Chapter 29<br />The Pacific World<br />
Section 1<br />Australia & New Zealand<br />
Physical Geography<br />Truly Unique Places<br />Physical features, variety of climates, unusual wildlife, & plentiful res...
Physical Features<br />Differ Widely<br />Australia<br />Wide, flat stretches of dry land<br />Surrounded by water<br />3 ...
New Zealand<br />Green hills & tall mountains<br />1,000 miles SE of Australia<br />2 main islands<br />North Island: <br ...
Climate<br />Australia<br />Desert & steppe climates<br />Temps are warm & rain limited<br />More temperate along the coas...
Wildlife & Resources<br />Home to unique animals<br />Kangaroo, koala, & kiwi<br />Australia’s Resources<br />World’s top ...
History<br />Similar history<br />Both settled by settler from the Pacific<br />Early Settlers<br />Aborigines<br />1st hu...
The Arrival of Europeans<br />European explorers 1st sighted countries in 1600s<br />British<br />1769 James Cook explored...
Independence<br />Early 1900s independence granted to Australia & New Zealand<br />Today both are members of the British C...
Australia & New Zealand Today<br />Both are rich and well-developed despite their isolation<br />Government<br />British s...
Economy<br />Rich, economically developed country<br />Agriculture is very important<br />Leading producer of wool<br />Bo...
People<br />Diverse populations<br />Most are of British ancestry<br />Many groups from around the world have migrated to ...
Section 2<br />The Pacific Islands<br />
Pacific Islands<br />3 Regions:<br />Melanesia<br />Micronesia<br />Polynesia<br />Regions have high & low islands<br />
High islands<br />2 types:<br />Oceanic = formed by volcanoes rising from the sea floor<br />Tahiti & Hawaii<br />Continen...
Climate & Resources<br />All but 2 island countries lie in the tropics<br />Most have humid tropical climate<br />Temps ar...
History & Culture	<br />One of last places settle by humans<br />Because of isolation they have unique history & culture<b...
Early History<br />People began to settle Pacific Islands 35,000 years ago<br />Melanesia was first to be settled<br />150...
Modern History<br />1900s<br />Other countries entered the Pacific Islands<br />U.S. defeated Spain in Spanish-American Wa...
Culture<br />Variety of cultures exist<br />Some traits are common throughout the Pacific Islands<br />Fishing<br />People...
Before Europeans Pacific Island people practiced hundreds of different religions<br />Today most are Christians<br />Tradi...
The Pacific Islands Today<br />Healthy tourism industry<br />Sunny beaches<br />Important challenges<br />Developing econo...
Section 3<br />Antarctica<br />
The Land<br />Ice covers 98% of Antarctica’s 5.4 million square miles<br />90% of world’s ice; sheets are more than 1 mile...
Climate & Resources<br />Mostly freezing ice-cap climate<br />Temp below -120 degrees F w/ little precipitation<br />Polar...
Resources<br />Iron ore, gold, copper, & coal<br />Debate over whether resources should be mined<br />Mining would harm co...
Early Explorers<br />1775 James Cook sighted icebergs around Antarctica<br />1800s explorers investigated Antarctica<br />...
Antarctica Today<br />Only continent without permanent human population<br />Researchers only people who live in Antarctic...
Air Pollution<br />Studies show that carbon dioxide levels in the air have risen over time<br />Discovered by studying gas...
Environmental Threats<br />Tourists & researchers have left behind trash & oil spills have occurred<br />Oil spills have d...
