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The Civil War
The Call to Arms President Lincoln    Declared rebellion existed in South, after Fort Sumter attack    Asked for 75,000...
The Border States Delaware    Strong support for Union Kentucky, Missouri, & Maryland    supported the South    Contr...
North Against South Southern Advantages:    Outnumbered, but had military advantages       Northern armies would have t...
The Two Sides Plan Strategies North:   Win a quick victory   Naval blockade on Southern seaports        Block supply o...
Americans Against Americans Civil War    War between Americans       Families spilt apart: brothers against brothers, f...
First Battle of Bull Run Union    Led by General Irvin McDowell    30,000 men (not very well prepared for battle) Conf...
A Soldier’s Life ¾ of time spent in camp, not fighting Trained for 10 hours per day    Rest of time they stood guard, w...
Early Years of the War
New Technology in the War New Weapons   Previous Wars: charges on the enemy   Now: new rifles & cannons were more accur...
The War in the East George McClellan    Placed in command of Union troops after Battle of Bull Run      Very organized ...
Lucky Break General Lee decided to invade the North    Hoped victory of Union soil would gain support for the South in  ...
The War in the West Ulysses S. Grant    General of western Union forces    Took chances & was not as cautious as McClel...
 April 6,1862    Confederate General Albert Sydney Johnston attacked     Grant’s forces at the Battle of Shiloh      So...
The Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipating the Enslaved Abolitionists urged Lincoln to end slavery after start of  war   Feared emancipating slaves wo...
A Famous Proclamation September 22, 1862    preliminary proclamation issued January 1, 1863    Final Emancipation Proc...
Effects of the Proclamation Freed few slaves at first Changed the Civil War into a struggle for freedom    No longer a ...
African Americans Help the Union Were not permitted to join Union army at first Only after Emancipation Proclamation wer...
 African Americans & white sailors served together on  warships Army:   African Americans served in all-black regiments...
Resisting Slavery South    Many enslaved African Americans tried to hurt the     Confederate war effort       Some prov...
The Civil War and American Life
Divisions over the war Nation divided as well as divisions in the North & South   Northerners: some did not support the ...
Divisions in the South Georgia    Only half supported secession North Carolina    Held nearly 100 peace protests    S...
Division in the north Many opposed the Emancipation Proclamation Others believed South had a right to secede Northern D...
Dealing with disruptions People on both sides tried to disrupt the war    Tried to encourage soldiers to desert    Help...
The Draft April 1862    South: men aged 18-35 & later to 50 were drafted into the army March 1863    North: U.S. Congr...
 Bounty, or lump sum, of $1,500 was paid for a 3-year  enlistment This led to the practice of bounty jumping   A man wo...
The war and economic strains Northern Industries    boomed during the war; turned out goods Union needed    Draft did d...
Women in the civil war 400 women disguised as men fought in the war Became spies Took over businesses, farms, plantatio...
Decisive Battles
The Tide Turns 1862 Battle of Antietam    After this battle war began to go badly for the North    Poor leadership was ...
Confederate Victories December 1862    Burnside marched army of 120,000 men toward Richmond       General Lee massed 75...
The Battle of Gettysburg After Lee’s army defeated Union forces at Chancellorsville  he gained confidence & headed north ...
Gettysburg Address Both sides suffered heavy casualties at Gettysburg    Sparsely populated South could not recover from...
The Fall of Vicksburg July 4, 1863    Vicksburg surrendered to General grant        Was last city on the Mississippi Ri...
Closing in on the Confederacy 1864    Grant given command of Union forces    Decided to attack Richmond no matter how l...
Grant vs. Lee Grant’s huge army hammered the Confederates in  several battles in northern Virginia   They were unable to...
Sherman’s March Sherman believed in total war    All-out attacks aimed at destroying an enemy’s army, its     resources,...
Peace at last March 1865   Grant’s army continued to besiege Petersburg   Grant extended his battle lines east & west  ...
Surrender at Appomattox April 2    Grant’s troop broke through Confederate lines    Richmond was captured by the Union ...
The War’s Terrible Toll Bloodiest conflict U.S. ever fought    Confederates: 260,000 men died    Union: exceeded 360,00...
