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  1. 1. Reconstruction and the New South
  2. 2. Rebuilding the Nation
  3. 3.  Huge problems after Civil War ended Vast parts of the South were ruined Homeless refugees scattered across the South  Both African American & Whites  Needed: food, shelter, & work Biggest problem  Suppressing the hard feelings between the North & South
  4. 4.  Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction December 1863  10% of voters need to take loyalty oath to U.S.  New gov’t could then be formed  Declare an end to slavery  Members of state could be sent to Congress to take part in national gov’t Plan included amnesty for former Confederates  Not for Confederate gov’t leaders or military leaders
  5. 5.  Stricter than 10% plan  50% of voters to swear loyalty oath  Voluntary Confederate soldiers not allowed to vote for delegates meeting to form new state constitution Lincoln refused the bill & it never became law Lincoln thought his lenient plan would promote a strong Republican party in the South  Radical Republicans opposed lenient plan & wanted strict plan  Thought strict plan would keep Confederates who led the secession from regaining power
  6. 6.  Developed to deal with the needs of freed African Americans & war refugees after the war 1st Duty: provide emergency relief 2nd: set up schools to teach freed slaves to read & write  African American communities also set up their own schools & paid for teachers by pooling money  Many white northern women were teachers as well as black northern women  Continue education centers were also started  Public Education system to education whites & blacks in most southern states
  7. 7.  Bureau also helped freedmen find jobs & resolve disputes between whites & blacks Bureau also set up its own court system to deal with cheaters
  8. 8.  April 14, 1865  5 DAYS after the war  John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln at the Ford’s Theater in Washington  Shot Lincoln in the head with a single bullet  Booth later shot & killed after the barn he was hiding in was set on fire  8 others convicted & 4 were hung for their part in the plot to kill Lincoln Nation shocked by death Huge crowds paid their last respects & Lincoln’s body was transported back to Illinois for burial Vice President Andrew Johnson, southern Democrat, became President  Showed bitterness toward the Confederacy before & during the war, many expected him to take a strict approach to Reconstruction
  9. 9. The Battle Over Reconstruction
  10. 10.  Andrew Johnson  Proposed lenient plan of Reconstruction  Put plan into effect himself, did not consult w/ legislators
  11. 11.  January 1865  Congress approved amendment to abolish slavery throughout the nation  Banned slavery & forced labor  Congress had power to make laws to enforce its terms
  12. 12.  Amnesty offered  Southern states could organize new gov’t & elect reps. for Congress  Had to abolish slavery & ratify the 13th Amendment December 1865  Most states met Johnson’s requirements  Senators elected included many former Confederate leaders Congress rejected plan  1st: refused to seat southern senators & reps.  2nd: two houses appointed a committee to form a new plan for the South  Heard testimony about black codes: new laws used by southern states to control African Americans
  13. 13.  Black Codes  Replaced slavery w/ near slavery Caused hard line in Congress Radical Republicans  Wanted to prevent former Confederates from regaining control over southern politics  To protect the freedmen & guarantee them a right to vote
  14. 14.  Granted citizenship rights to African Americans and guaranteed the civil rights of all people except Native Americans  Vetoed by Johnson & another bill extending the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau  Congress voted to overturn vetoes, & both received 2/3 vote of each house & became law
  15. 15.  All people born or naturalized in the U.S. are citizens States may not pass laws that take away a citizen’s rights; cannot deprive any person of life, liberty, or property w/o due process of law, or deny equal protection of the laws. Any state that denies the vote to any male citizen over the age of 21, will have representation in Congress reduced (not enforced until 1970s) Became powerful tool for enforcing civil rights
  16. 16.  1866 election  Rioters & police killed many African Americans in southern cities  Led Congress to push for a stricter form of Reconstruction
  17. 17.  Radical Republicans  Won support to begin strict reconstruction Reconstruction Act of 1867  Removed gov’t of all southern states that did not ratify 14th Amendment  Imposed military rule & divided states into five military districts  Before returning to Union, each state had to write new state constitution & ratify 14th Amendment  Also had to let African Americans vote
  18. 18.  African Americans  Were elected as sheriffs, mayors  18 served in Congress Radical Reconstruction  Southern states opened public schools, legislators spread tax money more evenly, & made fairer voting rules, gave property rights to women, states rebuilt bridges, roads & buildings  Republican Party built a strong following from 3 groups  Scalawags: southern whites who had opposed secession  Freedmen voters  Carpetbaggers: name given by southerners to northern whites who went south to start businesses or pursue political office
  19. 19.  Approved in 1869 Barred all states from denying African American males the right to vote on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude  Did not prevent states from requiring voters to own property or pay a voting tax
  20. 20.  Secret societies created by white shut out of power to terrorize African Americans & their white allies  Would threaten African American voters, burn crosses in their yard  When threats failed they would: whip, torture, shoot, or hang African Americans & white Republicans Congress responded to violence w/ new laws  Ku Klux Klan Acts of 1870 & 1871  Barred use of force against voeters
  21. 21. The End of Reconstruction
  22. 22.  Radical Republicans  Support declined  People focused more on their own lives Grant’s Scandals  Poor public office appointments  Corruption of appointees  Grant  Claimed no part in scandals, but reputation was hurt  Won reelection in 1872, but Northerners lost faith in Republicans & their policies
  23. 23.  Amnesty for Confederates?  Northerners & Southerners both wanted the withdrawal of federal troops & amnesty for Confederates 1869  Republican opponents: began taking back the south one state at a time  Chipped away at African Americans rights
  24. 24.  End of Reconstruction resulted from this election Choice of President decided by Congress  Due to election returns  Deal made between Republicans & Democrats  Republicans: Rutherford B. Hayes; would continue reconstruction  Democrats: Tilden; would end reconstruction  Won popular vote; 20 electoral votes disputed; one vote short of 185 needed to win electoral college Special Commissions  15 members appointed by Congress  Most were Republicans  20 electoral votes given to Hayes  Democrats did not fight decision because Hayes told them privately he would end reconstruction  Once in office Hayes removed federal troops from the South
  25. 25.  End of Reconstruction  African Americans lost political & civil rights  Several techniques used to stop blacks from voting  Poll tax: must pay a tax before voting; kept poor whites & freedmen from voting  Literacy test: required to read & explain section of Constitution  Grandfather clause allowed illiterate white males to vote; test avoided if father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on Jan. 1, 1867  Segregation: enforced separation of races; barred mixing of races in almost every aspect of life, know as Jim Crow laws (born in separate hospitals, buried in separate cemeteries, separate playgrounds, restaurants, & schools, travel on specific seats on streetcars or take black streetcars); Laws were upheld in local courts
  26. 26.  1896  Supreme Court upheld segregation laws  Plessy v. Ferguson  Homer Plessy arrested for sitting in a coach marked for whites only  Court upheld Louisiana law of segregated streetcars  Ok if they were equal  Separate but equal rule was in effect until the 1950s  Facilities were rarely equal
  27. 27.  Poverty forced freedmen & poor whites to become sharecroppers  Work the land for the farmer in return for a share in the value of the crop Landlord  Supplied living quarters, tools, seed, & food on credit  Crops were harvested & sold and amount given to sharecroppers was figured out  In times of bad harvests or low crop prices sharecroppers often earned enough money to pay what they owned landlords  Locked into a cycle of debt
  28. 28.  South’s economy began to recover 1880s  New industries  Agriculture in the South recovered, especially cotton production  Tobacco production also increased Southern investors started or expanded industries Textile industry became important part of economy South began to develop their natural resources  New mills to use South’s iron, timber, & oil  South no longer dependent on cotton