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  1. 1. Chapter 29<br />The Pacific World<br />
  2. 2. Section 1<br />Australia & New Zealand<br />
  3. 3. Physical Geography<br />Truly Unique Places<br />Physical features, variety of climates, unusual wildlife, & plentiful resources<br />
  4. 4. Physical Features<br />Differ Widely<br />Australia<br />Wide, flat stretches of dry land<br />Surrounded by water<br />3 million square miles (considered a continent, not just an island)<br />Huge plateau covers western half<br />Home to Uluru or Ayers Rock<br />Low mts., valleys, & a major river system cover eastern half<br />Fertile plains along the coast<br />Great Barrier Reef off NE coast<br />
  5. 5. New Zealand<br />Green hills & tall mountains<br />1,000 miles SE of Australia<br />2 main islands<br />North Island: <br />covered by hills & coastal plains<br />Volcanoes, geysers, & hot springs<br />South Island<br />Large mt. range (Southern Alps<br />Thick forests, deep lakes, & glaciers<br />Fertile hills & rich plains<br />Fjord<br />
  6. 6. Climate<br />Australia<br />Desert & steppe climates<br />Temps are warm & rain limited<br />More temperate along the coasts<br />New Zealand<br />Marine climate<br />Plentiful rainfall & mild temps<br />
  7. 7. Wildlife & Resources<br />Home to unique animals<br />Kangaroo, koala, & kiwi<br />Australia’s Resources<br />World’s top producer of bauxite, lead, diamonds, & opals<br />Energy resources: coal, natural gas, & oil<br />Poor soil, but grow/raise: wheat, cotton, & sheep<br />New Zealand<br />Fertile land & few mineral resources<br />Main resources: wool, timber, & gold<br />
  8. 8. History<br />Similar history<br />Both settled by settler from the Pacific<br />Early Settlers<br />Aborigines<br />1st humans in Australia<br />Came from Southeast Asia 40,000 years ago<br />Hunted animals & gathered food from wild plants<br />Had many different languages, traditions, & customs<br />Maori<br />Came 1,200 years ago to New Zealand<br />Were fishers & hunters<br />Also used farming to survive<br />
  9. 9. The Arrival of Europeans<br />European explorers 1st sighted countries in 1600s<br />British<br />1769 James Cook explored New Zealand & the following year Australia<br />British settled in Australia 20 years later<br />1st were prisoners<br />Other settlers came and built farms & ranches & took over Aborigines’ lands<br />Many died of disease <br />British arrived in New Zealand in 1800s.<br />Signed a treaty with Maori in 1840<br />Became part of British Empire<br />Tensions led to a series of wars over the land<br />
  10. 10. Independence<br />Early 1900s independence granted to Australia & New Zealand<br />Today both are members of the British Commonwealth of Nations<br />Also close allies of the U.K.<br />Helped British & allies during WWI & WWII<br />
  11. 11. Australia & New Zealand Today<br />Both are rich and well-developed despite their isolation<br />Government<br />British style gov’t influence<br />British monarch is head of state in both countries<br />Both have parliamentary democracies<br />Citizens elect members to represent them in parliament<br />Both have prime minister<br />Prime minister & Parliament runs the gov’t<br />Both have similar features of U.S. gov’t<br />Federal system (central power shares power w/ states)<br />Parliament consists of two houses (House of Reps & Senate)<br />Bill of Rights protects individual rights of New Zealand’s citizens<br />
  12. 12. Economy<br />Rich, economically developed country<br />Agriculture is very important<br />Leading producer of wool<br />Both export meat & Dairy products<br />Mining is also important<br />Bauxite, gold, & uranium in the Outback<br />Industries<br />steel, heavy machines, & computers<br />Banking, insurance, & tourism <br />
  13. 13. People<br />Diverse populations<br />Most are of British ancestry<br />Many groups from around the world have migrated to both countries in recent years<br />Native groups make up small % of populations<br />Challenge<br />Improving economic & political status of Aborigines & Maori<br />Most live in urban areas<br />90% of Australians live in large cities along the coasts<br />10 % in the Outback<br />In New Zealand most people live on North Island<br />
  14. 14. Section 2<br />The Pacific Islands<br />
  15. 15. Pacific Islands<br />3 Regions:<br />Melanesia<br />Micronesia<br />Polynesia<br />Regions have high & low islands<br />
  16. 16. High islands<br />2 types:<br />Oceanic = formed by volcanoes rising from the sea floor<br />Tahiti & Hawaii<br />Continental = formed from continental rock; lie on Australia’s continental shelf<br />New Guinea: world’s second largest island; Mt. range stretches across the central part (highest peak reaches 16,535 feet); western part is called Irian Jaya & is part of Indonesia; Papua New Guinea occupies eastern half of island<br />Low Islands<br />Most made of coral<br />Barely rise above sea level<br />Many are atolls<br />
  17. 17. Climate & Resources<br />All but 2 island countries lie in the tropics<br />Most have humid tropical climate<br />Temps are warm & rainfall is common all year<br />Some islands have tropical savanna climate (rain falls mostly in summer)<br />Cool highland climate also found<br />Mts. of New Guinea<br />Resources vary widely<br />Low Islands have few resources<br />Little freshwater & thin soil limit farming<br />Smaller populations<br />Coconut palms & the sea are important sources of food<br />High Islands have freshwater, good soils, & forest resources<br />Farms produce crops such as coffee, cocoa, bananas, & sugarcane<br />New Guinea has copper, gold, silver, & oil<br />Mining difficult due to rugged highlands & dense tropical forests<br />