Chapter 15 sections 1 5
Chapter 15 sections 1 5
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Chapter 15 sections 1 5

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Chapter 15 sections 1 5

  1. 1. The Civil War
  2. 2. The Call to Arms President Lincoln  Declared rebellion existed in South, after Fort Sumter attack  Asked for 75,000 troops  Many states begged to send more More States Secede  Tennessee, Kentucky, & Missouri  Refused to send troops  Maryland & Delaware did not respond to call for troops  Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, & North Carolina left the Union  Western counties of Virginia refused to secede & were admitted into Union as state of West Virginia
  3. 3. The Border States Delaware  Strong support for Union Kentucky, Missouri, & Maryland  supported the South  Control of Ohio river & protecting Washington was part of these states Kentucky  Declared itself neutral  Union did not invade Kentucky  Confederates invaded in September 1861  W/ move Kentucky decided to support Union Missouri & Maryland  Lincoln used force to hold states in Union  Troops were sent in Missouri to break up fighting between Southern supporters & Union supporters  Maryland placed under martial law when Southern supporters destroyed railroad & telegraph lines
  4. 4. North Against South Southern Advantages:  Outnumbered, but had military advantages  Northern armies would have to invade & conquer South  Would be fighting on their own territory  Had most experienced military officers  Albert Johnston, Joseph Johnston, & Robert E. Lee Northern Advantages:  Had more factories for producing supplies  Twice as much railroad track & farmland  Population advantage  Able to field, feed, & equip larger armies
  5. 5. The Two Sides Plan Strategies North:  Win a quick victory  Naval blockade on Southern seaports  Block supply of manufactured goods & overseas sales of cotton  Gain control of Mississippi River South:  Did not need to invade the North  Defend their land until Northerners got tired of fighting  Sought aid from Britain & other European nations  British need for cotton would force support towards South
  6. 6. Americans Against Americans Civil War  War between Americans  Families spilt apart: brothers against brothers, father against son  Mary Lincoln  4 brothers who fought for Confederacy Soldiers came from many backgrounds  Farmers, immigrants, etc.  Most of men between 18-45 years old, some as young as 14
  7. 7. First Battle of Bull Run Union  Led by General Irvin McDowell  30,000 men (not very well prepared for battle) Confederates  Led by General Thomas Jackson  30,000 men Hundreds of people came from Washington to watch the battle Armies clashed along Bull Run River  Northern armies pushed forward at first  Southern army rallied & poorly trained Union army began to panic & fled back to Washington
  8. 8. A Soldier’s Life ¾ of time spent in camp, not fighting Trained for 10 hours per day  Rest of time they stood guard, wrote home, & gathered firewood Harsh Conditions  Camp conditions were miserable  Lack of clean water  Diseases swept through camps Prisoners of War  Prison camps were built by both sides  were overcrowded & became deathtraps  10% of those who died during the war, died in prison camps
  9. 9. Early Years of the War
  10. 10. New Technology in the War New Weapons  Previous Wars: charges on the enemy  Now: new rifles & cannons were more accurate & had longer range; attacking troops could be bombarded before reaching defenders  Generals were slow to recognize this & change tactics  Ironclads: warships covered with protective iron plates  Cannon fire bounced off the sides of these ships  Confederates used them against the Union blockade  Union used them in the effort to gain control of the Mississippi River
  11. 11. The War in the East George McClellan  Placed in command of Union troops after Battle of Bull Run  Very organized & cautious general March 1862  McClellan moved 100,000 soldiers by boat to a peninsula southeast of Richmond  As he moved toward the capital he discovered superiority of his troops to the 15,000 Confederate troops  Ordered 37,000 troops to guard Washington, D.C.  Waited another month to advance again  Gave Confederates time to reinforce May 31, 1862  Confederates stopped Union advance near Richmond  In late June McClellan was forced to retreat
  12. 12. Lucky Break General Lee decided to invade the North  Hoped victory of Union soil would gain support for the South in Europe & turn northern public opinion against the war  September: Lee’s army moved into western Maryland September 1862 45,000 troops slipped into Maryland Union officer found a piece of paper showing Lee’s battle plan  Confederates had divided into two parts McClellan attacked Lee on September 17, 1862 at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland Bloodiest single day of the war Lee was forced to retreat to Virginia; Confederates suffered 14,000 casualties McClellan lost 12,000 men & was too damaged to pursue Lee & finish him
  13. 13. The War in the West Ulysses S. Grant  General of western Union forces  Took chances & was not as cautious as McClellan 1862  Union forces made major advances in western land & naval battles  Grant moved forces south from Kentucky capturing Fort Henry in TN & the Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River  Two water routes into the Confederacy were now open  Grant continued toward Corinth, MS
