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  1. 1. Chapter 23 Central Africa
  2. 2. Section 1 Physical Geography
  3. 3. Physical Features <ul><li>Borders Atlantic Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Borders Western Rift Valley </li></ul><ul><li>High Mts. </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest rivers in Africa </li></ul>
  4. 4. Landforms <ul><ul><li>The Congo Basin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basin; flat region surrounded by higher land such as mountains and plateaus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Rift Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highest mountain is 16,700 feet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Rivers <ul><ul><li>The Congo River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fed by thousands of smaller rivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waterfalls & rapids make it impossible for ships to travel from Central Africa to Atlantic Ocean </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Zambezi River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zambezi is famous for Victoria Falls </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Climates, Vegetation, and Animals <ul><li>Humid tropical climate in the Congo Basin and on the Atlantic coast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm temps & lots of rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dense, tropical rain forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal like: antelopes, hyenas, elephants, okapis , insects, birds, monkeys, bats, and snakes are found here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees form a canopy, preventing much life on the rain forest floor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tropical savanna climate found north and south of the basin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinct dry & wet seasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grasslands, scattered trees, & shrubs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highland climate found in the high eastern mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Dry steppe and deserts in the far south </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Tropical Environment good for growing crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are subsistence farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving towards growing crops for sale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tropical Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides timber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers provide way to travel & trade & hydroelectricity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oil, natural gas, and coal </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals: copper, uranium, tin, zinc, diamonds, gold, and cobalt </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some beginning to grow more crops for sale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crops: coffee, bananas, & corn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sold in periodic markets: open air markets set up at crossroads or in a town </li></ul></ul>Resources
  8. 8. Section 2 History & Culture
  9. 9. History <ul><li>Early humans lived in central Africa thousands of years ago </li></ul><ul><li>2,000 years ago new peoples migrated & formed several kingdoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kongo Kingdom most important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Est. trade routes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Europeans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Came in 1400s for forest products & other resources like ivory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also traded for slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kingdoms were weakened and destroyed by Europeans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>region was divided into colonies in the late 1800s by the France, Portugal, Britain, Spain, Belgium, & Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borders created ignored homelands of Africa’s ethnic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each had different languages, ways of life, & resulted in conflicts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Modern Central Africa <ul><li>Independence came after WWII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some fought bloody wars to gain independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many ethnic groups continued to fight even after independence </li></ul><ul><li>Became battleground of the Cold War between U.S. & Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people died and great damage was caused </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Culture <ul><li>100 million people in Central Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Many different ethnic groups w/ different customs </li></ul>
  12. 12. People & Languages <ul><li>Hundreds of different languages & dialects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to number of ethnic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Official languages are European </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French, English, Spanish, Portuguese </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by colonial history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman Catholic, Protestant Christianity, traditional African religions, Christian, Muslim, & Hindu are the practiced religions of Central Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Arts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by traditional cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Famous for sculpture, carved wooden masks, & cotton gowns dyed in bright colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular styles of music & dance </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Central Africa Today Section 3
  14. 14. Countries of Central Africa <ul><li>Most are very poor </li></ul><ul><li>Years of colonial rule & civil war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggling to build stable gov’ts & strong economies </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Democratic Republic of the Congo <ul><li>Former Belgian colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Belgians left after independence (few doctors, teachers, & other professionals remained) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnic conflicts after independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused country to remain poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joseph Mobutu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a dictator, came to power in 1965 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed the country’s name to Zaire in 1971 & his name to Mobutu Sese Seko </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country suffered from economic problems & political corruption during his rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobutu became very wealthy & used violence against those who challenged him </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>After a civil war in 1997 a new government took over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name changed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting between ethnic groups has continued </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Treasure chest of minerals & tropical resources </li></ul><ul><li>South is part of central Africa’s rich copper belt </li></ul><ul><li>Gold, diamonds, & cobalt </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical rain forests supply wood, food, rubber, & other products </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war, bad government, & crime have scared many foreign businesses away </li></ul><ul><li>Countries rich resources have helped few people </li></ul>
  17. 17. The People <ul><li>Most are poor </li></ul><ul><li>Live in rural areas & farm and trade for food </li></ul><ul><li>Many people live in Kinshasa, the capital & largest city </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Along Congo River; crowded; consists of poor slum areas mainly </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Central African Republic & Cameroon <ul><li>Central African Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggled w/ military coups, corrupt leaders, & improper elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people are farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diamonds & gold present, but no railroads or ports to transport resources for export </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives some aid from foreign countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cameroon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly stable Republic (president is elected & holds most power) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy is growing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil reserves & farming support economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good roads & railways people w/ transportation needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High standard of living </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Equatorial Guinea & Sao Tome and Principe <ul><li>Equatorial Guinea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided between mainly & 5 islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic w/ elections (possibly flawed though, same president for 25 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent oil discovery, but living conditions for most are still poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sao Tome & Principe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggled w/ political stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor country w/ few resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces cacao, but has to import food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent discovery of oil might help </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Gabon & Republic of the Congo <ul><li>Gabon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 president since 1967 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy provides highest standard of living in region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ of country’s income comes from oil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republic of the Congo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of income comes from oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income from forest products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil war in last 1990s hurt economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly urban </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Angola <ul><li>Civil war following independence from Portugal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended in 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now republic w/ elected president </li></ul><ul><li>Economy is struggling </li></ul><ul><li>85% rely of subsistence farming for income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land mines from civil war makes farming dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High rate of inflation has also hurt economy </li></ul><ul><li>Corrupt officials have taken money for public projects </li></ul><ul><li>Diamonds & oil present </li></ul>
  22. 22. Zambia & Malawi <ul><li>Zambia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of workers are farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich copper mines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy growing slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of debt & inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malawi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most farm for a living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% live in villages in rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aid from foreign countries & religious groups help economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing factories & industries has been slow </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Issues & Challenges <ul><li>Unstable governments & poor economies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have been either cause or effect of other issues & challenges in the region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnic & Regional Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing of ethnic groups & competing for power has resulted in civil wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands killed, contributed to poor economies, land destroyed, & other resources destroyed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaria: kills many people (1 child every 30 seconds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International health organizations trying to control malaria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use nets & medicine, but both are expensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes AIDS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands die each year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No cure & medicines are expensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>50% of people in Central Africa are under the age of 15 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Resources & Environment <ul><li>To help economy & people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop natural resources more effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food production has declined in some areas (does not support growing population) resulting in food shortages & malnutrition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industries are destroying the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting down forests and mining diamonds & copper </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>National parks have been set up to protect the environment </li></ul>

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