  They ate mules & rats to keep from starving  After 6 weeks the Confederate troops gave up  Last Confederate stronghold at Port Hudson, LA fell a few days later  Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg along with loses at Vicksburg & Port Hudson made July 1863 a major turning point in the war
  7. 7. CLOSING IN ON THE CONFEDERACY  1864  Grant given command of Union forces  Decided to attack Richmond no matter how large the Union losses
  8. 8. GRANT VS. LEE  Grant’s huge army hammered the Confederates in several battles in northern Virginia  They were unable to break through, but continued to attack  Grant’s army suffered 55,000 casualties in 7 weeks of fighting; Confederates suffered 35,000  Grant knew he could count of a steady supply of men & supplies while Lee was running low on both  Petersburg  Grant used the same tactic he used a Vicksburg of besieging the Confederate troops  While Grant & Lee battled, Union forces under command of William T. Sherman advanced toward Atlanta
  9. 9. SHERMAN’S MARCH  Sherman believed in total war  All-out attacks aimed at destroying an enemy’s army, its resources, & it’s people’s will to fight  Confederates were unable to stop Sherman’s advance  Union troops captured Atlanta, GA on September 2, 1864  Victory gave Lincoln’s reelection campaign a boost  Northerners were growing tired of the war prior to this event & support for Lincoln was also lagging; Lincoln won election victory over General George McClellan  November 1864  Sherman ordered Atlanta to be burned & he continued his march to the Atlantic Ocean  Along the way Union forces set fires to buildings, seized crops & livestock, & pulled up railroad tracks leaving a 60 mile path of destruction
  10. 10. PEACE AT LAST  March 1865  Grant’s army continued to besiege Petersburg  Grant extended his battle lines east & west  Lee knew the city would fall  Lincoln also saw end of war too  2nd inaugural address  “With malice toward none; with charity for all; …let us strive together… to bind up the nation’s wounds”
  11. 11. SURRENDER AT APPOMATTOX  April 2  Grant’s troop broke through Confederate lines  Richmond was captured by the Union  Lee retreated to Appomattox Court House  April 9, 1865  Lee surrendered  Grant offered:  Confederates to give up their weapons & leave in peace
  12. 12. THE WAR’S TERRIBLE TOLL  Bloodiest conflict U.S. ever fought  Confederates: 260,000 men died  Union: exceeded 360,000 men including 37,000 African Americans  ½ million were wounded  Many returned home disfigured for life  Key results of the war  Reunited the nation  Put an end to slavery

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