  14. 14.  April 6,1862  Confederate General Albert Sydney Johnston attacked Grant’s forces at the Battle of Shiloh  South suffered nearly 11,000 casualties & the North more than 13,000.  Union forced Confederate army to withdraw from the railroad center  Union also gained control of western Tennessee & part of Mississippi River  Union fleet under command of David Farragut entered Mississippi River from the Gulf of Mexico 2 weeks after this battle  April 26 Farragut captured New Orleans, LA & by summer nearly all of the Mississippi River was in Union hands
  15. 15. The Emancipation Proclamation
  16. 16. Emancipating the Enslaved Abolitionists urged Lincoln to end slavery after start of war  Feared emancipating slaves would cause border states to secede  Goal: was to restore the Union even if he had to let slavery continue  Began to realize how important slavery was to South’s war effort  Lincoln was going to issue an Emancipation Proclamation  Cabinet members advised him to wait until success on the battlefield
  17. 17. A Famous Proclamation September 22, 1862  preliminary proclamation issued January 1, 1863  Final Emancipation Proclamation issued  Little effect at first  Only freed enslaved people in areas that were fighting the Union (Union had no power)  Didn’t apply to parts of the South already under Union control or free anyone in the border states  Proclamation criticized & praised  Abolitionists: should be applied throughout the country  Southerners: accused Lincoln of trying to start a slave revolt  Union soldiers: enthusiastic; would weaken the South
  18. 18. Effects of the Proclamation Freed few slaves at first Changed the Civil War into a struggle for freedom  No longer a fight to save the nation  Fight to end slavery Dashed hope that Britain would recognize the South’s independence  Would not help a gov’t wanting to keep people enslaved United African Americans in support of the war
  19. 19. African Americans Help the Union Were not permitted to join Union army at first Only after Emancipation Proclamation were they allowed to serve 189,000 served in the Union army & navy  ½ were former slaves who escaped or freed by fighting  If caught they were either returned to slavery or killed; not treated like prisoners
  20. 20.  African Americans & white sailors served together on warships Army:  African Americans served in all-black regiments under white officers  Earned less pay  Fought with pride & courage  Took part in 40 major battles & 100s of minor ones Many other African Americans worked for Union armies as cooks, wagon drivers, & hospital aides
  21. 21. Resisting Slavery South  Many enslaved African Americans tried to hurt the Confederate war effort  Some provided military information to Union armies  Worked slowly or damaged equipment  Slaves often also simply refused to work
  22. 22. The Civil War and American Life
  23. 23. Divisions over the war Nation divided as well as divisions in the North & South  Northerners: some did not support the war or want to restore the Union  Southerners: some did not support a war to defend slavery or secession
  24. 24. Divisions in the South Georgia  Only half supported secession North Carolina  Held nearly 100 peace protests  Supplied second most number of troops to Confederate army Regions w/ large plantations supported the more stronger than poor black country regions States’ Rights  Created divisions  Objections to officers from other states leading troops  Objection to Confederate government forcing men to do military service
  25. 25. Division in the north Many opposed the Emancipation Proclamation Others believed South had a right to secede Northern Democrats  Blamed Lincoln & Republicans of forcing the South into War  Called Copperheads; strongest in Ohio, Indiana, & Illinois; criticized the war & called for peace
  26. 26. Dealing with disruptions People on both sides tried to disrupt the war  Tried to encourage soldiers to desert  Helped prisoners of war escape  Southern peace groups worked against the Confederacy  Tried to prevent men from volunteering for military service Habeas Corpus suspended  Lincoln & Jefferson Davis suspended Habeas Corpus in some places (constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment)  Empowered judges to determine if prisoners were being legally held  13,000 people in the North were arrested and jailed without trials
  27. 27. The Draft April 1862  South: men aged 18-35 & later to 50 were drafted into the army March 1863  North: U.S. Congress created a military draft Draft laws  Incomplete & discriminatory  Could hire a substitute to avoid service  Could buy out by paying the government $300.00  Critics began calling the Civil War “a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight”  Southern governors helped their citizens evade the draft July 1863  Riots took place in New York City to show opposition to the draft
  28. 28.  Bounty, or lump sum, of $1,500 was paid for a 3-year enlistment This led to the practice of bounty jumping  A man would enlist, collect his bounty and then desert, only to reenlist somewhere else
  29. 29. The war and economic strains Northern Industries  boomed during the war; turned out goods Union needed  Draft did drain away workers August 1861  Congress levied 1st income tax in history Union printed $400 million of paper money  Pay for expenses  1st federal paper money printed  Led to inflation; prices of goods in raised 80% during the war in the North South  Less able to sustain war  Union blockade prevented ability to raise money  Shortages made goods more expensive  Led to greater inflation than in the North  $18 shoes now cost $800  Food production fell as Union armies destroyed farmland & crops  Led to riots for food, cloth, & shoes