  18. 18. History & Culture <br />One of last places settle by humans<br />Because of isolation they have unique history & culture<br />
  19. 19. Early History<br />People began to settle Pacific Islands 35,000 years ago<br />Melanesia was first to be settled<br />1500s<br />Europeans encountered Pacific Islands<br />James Cook explored all the main Pacific Island regions<br />1800s<br />Spain, U.K., & France controlled most of the Pacific Islands<br />
  20. 20. Modern History<br />1900s<br />Other countries entered the Pacific Islands<br />U.S. defeated Spain in Spanish-American War & Guam became a U.S. territory (an area that is under the authority of another gov’t)<br />Japan expanded empire into Pacific Ocean<br />During WWII Pacific Islands were place of battles between Allied & Japanese forces<br />U.N. placed some islands under its control at the end of WWII<br />Many islands became independent in the late 1900s<br />U.S., France, & New Zealand still have territories in Pacific Islands<br />
  21. 21. Culture<br />Variety of cultures exist<br />Some traits are common throughout the Pacific Islands<br />Fishing<br />People<br />9 million live in Pacific Islands today<br />Most are descendents of original settlers<br />Also includes large #’s of Asians (Indians & Chinese) & Europeans<br />Asians were brought to work on colonial plantations<br />
  22. 22. Before Europeans Pacific Island people practiced hundreds of different religions<br />Today most are Christians<br />Traditions<br />Many continue to practice traditional customs<br />Construct homes of bamboo & palm leaves<br />Live in ancient villages, practice ancient art styles, & hold ceremonies w/ traditional costumes & dances<br />
  23. 23. The Pacific Islands Today<br />Healthy tourism industry<br />Sunny beaches<br />Important challenges<br />Developing economies<br />Fishing, tourism, & agriculture are key<br />Some export minerals & timber<br />Regions’ isolation hinders ability to trade<br />Environment<br />Islands were used for nuclear testing from 1940s to 1990s<br />People fear health problems for people of region<br />Global warming concerns islanders<br />Rising temps may cause ocean levels to rise<br />
  24. 24. Section 3<br />Antarctica<br />
  25. 25. The Land<br />Ice covers 98% of Antarctica’s 5.4 million square miles<br />90% of world’s ice; sheets are more than 1 mile thick<br />Ice sheets flow slowly off the continent & form an ice shelf when they reach the coast; icebergs often break away and drift into the ocean<br />Ross Ice Shelf is the size of France<br />One recent iceberg the size of Luxembourg<br />Antarctic Peninsula<br />Temps often warmer than other parts of the continent<br />
  26. 26. Climate & Resources<br />Mostly freezing ice-cap climate<br />Temp below -120 degrees F w/ little precipitation<br />Polar desert: high latitude region that receives little precipitation<br />Less precipitation than Sahara Desert<br />Planet’s coldest, driest, highest, & windiest continent<br />remains totally dark in winter<br />In summer the sun never sets<br />Temps can drop as low as -120 degrees F<br />Tundra plant life survives in ice free areas<br />A few insects are the land’s only land animals<br />Penguins, seals, & whales live in the icy waters<br />
  27. 27. Resources<br />Iron ore, gold, copper, & coal<br />Debate over whether resources should be mined<br />Mining would harm continent’s environment<br />Worthwhile for businesses<br />
  28. 28. Early Explorers<br />1775 James Cook sighted icebergs around Antarctica<br />1800s explorers investigated Antarctica<br />Motive was to discover South Pole<br />Norwegian explorers were 1st human expedition to reach South Pole in 1911<br />Parts of Antarctica have been claimed by countries<br />U.S., Australia, & China<br />Antarctic Treaty of 1959 <br />agreement reached to preserve Antarctica for science & peace<br />Prevented claims to the continent & banned military activity & made whole continent a research area<br />
  29. 29. Antarctica Today<br />Only continent without permanent human population<br />Researchers only people who live in Antarctica<br />Live in bases or stations<br />Research covers wide range of topics<br />Plant and animal life of Antarctica, weather conditions, Earth’s ozone layer<br />
  30. 30. Air Pollution<br />Studies show that carbon dioxide levels in the air have risen over time<br />Discovered by studying gases trapped in old Antarctic ice & compared them to gases in the Earth’s atmosphere today<br />Some believe this is causing global warming<br />Some scientists are looking for evidence that air pollution is damaging Earth’s ozone layer<br />
  31. 31. Environmental Threats<br />Tourists & researchers have left behind trash & oil spills have occurred<br />Oil spills have damaged surrounding seas<br />In 1991 an international agreement was reached forbidding most activities in Antarctica that do not have a scientific purpose<br />Bans mining & drilling & limits tourism<br />

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