  30. 30. Women in the civil war 400 women disguised as men fought in the war Became spies Took over businesses, farms, plantations for men who were fighting in the war  Some women in the South worked the field to meet the needs of workers Work in factories Became teachers & nurses  Barriers to women fell  Elizabeth Blackwell became 1st female physician  Dorothea Dix became head of Union army nurses  Harriet Tubman continued to lead enslaved people to freedom  Clara Barton cared for wounded soldiers on the battlefield
  31. 31. Decisive Battles
  32. 32. The Tide Turns 1862 Battle of Antietam  After this battle war began to go badly for the North  Poor leadership was the result  McClellan replaced with General Ambrose Burnside
  33. 33. Confederate Victories December 1862  Burnside marched army of 120,000 men toward Richmond  General Lee massed 75,000 men at Fredericksburg, VA to block his path  Burnside ordered charge after charge during this battle  Union lost 13,000 men to the Confederates 5,000 Lincoln replaced Burnside with General Joseph Hooker May 1863  Hooker marched Union army toward Richmond  Union army was smashed at the Battle of Chancellorsville by a force half its size  Battle was costly for the South; Stonewall Jackson was shot and wounded & later died
  34. 34. The Battle of Gettysburg After Lee’s army defeated Union forces at Chancellorsville he gained confidence & headed north to Pennsylvania Union forces now under the command of General George G. Meade meet Lee accidentally at Gettysburg  Confederates were in search of shoes desperately needed in the South  Bloody battle marked a turning point in the war Union troops took position on the crest of a low ridge  Confederates’ task was to dislodge them from their position  Confederate attempts failed several times, concluding with a suicidal charge across an open field by General George Pickett on July 3 After 3 days 23,000 Union soldiers & 28,000 Confederate soldiers had been killed or wounded  Lincoln wired Meade, “Do not let the enemy escape” July 4, Lee retreated to Virginia & the Union army failed to pursue him
  35. 35. Gettysburg Address Both sides suffered heavy casualties at Gettysburg  Sparsely populated South could not recover from November 19, 1863 President Lincoln visited Gettysburg to dedicate the battlefield cemetery & to honor the soldiers buried there  He promised, “these dead shall not have died in vain”
  36. 36. The Fall of Vicksburg July 4, 1863  Vicksburg surrendered to General grant  Was last city on the Mississippi River in Confederate hands  Grant was able to capture Vicksburg not by force, but by surrounding the city & cutting it off from supplies  Day after day the Union bombarded Vicksburg  Residents took shelter in cellars & caves they had dug in hillsides  They ate mules & rats to keep from starving  After 6 weeks the Confederate troops gave up  Last Confederate stronghold at Port Hudson, LA fell a few days later Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg along with loses at Vicksburg & Port Hudson made July 1863 a major turning point in the war
  37. 37. Closing in on the Confederacy 1864  Grant given command of Union forces  Decided to attack Richmond no matter how large the Union losses
  38. 38. Grant vs. Lee Grant’s huge army hammered the Confederates in several battles in northern Virginia  They were unable to break through, but continued to attack Grant’s army suffered 55,000 casualties in 7 weeks of fighting; Confederates suffered 35,000  Grant knew he could count of a steady supply of men & supplies while Lee was running low on both Petersburg  Grant used the same tactic he used a Vicksburg of besieging the Confederate troops While Grant & Lee battled, Union forces under command of William T. Sherman advanced toward
  39. 39. Sherman’s March Sherman believed in total war  All-out attacks aimed at destroying an enemy’s army, its resources, & it’s people’s will to fight Confederates were unable to stop Sherman’s advance Union troops captured Atlanta, GA on September 2, 1864  Victory gave Lincoln’s reelection campaign a boost  Northerners were growing tired of the war prior to this event & support for Lincoln was also lagging; Lincoln won election victory over General George McClellan November 1864  Sherman ordered Atlanta to be burned & he continued his march to the Atlantic Ocean  Along the way Union forces set fires to buildings, seized crops & livestock, & pulled up railroad tracks leaving a 60 mile path of destruction
  40. 40. Peace at last March 1865  Grant’s army continued to besiege Petersburg  Grant extended his battle lines east & west  Lee knew the city would fall  Lincoln also saw end of war too  2nd inaugural address  “With malice toward none; with charity for all; …let us strive together… to bind up the nation’s wounds”
  41. 41. Surrender at Appomattox April 2  Grant’s troop broke through Confederate lines  Richmond was captured by the Union  Lee retreated to Appomattox Court House April 9, 1865  Lee surrendered  Grant offered:  Confederates to give up their weapons & leave in peace
  42. 42. The War’s Terrible Toll Bloodiest conflict U.S. ever fought  Confederates: 260,000 men died  Union: exceeded 360,000 men including 37,000 African Americans  ½ million were wounded  Many returned home disfigured for life Key results of the war  Reunited the nation  Put an end to slavery

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